Elizabeth C. Crosby
Elizabeth C. Crosby was an American neuroanatomist. Elizabeth C. Crosby was born to Lewis Frederick and Francis Kreps Crosby in Petersburg, Michigan in 1888. Crosby received the National Medal of Science from President Jimmy Carter in 1979 "for outstanding contributions to comparative and human neuroanatomy and for the synthesis and transmission of knowledge of the entire nervous system of the vertebrate phylum." Her "careful descriptions" of vertebrate brains - reptiles - helped "outline evolutionary history" and her work as a clinical diagnostic assistant to neurosurgeons resulted in "the correlation of anatomy and surgery." Crosby graduated from Adrian College with a Bachelor of Science in mathematics in 1910. Influenced by professor of physics and chemistry Elmer Jones, she attended the University of Chicago under C. Judson Herrick and received her Masters of Science in biology in 1912 and her Ph. D. in anatomy in 1915 via a fellowship. In 1920, Crosby accepted a teaching position in the University of Michigan's department of anatomy under G. Carl Huber.
In 1923, Crosby took a sabbatical to work with the renowned scientist C. U. Ariëns Kappers at the Central Institute for Brain Research in Amsterdam. While there, she contributed to The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates. Although Crosby did not have a medical background, she became the first woman to receive full professorship at the University of Michigan Medical School, in 1936 and the first to receive the University's Faculty Achievement Award, given in 1956. In 1939 she took a sabbatical to work with Prof Robert Douglas Lockhart at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland. Due to introduction of war-time trans-Atlantic travel restrictions in the Second World War she unintentionally remained there until 1941, she became Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Consultant of Neurosurgery before leaving the University of Michigan for University of Alabama at Birmingham in 1963, where she again became Professor Emeritus of Anatomy. She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1987.
Crosby's excellence in teaching was recognized in 1957 when the Galens Society of the University of Michigan Medical School established the Elizabeth C. Crosby annual award for the best preclinical teaching in the school. Other distinctions and awards include: 1926, the Solis Award from the University of Michigan 1946, the Henry Russell Lectureship from the University of Michigan 1950, the Achievement Award of the American Association of University Women 1957, the Elizabeth C. Crosby award for best preclinical teaching established by the University of Michigan Medical School's Galens Society 1970, the Honorary Doctorate of Sciences from the University of Michigan 1972, the Henry Gray Award of the American Association of Anatomists 1980, Distinguished Faculty Lecturer from the University of Alabama Birmingham 1980, National Medal of Science presented by President Jimmy Carter 1936, with Cornelius Ubbo Ariëns Kappers and G. Carl Huber, The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, including Man: vol.
1, vol. 2. New York: Hafner Publishing Company. OCLC 560551865. 1962, Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 557246. Hill, Whitley. "Quiet pioneer". Medicine at Michigan. University of Michigan. Retrieved 11 July 2013. Shearer, Barbara Smith. Notable Women in the Life Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313293023. OCLC 832549823
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Caroline Bartlett Crane
Caroline Bartlett Crane was an American Unitarian minister, civic reformer and journalist. She was known as "America's housekeeper" for her efforts to improve urban sanitation. Caroline Bartlett was born in Hudson, the daughter of Lorenzo Dow Barlett and Julia A. Bartlett, she studied at Carthage College, graduating in 1879. In 1896 she married a doctor and pioneer of X-ray research. After being a teacher for four years, Crane turned to journalism in 1884, working for three years at the Minneapolis Tribune and as city editor for the Oshkosh Daily Morning Times. In 1889 she became pastor of a Unitarian church in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. After three years, her success in that post led to her accepting the pastorship of a larger Unitarian church in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In the summer of 1891 she visited England, where she preached in numerous churches, met with theologian James Martineau, investigated the slum work of the Salvation Army. On her return to Kalamazoo, she renamed her church the People's Church and moved it into a new building designed to offer a wide range of community amenities.
In 1898, after illness and differences with the board, she resigned her ministry. Turning to public health and sanitation reform, Crane campaigned for meat inspection ordinances after discovering unsanitary conditions in local slaughterhouses, she founded the Women's Civic Improvement League in 1903-4, with a Charity Organizations Board as a referral agency for charity cases. She wrote sanitary surveys for other cities as a professional consultant, by 1917 had inspected sixty-two cities in fourteen states, she died in Kalamazoo aged 76, her ashes were buried in Mountain Home Cemetery in Kalamazoo. General sanitary survey of Erie, Pennsylvania, 1910 Report on a campaign to awaken public interest in sanitary and sociologic problems in the State of Minnesota, 1911 A sanitary survey of Saginaw, Michigan, 1911 Business versus the home, 1913 Everyman's house, 1925
Elizabeth Margaret Chandler
Elizabeth Margaret Chandler was an American poet and writer from Pennsylvania and Michigan. She became the first female writer in the United States to make the abolition of slavery her principal theme. Chandler was born in Delaware, on Christmas Eve, 1807 to Thomas Chandler and Margaret Evans, she had William Guest Chandler and Thomas Chandler. They were members of the Religious Society of Friends, they lived the strict and disciplined life of a Quaker family. By the time she was nine years old she had lost both her parents and her brothers were living with their grandmother, Elizabeth Guest Evans, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Elizabeth attended a Quaker school and there embraced the Quaker view of antislavery. Elizabeth started writing poems at a early age, she left school when she was about twelve or thirteen, but continued to read and write with a passion. At the early age of sixteen, Elizabeth Chandler's romantic verses on nature were first published. In 1825, when she was eighteen years old, her emotional poem, "The Slave-Ship", was published and drew national attention.
After reading that poem, she was invited by Benjamin Lundy, a well known abolitionist and publisher, to write for his periodical, The Genius of Universal Emancipation. She edited the "Ladies' Repository" section of his newspaper, she used her appeal to women to demand better treatment for Native Americans and the immediate emancipation of slaves. She became one of the most powerful female writers of her time, she used the tragic example of female slaves being torn away from their children and their husbands to gain sympathy from her female readers. When told that women did not have the power to abolish slavery, Chandler responded that, as mothers, women are in the unique position:...to give the first bent to the minds of those, who at some future day are to be their country's counselors. It is hard to say how influential her writings were to the public at large. However, many of her articles were circulated in the most popular newspapers of the time, she introduced one of the most famous abolitionist images, the kneeling female slave with the slogan "Am I not a Woman and a Sister".
Taken from the image depicting a male slave for the seal of the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade designed by Wedgwood. Two years William Lloyd Garrison editor of The Liberator, a leader in the abolitionist movement, adopted this symbol and slogan to head the ladies department of the paper, one of the most prominent abolitionist papers of the time. In 1830, Elizabeth Margaret Chandler moved, to the territory of Michigan, her brother Thomas Chandler purchased land near Tecumseh, Michigan in Lenawee County, about sixty miles south-west of Detroit, in order to start a farm. They called the place Hazlebank. From this, her quiet and secluded retreat, emanated some of the choicest productions of her pen. Chandler participated in national discussions and debates through her articles and poems about Abolitionism, she continued to edit Benjamin Lundy's Abolitionist Journal. While living in Philadelphia, Chandler had been a member of a Female Anti-Slavery Society, although she was not active.
After she moved to Michigan, she established the Logan Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 with her friend and neighbor Laura Smith Haviland. She wrote: Terrible in crime and magnitude as the slavery of our country is, I do not despair — apathy must — will awaken, opposition die — the cause of justice must triumph, or our country must be ruined; the Logan Female Anti-Slavery Society organization established a main link in the Underground Railroad to Canada. Chandler died from "remittant fever" on November 1834, shortly before her 27th birthday, she was buried near the family farm at Hazlebank. Her articles and letters were gathered and published as two books, by Benjamin Lundy, the proceeds from the sale of those books went to the cause of abolition. Essays and Moral. Lemuel Howell. 1836. The poetical works of Elizabeth Margaret Chandler: With a memoir of her character. Lemuel Howell. 1836. ASIN B0008BINBE. Marcia J. Heringa Mason, editor. Remember the Distance That Divides Us: The Family Letters of Philadelphia Quaker abolitionist and Michigan pioneer Elizabeth Margaret Chandler, 1830–1842.
Michigan State University Press, July 2004. ISBN 978-0-87013-713-6 Michigan Women's Hall of Fame Chandler page. Daughters of the American Revolution exhibitions site, for image of Chandler's pin box and purse with the famous "Kneeling female slave" meme. ABE books
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Michigan University is a public university in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Ypsilanti is 35 miles west of Detroit and eight miles east of Ann Arbor; the university was founded in 1849 as Michigan State Normal School. Today, the university is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents whose members are appointed by the governor of Michigan for eight-year terms; the school belongs to the Mid-American Conference and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Since 1991 EMU athletes have been known as "Eagles" and the school mascot, was adopted by the university three years later. EMU comprises seven colleges and schools: College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology, an Honors College, a Graduate School; the university's site is composed of an academic and athletic campus spread across 800 acres, with over 120 buildings. EMU has a total enrollment of more than 23,000 students; the university opened its doors in 1853 as Michigan State Normal School.
Michigan State Normal School was the first in Michigan and the first normal school created outside the original 13 colonies. One hundred and twenty-two students started classes March 29, 1853. Adonijah Welch served as Michigan State Normal School's first principal. Michigan created; the normal schools were to train teachers for common schools, which were being established in new towns in the state. In 1899, the school became the Michigan State Normal College when it developed the first four-year curriculum for a normal college in the nation. Normal began the 20th century as Michigan's premier teacher-preparatory school and had become the first teacher-training school in the United States to have a four-year degree program; the school continued through World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, expanded further. With the additions of departments and the large educational enrollment after WWII, the school became Eastern Michigan College in 1956. In 1959 the school became a university, gaining the title Eastern Michigan University after establishing the Graduate School.
Between 1959 through 1980 the College of Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School, College of Business, College of Health and Human Services, College of Technology were established. In the early 1970s, international student exchange schemes were organized, including one with Coventry College of Education in Britain. In 2005, the Honors Program became the Eastern Michigan University Honors College. More extended programs were added, such as Continuing Education, the Centers for Corporate Training, the World College, numerous community-focused institutes. Today the university's total student population averages about 23,000, of whom 5,000 are graduate students. Most programs are undergraduate or master's level, although the university has doctoral programs in Educational Leadership and Psychology. EMU former-President Susan W. Martin, Ph. D. took office as EMU's twenty-second president on July 7, 2008, just after the university was fined a then-record $350,000 for not reporting to students the sexual assault and murder of a student in her residence hall room.
Under Michigan's 1964 state constitution, Eastern Michigan University is governed by an eight-member Board of Regents. The Regents are appointed by the governor, "with the advice and consent of the Senate", serve eight-year terms; the Regents, in turn, elect the president of the university Eastern Michigan University offers degrees and programs at the bachelor's, master's, specialist's and doctoral levels. There are more than 200 majors and minors at the undergraduate level, more than 170 graduate programs. EMU has six Academic Divisions and eight University Sites which include satellite campuses. Just like many other large universities EMU does offer online degrees; the University has seven Schools. Areas of study are divided by College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business, College of Education, College of Health and Human Services and College of Technology. Beyond this there are two other colleges: an Honors College, which oversees honors courses, the Graduate School; the Honors College and Graduate school handles courses that are honors and graduate program within the various colleges.
Eastern has offered graduate courses since 1939. The graduate school has close to 5,000 students enrolled in masters and doctoral programs and is house in Boone Hall; the two oldest colleges at the university are the College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Education. The largest college is the College of Sciences with 125 programs of study. Beyond this CAS oversees the most facilities such as Ford Gallery, Sherzer Hall, Kresge Environmental Education Center, the Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology Research Facility, Pease Auditorium. Eastern Michigan has had a long history of developing educators since its founding. EMU prides itself as the largest producer of educational personnel in the country since 1991. Eastern Michigan University's Department of Special Education is among the oldest special education program in the United States, started In 1923; the College of Business was established in 1964. The COB is the only college not on the main campus, it is housed in the Gary M. Owen building in downtown Ypsilanti.
The COB is known for having the First Ethos Ethos Honor Society in the country. Eastern Michigan University established the College of Human Services in 1975; the university changed the name to the College of He
East Orange, New Jersey
East Orange is a city in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the city's population was 64,270, reflecting a decline of 5,554 from the 69,824 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 3,728 from the 73,552 counted in the 1990 Census; the city was the state's 20th most-populous municipality in 2010, after having been the state's 14th most-populous municipality in 2000. East Orange was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 4, 1863, from portions of Orange town, was reincorporated as a city on December 9, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.924 square miles, all of it land. East Orange shares borders with Newark to the east and south, South Orange to the southwest, Orange to the west, Glen Ridge and Bloomfield to the north. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Ampere and Brick Church.
East Orange is divided into five wards, but is unofficially divided into a number of neighborhoods. Ampere: Anchored by the now defunct train station of the same name, The Ampere section was developed on land owned by Orange Water Works, after the construction of the Crocker Wheeler Company plant spurred development in the area; the station was named in honor of André-Marie Ampère, a pioneer in electrodynamics and reconstructed as a new Renaissance Revival station in 1907 and 1908. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Lawton Street & Newark to the east, 4th Avenue to the south, North Grove Street to the West. Greenwood: So named after Greenwood avenue and the "teen" streets that run through it, it is grouped together with Ampere. This area was disturbed by the construction of Interstate 280 and the Garden State Parkway; the Grove Street Station of the former DL & W Railroad was located here at Main Streets. Bounded by 4th Avenue to the North, North 15th Street/Newark to the East, Eaton Place/NJ Transit Morris & Essex Lines, North Grove Street to the West.
Presidential Estates: Recently designated due to the streets in this area being named after early presidents of the United States. There are many large houses situated on streets lined with old large shade trees in this neighborhood that are characteristic of the northern section of the city. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Montclair-Boonton Line and North Grove Street to the East, Springdale Avenue to the South and the Garden State Parkway to the West. Elmwood: Located in the southeastern part of the city. Elmwood Park serves this section of the city, with 7 tennis courts on Rhode Island Avenue, a basketball court on the corner of Elmwood Avenue and Oak Street, a swimming pool with a pool house, a walking track, a baseball field, a softball field and a renovated field house; the area holds one of the surviving Carnegie Libraries, the Elmwood Branch of the East Orange Public Library, opened in 1912. Doddtown: Named after John Dodd who founded and surveyed the area of the "Watsessing Plain".
The former campus of Upsala College is located here. It was converted into the new East Orange Campus High School on the east side of Prospect Street, an adjacent new housing subdivision. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, the Garden State Parkway to the south, Park Avenue to the South and Orange to the west; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 64,270 people, 24,945 households, 14,742.495 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,377.1 per square mile. There were 28,803 housing units at an average density of 7,339.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.13% White, 88.51% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.69% from other races, 2.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.93% of the population. There were 24,945 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.3% were married couples living together, 29.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.9% were non-families.
35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 75.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $40,358 and the median family income was $50,995. Males had a median income of $38,642 versus $39,843 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,298. About 17.8% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 69,824 people, 26,024 households, 16,082 families residing in the city.
The population density was 17,776.6 people per square mile. There were 28,485 housing units at an average density of 7,252.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.46% Black or African American, 3.84% White, 0.25% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.14% from other races, 3.80% from two or