An indenture is a legal contract that reflects or covers a debt or purchase obligation. It refers to two types of practices: in historical usage, an indentured servant status, in modern usage, it is an instrument used for commercial debt or real estate transaction. An indenture is a legal contract between two parties for indentured labour or a term of apprenticeship but for certain land transactions; the term comes from the medieval English "indenture of retainer" — a legal contract written in duplicate on the same sheet, with the copies separated by cutting along a jagged line so that the teeth of the two parts could be refitted to confirm authenticity. Each party to the deed would retain a part; when the agreement was made before a court of law a tripartite indenture was made, with the third piece kept at the court. The term is used for any kind of deed executed by more than one party, in contrast to a deed poll, made by one individual. In the case of bonds, the indenture shows the pledge, promises and covenants of the issuing party.
Although other evidence indicates that the method has been in use from around the year 1000, the earliest surviving examples in England are from the thirteenth century. These are agreements for military service, proving that a paid contract army was in existence. Exchequer records of Henry V's French campaign of 1415, including the indentures of all the captains of the army agreeing to provide specified numbers of men and at what cost, may still be read. An indenture was used as a form of sealed contract or agreement for land and buildings. An example of such a use can be found in the National Archives, where an indenture, from about 1401, recording the transfer of the manor of Pinley, Warwickshire, is held. In the early history of the United States, many European immigrants served a period of indentured labour in order to pay the cost of their transportation; this practice was common during the 17th and 18th centuries, where over half of immigrants worked off an average of three years' servitude.
Bond indenture is a legal document issued to lenders and describes key terms such as the interest rate, maturity date, pledge, representations and other terms of the bond offering. When the offering memorandum is prepared in advance of marketing a bond, the indenture will be summarised in the "description of notes" section. In the United States, public debt offerings in excess of $10 million require the use of an indenture of trust under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939; the rationale for this is that it is necessary to establish a collective action mechanism under which creditors can collect in a fair, orderly manner if default takes place. No trust relationship exists between the issuing corporation; these two are in arm's length, non-fiduciary, non-equity relationship. Rather, the trustee in a "trust indenture" is a third party a specialist company, appointed by the issuer to handle and safeguard the interests of the numerous public bondholders, in events ranging from the usual distribution of coupons and principal payments to dealing with the issuer's default, if any occurs.
Coolitude Corporate finance Debt security Debt bondage Debenture Indentured servant Indian indenture system Irish slaves myth Prospectus Securities law Slavery English property indenture from 1804 Wisconsin Health and Educational Facilities Authorities Revenue bonds First international Festival of indenture: http://www.potomitan.info/ki_nov/coolitude_2018.php
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time
Thomas Allen Coburn is an American politician and physician. A member of the Republican Party, he was the junior United States Senator from Oklahoma. Coburn was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1994 as part of the Republican Revolution, he upheld his campaign pledge to serve no more than three consecutive terms and did not run for re-election in 2000. In 2004, he returned to political life with a successful run for the U. S. Senate. Coburn was re-elected to a second term in 2010 and pledged not to seek a third term in 2016. In January 2014, Coburn announced, he submitted a letter of resignation to Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin, effective at the end of the 113th Congress. Coburn is a fiscal and social conservative, known for his self-proclaimed global warming denial, opposition to deficit spending and pork barrel projects, for his opposition to abortion. Described as "the godfather of the modern conservative, austerity movement", he supports term limits, gun rights and the death penalty and opposes same-sex marriage and embryonic stem cell research.
Democrats have referred to him as "Dr. No."After leaving Congress, Coburn worked with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research on its efforts to reform the Food and Drug Administration, becoming a senior fellow of the institute in December 2016. Coburn serves as a senior advisor to Citizens for Self-Governance, where he has been active in calling for a convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution. Coburn was born in Casper, the son of Anita Joy and Orin Wesley Coburn. Coburn's father was an optician and founder of Coburn Optical Industries, a named donor to O. W. Coburn School of Law at Oral Roberts University, dedicated in 1979 and 7 years transferring all assets including its ABA Accredited Law library including 190,000 volumes, as well as 5 professors and 23 students, to the founding of Regent University School of Law, which 3 years became ABA Accredited in its own standing. Coburn graduated with a B. S. in accounting from Oklahoma State University, where he was a member of Sigma Nu fraternity.
In 1968, he married the 1967 Miss Oklahoma. One of the Top Ten seniors in the School of Business, Coburn served as president of the College of Business Student Council. From 1970 to 1978, Coburn served as manufacturing manager at the Ophthalmic Division of Coburn Optical Industries in Colonial Heights, Virginia. Under his leadership, the Virginia division of Coburn Optical grew from 13 employees to more than 350 and captured 35 percent of the U. S. market. After recovering from an occurrence of malignant melanoma, Coburn pursued a medical degree and graduated from the University of Oklahoma Medical School with honors in 1983, he opened Maternal & Family Practice in Muskogee and served as a deacon in a Southern Baptist Church. During his career in obstetrics, he has treated over 15,000 patients, delivered 4,000 babies and was subject to one malpractice lawsuit, dismissed without finding Coburn at fault. Coburn and his wife are members of First Baptist Church of Muskogee. In November 2013, Coburn made public.
In 2011, he had prostate cancer surgery while surviving colon cancer and melanoma. A sterilization Coburn performed on a 20-year-old woman, Angela Plummer, in 1990 became what was called "the most incendiary issue" of his Senate campaign. Coburn performed the sterilization on the woman during an emergency surgery to treat a life-threatening ectopic pregnancy, removing her intact fallopian tube as well as the one damaged by the surgery; the woman sued Coburn, alleging that he did not have consent to sterilize her, while Coburn claimed he had her oral consent. The lawsuit was dismissed with no finding of liability on Coburn's part; the state attorney general claimed that Coburn committed Medicaid fraud by not reporting the sterilization when he filed a claim for the emergency surgery. Medicaid did not reimburse doctors for sterilization procedures for patients under 21 and according to the attorney general, Coburn would not have been reimbursed at all had he not withheld this information. Coburn says since he did not file a claim for the sterilization, no fraud was committed.
No charges were filed against Coburn for this claim. In 1994, Coburn ran for the House of Representatives in Oklahoma's Democratic 2nd Congressional District, based in Muskogee and included 22 counties in northeastern Oklahoma. Coburn expected to face eight-term incumbent Mike Synar. However, Synar was defeated in a runoff for the Democratic nomination by a 71-year-old retired principal, Virgil Cooper. According to Coburn's 2003 book, Breach of Trust: How Washington Turns Outsiders Into Insiders and Cooper got along well, since both were opposed to the more liberal Synar; the general election was cordial, since both men knew that Synar would not return to Washington regardless of the outcome. Coburn won by a 52%–48% margin, becoming the first Republican to represent the district since 1921. Coburn was one of the most conservative members of the House, he supported "reducing the size of the federal budget," wanted to make abortion illegal and supported the proposed television V-chip legislation.
Despite representing a Democratic district and President Bill Clinton's electoral dominance therein, Coburn was reelected in 1996 and 1998. In the House, Coburn earned a reputation as a political maverick due to his frequent battles with House Speaker Newt Gingrich. Most of these stand-offs stemmed from his belief that the Republican caucus was moving toward the political center and away from the more conservati
Lancaster County, Virginia
Lancaster County is a county located on the Northern Neck in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,391, its county seat is Lancaster. Located on the Northern Neck near the mouth of the Rappahannock River, Lancaster County is part of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace wine-growing region recognized by the United States as an American Viticultural Area. Lancaster County is the most densely populated county in the Northern Neck; the largest town in Lancaster County is Virginia. The county's area code is'804'. Lancaster County was established in 1651 from York counties, it was home to Robert King Carter in the 18th century, remaining buildings from that time include Christ Church and St. Mary's, Whitechapel. Other historic attractions open to the public include the Lancaster Courthouse Historic District including the Mary Ball Washington Museum and Library, Belle Isle State Park, the Village of Morattico Historic District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 231 square miles, of which 133 square miles is land and 98 square miles is water.
Richmond County – northwest Northumberland County – north Middlesex County – south and southwest SR 3 SR 200 SR 201 SR 222 SR 354 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,567 people, 5,004 households, 3,412 families residing in the county. The population density was 87 people per square mile. There were 6,498 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.95% White, 28.88% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. 0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,004 households out of which 21.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.71.
In the county, the population was spread out with 19.00% under the age of 18, 5.00% from 18 to 24, 19.60% from 25 to 44, 28.00% from 45 to 64, 28.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females there were 86.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.50 males. Type of workers for this country are: salary; the median income for a household in the county was $33,239, the median income for a family was $42,957. Males had a median income of $30,592 versus $23,039 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,663. 9.90% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 11.20% of those age 65 or over. Lancaster County is governed by a five-member board of supervisors; the board meets in the Lancaster County Administration Building at 7 p.m. on the last Thursday of every month. The Administration building is located at 8311 Mary Ball Road in Virginia. District 1: Jack Larson District 2: Ernest W. Palin, Jr. District 3: Jason D. Bellows, Vice Chair District 4: William R. Lee, Chair District 5: Robert S. Westbrook, DDS Clerk of the Circuit Court: Diane H. Mumford Commissioner of the Revenue: Marlon Savoy Commonwealth Attorney: Jan Smith Sheriff: Patrick McCranie Treasurer: Bonnie J.
D. HaynieLancaster is represented by Republican Ryan T. McDougle in the Virginia Senate, Republican Margaret Bevans Ransone in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican Robert J. "Rob" Wittman in the U. S. House of Representatives. Irvington Kilmarnock White Stone Lancaster Lancaster County is home to the historic church of St. Mary's, founded in 1669. Mary Ball Washington, mother of George Washington, was born in the parish of St. Mary's. Rappahannock General Hospital is in Kilmarnock, it is the only hospital on the Northern Neck. Other attractions are: 850 Christ Church Road King Carter Golf Course, Golden Eagle Golf Course, Irvington Steamboat Museum, Indian Creek Yacht and Country Club, The Tides Inn Resort Hotel, White Stone Beach, Windmill Point Beach, Chesapeake Boat Basin Marina, Belle Isle State Park, Chilton Woods State Forest, Carters Cove Marina, Kellum Seafood Oyster House, Rappahannock River Yacht Club, Ampro Shipyard, Historic Christ Church, National Register of Historic Places listings in Lancaster County, Virginia
Walter Ashby Plecker was an American physician and public health advocate, the first registrar of Virginia's Bureau of Vital Statistics, serving from 1912 to 1946. He was a leader of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America, a white supremacist organization founded in Richmond, Virginia, in 1922, he drafted and lobbied for the passage of the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 by the Virginia legislature. Plecker was born in the son of a returned Confederate veteran. Sent to Staunton as a boy, he graduated from Hoover Military Academy in 1880 and obtained a medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1885, he was a devout Presbyterian, throughout his life he supported the denomination's fundamentalist Southern branch, funding missionaries who believed, as he would, that God had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah as punishment for racial intermixing. Plecker settled in Hampton, Virginia, in 1892, before his mother's death in 1915, he worked with women of all races and became known for his active interest in obstetrics and public health issues.
Plecker educated midwives, invented a home incubator, prescribed home remedies for infants. His efforts are credited with an 50% decline in birthing deaths for black mothers. Plecker became the public health officer for Elizabeth City County in 1902. In 1912, Plecker became the first registrar of Virginia's newly created Bureau of Vital Statistics, a position he held until 1946. An avowed white supremacist and an advocate of eugenics, he became a leader of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America in 1922, he wanted to prevent miscegenation, or marriage between races, he thought that a decreasing number of mulattoes, as classified in the census, meant that more of them were passing as white. With the help of John Powell and Earnest Sevier Cox, Plecker drafted and the state legislature passed the "Racial Integrity Act of 1924", it recognized only two races, "white" and "colored". It incorporated the one-drop rule, classifying any individual with any amount of African ancestry as "colored"; this went beyond existing laws, which had classified persons who had one-sixteenth or less black ancestry as white.
In 1967, the United States Supreme Court invalidated the law in Virginia. In particular, Plecker resented African Americans who passed as Native Americans, he came to believe that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" with its African American population. In fact, since shortly after the Civil War, Native Americans from all over the country had been brought to the Hampton area to be educated with blacks, some of them had married blacks, although Hampton's Indian schools had closed down as racial discrimination against Native Americans and the eugenics movement both grew in the state. Plecker refused to recognize the fact that many mixed-race Virginia Indians had maintained their culture and identity as Native Americans over the centuries despite economic assimilation. Plecker ordered state agencies to reclassify most citizens who claimed American Indian identity as "colored", although many Virginian Native Americans continued to live in their communities and maintained their tribal practices.
Church records, for instance, continued to identify them as Native Americans. Plecker ordered state agencies to reclassify certain families whom he identified by surname, because he decided that they were trying to pass and evade segregation; this remained legal in the South. In addition, Plecker lobbied the US Census Bureau to drop the category "mulatto" in the 1930 and censuses; this deprived mixed-race people of recognition of their identity and it contributed to a binary culture of hypodescent, in which mixed-race persons were classified as part of the group with lower social status. Not until the 21st century did the federal census allow individuals to indicate more than one race or ethnic group in self-identification. Plecker was hit by a car while crossing a Richmond street, he died on August 2, 1947, less than a year after his retirement, he is buried in Hollywood cemetery in Virginia beside his wife. They had no children. For years Plecker never sought out friends, he described his hobbies as "books and birds," and he gained a reputation for never smiling.
His obituary in the Richmond Afro-American newspaper was headlined: "Dr. Plecker, 86, Rabid Racist, Killed by Auto". Plecker's racial policies continue to cause problems for the descendants of what are now sometimes called the First Virginians. Members of eight Virginia-recognized tribes struggle to achieve federal recognition because they cannot prove their continuity of heritage through historic documentation, as federal laws require. First encountering European Americans during the colonial period, the tribes had treaties with the King of England rather than with the United States government. Plecker's policies destroyed and altered records that individuals and families now need in order to prove their cultural continuity as Indians. In 2007, the House of Representatives passed a law to recognize the Virginia tribes at the Federal level. In January 2018, the Senate passed the president signed it into law. "Let us turn a deaf ear to those who would interpret Christian brotherhood as racial equality."
The "sickening and saddest feature...the considerable number of degenerate white women giving birth to mulatto children" "...insanity, tendency to crime, immorality are surely transmitted to their children when both parents are of the same class. The worst forms of undesirables born amongst us are those whose pa
The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is one of 11 Virginia Indian tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, the state's first federally recognized tribe, receiving its status in January 2016. Six other Virginia tribes, the Chickahominy, the Eastern Chickahominy, the Upper Mattaponi, the Rappahannock, the Monacan, the Nansemond, were recognized through the passage of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 on January 12, 2018; the historical tribe was part of the Powhatan paramountcy, made up of Algonquian-speaking tribes. The Powhatan paramount chiefdom was made up of over 30 tribes, estimated to total about 10,000–15,000 people at the time the English arrived in 1607; the Pamunkey tribe made up about one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the total, as they numbered about 1,000 persons in 1607. When the English arrived, the Pamunkey were one of the most powerful groups of the Powhatan chiefdom, they inhabited the coastal tidewater of Virginia on the north side of the James River near Chesapeake Bay.
The Pamunkey tribe is one of only two that still retain reservation lands assigned by the 1646 and 1677 treaties with the English colonial government. The Pamunkey reservation is located on some of its ancestral land on the Pamunkey River adjacent to present-day King William County, Virginia; the Mattaponi reservation, the only other in the state, is nearby on the Mattaponi River. The Pamunkey language is assumed to have been Algonquian, but only fourteen words have been preserved, not enough to determine that the language was Algonquian; the words, which were recorded in 1844 by a reverend E. A. Dalrymple, tonshee'son', nucksee'daughter', petucka'cat', kayyo'thankfulness', o-ma-yah'O my Lord', kenaanee'friendship', baskonee'thank you', eeskut'go out dog', nikkut'one', orijak'two', kiketock'three', mitture'four', nahnkitty'five', vomtally'six', talliko'seven', tingdum'eight', yantay'ten. Except for nikkut'one', similar to Powhatan nekut, none of the words correspond to any known Algonquian language, or to reconstructions of proto-Algonquian.
Given the extensive ethnic mixing that occurred among the Pamunkey before 1844, it's possible that Dalrymple's list is from an inter-ethnic pidgin or a language from an otherwise unknown language family, rather than from the original Pamunkey language. The traditional Pamunkey way of life was subsistence living, they lived through a combination of fishing, trapping and farming. The latter was developed in the late Woodland Period of culture 900 CE - 1600 CE; the peoples used the Pamunkey River as a main mode of food source. The river provided access to hunting grounds, other tribes. Access to the river was crucial, because Pamunkey villages were permanent settlements; because the Pamunkey people did not use fertilizers, they moved their fields and homes about every ten years to allow land to lie fallow and recover from cultivation. The Pamunkey, all Virginia tribes, had an intimate, balanced relationship with the animals and the geography of their homeland. Like other native tribes, they had techniques, such as controlled burning, to clear land for cultivation or hunting.
The land belonged to the group as a whole. The chief and council would allot a parcel of cleared ground to a family head for life. Differing concepts of land and farm animal ownership and use caused some conflicts between the Virginia tribes and English colonists. For native tribes, the land was "owned"; the Englishmen had, laws on private property and believed that the land was theirs as soon as the tribe sold it to them. As a result, when Englishmen allowed land to lie fallow, Native Americans assumed they were free to use it for hunting and gathering. Many Englishmen considered both as encroachments on their private property. Pamunkey homes, called yihakans, were narrow, they were structures made from bent saplings lashed together at the top to make a barrel shape. Indians covered the saplings with woven mats or bark; the 17th-century historian William Strachey thought that bark was harder to acquire, as he noticed that only higher-status families owned bark-covered houses. In summer, when the heat and humidity increased, the mats could be rolled up or removed to allow more air circulation.
Inside the house, they built bedsteads along both walls. They were made of posts put about a foot high or more, with small poles attached; the framework was about four feet wide, over. One or more mats were placed on top for bedding; the bedding was stored during the day to make the space available for other functions. The Pamunkey practice of matrilineal succession created some confusion for Englishmen, who in the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation recognized the Pamunkey queen; as with other tribes in the Powhatan confederacy, the Pamunkey had a weroance and a tribal council composed of seven members, elected every four years. The chief and council execute all the tribal governmental functions as set forth by their laws. Traditional elections used a basket, as well as peas and corn kernels, in the same number as voters. Members first voted followed by votes for the seven council members. For each candidate, a corn kernel signified approbation and a pea a "no" vote, or if there were but two candidates, each could be indicated by a type of seed.
The same 1896 study noted that tribal laws were concerned with, but not limited to, controlling land use and fighting. Inst
The Nottoway are a Native American tribe in Virginia. The Nottoway spoke an Iroquoian language and were related to other Iroquoian speakers; the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia live from Southampton County into Surry County and the Tidewater region, the Cheroenhaka Indian Tribe live in Southampton County in their traditional tribal territory called Cattashowrock Town in Courtland. Since colonial times, treaties by regional government with the Nottoway attested to their presence as a distinct people; the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia and the Cheroenhaka Tribe are distinct, with separate identities. However, both contemporary tribes received state recognition in February 2010, they were among several Virginia tribes that were deprived of their land during the colonial era and their records were distorted during the early 20th century. The Cheroenhaka Indian Tribe has filed their letter of intent to petition for federal recognition and hope to receive federal recognition soon; the Chickahominy, Eastern Chickahominy, Nansemond and Upper Mattaponi received federal recognition in January 2018.
The Pamunkey tribe received their federal recognition in 2015. Only four tribes in Virginia still await the title of federal recognition: The Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia, The Cheroenhaka Tribe, the Mattaponi Indian tribe and Reservation, the Patawomeck tribe; the meaning of the name Cheroenhaka is uncertain. The late Iroquoian scholar Blair A. Rudes analyzed the second element as -hakaʼ meaning "one or people who is/are characterized in a certain way", he conjectured that the first element of the name was related to the Tuscarora term čárhuʼ. The term has been interpreted as "People at the Fork of the Stream"; the term Nottoway may derive from Nadawa or Nadowessioux, an Algonquian-language term which speakers used to refer to members of competing language families the Iroquoian- or Siouan-speaking tribes. Because the Algonquian occupied the coastal areas, they were the first tribes met by the English; the colonists adopted use of such Algonquian ethnonyms, names for other tribes, not realizing at first that these differed from the tribes' autonyms, or names for themselves.
Frank Siebert suggests the term natowewa stems from Proto-Algonquian *na:tawe:wa and refers to the Massasauga, a pit viper of the Great Lakes region. The extension of the meaning as "Iroquoian speakers" is secondary. In Algonquian languages beyond the geographical range of the viper, the term's primary reference continues to focus on *na:t-'close upon, mover towards, go after, seek out, fetch' and *-awe:'condition of heat, state of warmth,' but no longer refers to the viper. Instead in the South, the'Iroquoian' designation is primary; the semantic meaning may not relate to snakes at all, but refer to the cultural trading position of the Virginia-Carolina Iroquois as middle men between Algonquian and Siouan speakers. Other historical developments in Algonquian languages extend the meaning of *-awe to'fur or hair', an obvious relationship to'state of warmth.' A potential etymology in Virginia of *na:tawe:wa refers to *na:t-'seeker' + -awe:'fur,' or literally'traders' The earliest colonial Virginia reference to "Nottoway" frames Algonquian/Iroquoian exchanges in terms of trade: roanoke for skins.
The Algonquian speakers referred to the Nottoway and Tuscarora people as Mangoak or Mangoags, a term which English colonists used in their records from 1584 to 1650. This term, Mengwe or Mingwe, was transliterated by the Dutch and applied to the Iroquoian Susquehannock and Erie people. Another variation was the Mingo, which referred to descendants of remnant tribes, assimilated into the Six Nations of the Iroquois and migrated into Ohio and the Midwest; the Nottoway language became extinct well before 1900. At the time of European contact, speakers numbered only in the hundreds. From until 1735, a number of colonists learned the language and acted as official interpreters for the Colony of Virginia, including Thomas Blunt, Henry Briggs and Thomas Wynn; these interpreters served the adjacent Meherrin, as well as the Nansemond, who spoke Nottoway in addition to their own Algonquian dialect of Powhatan. The last two interpreters were dismissed in 1735, since the Nottoway by were using English. By 1820, there were said to be only three elderly speakers of Nottoway remaining.
In that year John Wood collected over 250 word samples from one of these, Chief "Queen" Edith Turner. He sent them to Thomas Jefferson. In their correspondence, these two men confirmed the Nottoway language as being of the Iroquoian family. Several additional words, for a total of about 275, were collected by James Trezvant after 1831, published by Albert Gallatin in 1836. In the early 20th century, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt and Hoffman analyzed the Nottoway vocabulary in comparison with Tuscarora, found them related; the Tuscarora had all lived in North Carolina at one time. Due to warfare and colonial pressure, most of the Tuscarora migrated north to New York in the early eighteenth century to seek protection by alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy, they declared their migration ended in 1722, said Tuscarora living elsewhere were no longer membe