R-Type is a side scrolling shoot-em-up arcade game produced by Irem in 1987. The player controls a space fighter named the R-9 to defend humanity against a mysterious powerful alien life-form known as the "Bydo". R-Type was ported to various home platforms, several of its versions including the arcade original have since been re-released on more contemporary consoles. Both the arcade game and the ports were well received by video game magazines, it inspired several video games from other companies. The game is composed with a boss enemy at the end of each; the player controls a small spacecraft and must navigate terrain and fight enemies using the various ship weapons. The player's spacecraft has, by default, a rapid-firing main gun. During the game, the player can obtain an auxiliary device called a Force; this resembles a glowing orange ball. The Force can be attached to the front or back of the player's spacecraft, or detached to fly freely; when attached, the Force provides one of three different powerful weapons, in addition to the main gun and the wave cannon.
When detached, these weapons cannot be used, but the Force will instead resort to a secondary set of guns, which can be fired by the player if the Force is at a distance from the spacecraft. The Force has a secondary use as a shield; the R- in the series title stands for "ray", as in a ray of light, in reference to the many different types of ray-like weapons that players use in the series. Another theory suggests; the original R-Type was well received by most gaming critics. However, it was infamous for its relentless difficulty; the ZX Spectrum version of R-Type was awarded 9/10 in the January 1989 issue of Your Sinclair and was placed at number 6 in the Your Sinclair official top 100. The Games Machine praised the "incredible use of colour" and that it "blows away every other shoot'em up on the Spectrum". Crash congratulated Electric Dreams for "retaining the frenetic arcade feel and producing such a brilliant game". Sinclair User praised the weapons difficulty curve. C+VG concluded their review by saying "an excellent shoot'em up that's both challenging and addictive.
An absolute must for Spectrum blasting fanatics". R-Type was placed number 1 in RGTV's YouTube video "Top 5 Shoot'em ups on the ZX spectrum". A successful 1988 port to the Master System was recognized as one of the best games available in the Sega library. A Mean Machines magazine review praised in particular the graphics and the high quality of the challenge offered by the game, awarding it an overall rating of 92%. A 1995 article in Next Generation stated that the "PC Engine conversion of Irem's arcade smash R-Type is still regarded as the system's definitive contribution to the shoot'em up genre." The following year they listed both it and the arcade original at number 98 in their "Top 100 Games of All Time", praising its art direction, design innovations, huge bosses. In a retrospective review, Allgame editor Shawn Sackenheim described the TurboGrafx-16 version of R-Type as " most accurate home conversion of the game", furthermore stating that "it's the shooter that started it all and it's still a thrill ride from beginning to end".
The game was runner-up in the category of Best Coin-Op Conversion of the Year at the Golden Joystick Awards, behind Operation Wolf. A accurate port of R-Type was released for the PC Engine and TurboGrafx 16 consoles, although both versions suffered from a lower resolution, reduced colour palette, sprite flickering and slowdown. Due to the reduced resolution, the playfield scrolls in the vertical axis whenever the player's ship approaches the top or bottom of the screen; the Japanese release for the PC Engine was split across two game cards titled R-Type I and R-Type II and the North American release for the TurboGrafx-16 contained the entire game on a single card. The PC Engine version of R-Type is notable for having a boss at the end of Stage 6, rather than a prolonged wave of enemies as in all other versions; the Xbox Live Arcade game R-Type Dimensions was released on February 4, 2009. It is a port of the original R-Type and the sequel R-Type II, it can be played either with the original 2D graphics or with new 3D graphics, has added co-op gameplay functionality.
An analogous version for PS3 has been released in May, 2014 under the name "R-Type Dimensions". The PC Engine version of R-Type was one of the first games confirmed for Nintendo's Virtual Console; the North American and European versions include all eight levels as it was released for the TurboGrafx-16. The Japanese release for the Wii is split between two downloads, mirroring the original format of the game for the PC Engine. However, the Japanese releases for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U use the TurboGrafx-16 version. A Master System version became available as well on the Virtual Console for Japan on May 19, 2009, for North America on November 2, 2009 and for Europe on September 25, 2009. In 2010, DotEmu developed an iOS port of R-Type, published by Electronic Arts, released for Android in September 2011. Irem has developed a number of sequels and related games, including R-Type II and Armed Police
The Guardian Legend
The Guardian Legend is a 1988 hybrid action-adventure/shoot'em up video game developed by Compile for the Nintendo Entertainment System. It is the sequel to the 1986 MSX game Guardic, was published and released in Japan by Irem in 1988, in North America by Brøderbund in 1989, in Europe by Nintendo in 1990, it incorporates gameplay elements from other games such as The Legend of Zelda, 1942. In the game, the player controls a lone protagonist, the Guardian, on a quest to destroy a large alien-infested world named Naju before it reaches the planet Earth; the player must deactivate ten safety devices scattered throughout Naju, thus activating the alien world's self-destruct sequence. The player explores Naju in a non-linear fashion and can acquire different weapons during the course of the game; the Guardian Legend received mixed reviews from magazines such as Electronic Gaming Monthly and Nintendo Power. While it has been praised for its impressive graphics, memorable sound, responsive controls, it has been criticized for its repetitive gameplay and complicated password system.
It has since been considered a classic example of a multiple-genre game that set a standard for others such as Sigma Star Saga. Gameplay varies depending on the player's location within Naju; the player controls the Guardian in humanoid form when exploring the surface of Naju and in spaceship form when investigating Naju's interior. The Guardian has a life meter. If the life meter runs out, the Guardian explodes, the game ends; the player can use a primary rapid-fire weapon with unlimited ammunition as well as various powerful secondary weapons that consume "power chips" with each use. Power chips are used as currency to purchase upgrades for the Guardian in a handful of shops throughout Naju. Found within the Labyrinth or obtained after defeating a boss, these upgrades include primary weapon improvements, new or upgraded secondary weapons, round, brightly colored creatures called Landers. Blue and Red Landers, recurring characters in many Compile games, increase the player's maximum life and power chip capacities, respectively.
Blue Landers play multiple roles in The Guardian Legend. Some of them are not items but non-player characters that dispense advice to the player or exchange upgrades for power chips; these Blue Landers serve as checkpoints. In the action-adventure portion of the game known as the "Labyrinth", the player explores the surface of Naju in humanoid form in a top-down perspective; the player must navigate the Labyrinth and find and infiltrate the corridors and activate Naju's ten safety devices. The Labyrinth consists of screen-wide passages and rooms individually plotted as X–Y coordinates. A map that details these coordinates in a grid-like form can be viewed on the pause subscreen. While the player can walk from one screen to the next, some screens are separated by portals called "warp panels". Warp panels bear a symbol indicative of their surrounding area, the player can only access these warp panels with keys that match these symbols; some warp panels lead to rooms containing various clues and story elements while others are gateways to shops, password rooms, corridors.
Keys allow players to access different portions of the Labyrinth, which they can explore in a non-linear fashion. In the shoot'em up portion of the game known as the "Dungeon", the player battles through Naju's interior in spaceship form; the Dungeon consists of a series of enemy-filled corridors which are found during exploration of the Labyrinth. The player's objective in the Dungeon is to progress through each corridor and defeat the boss at the end. Upon completion, the player destroys the corridor and is returned to the Labyrinth, where a power-up is collected as a reward. While some corridors can be accessed others can only be entered by performing a particular action in the corridor room; some rooms in the Labyrinth contain clues. Ten of the corridors in the game serve as the safety devices which must be deactivated to win the game. In The Guardian Legend, the player controls the gynoid guardian of Earth, a "highly sophisticated aerobot transformer"; the player's mission is to infiltrate Naju, a large planet-like object which aliens sent hurtling towards the Earth.
While inside, the player must activate ten safety devices in order to initialize Naju's self-destruct mechanism and destroy the alien world before it reaches Earth. Five hostile tribes of alien lifeforms are vying for control of territories within Naju, the player needs to fight through them to activate the switches and escape; the story is advanced through a series of messages left by one or more unidentified predecessor who unsuccessfully attempted to engage the self-destruct mechanism of Naju before the Guardian arrived. Left by the sole remaining survivor of the attack on Naju, the first message serves as an introduction; the Guardian Legend was developed for the Nintendo Famicom by Compile as the sequel to the 1986 MSX game Guardic, it was released as Guardic Gaiden in Japan by Irem on February 5, 1988. The director was Masamitsu "Moo" Niitani, Compile's president and the creator of the Puyo Puyo series; the development team featured many of the staff who helped create Guardic as well as Zanac and Blazing Lazer
Legend of the Galactic Heroes
Legend of the Galactic Heroes, referred to as Heldensagen vom Kosmosinsel in the opening credits and sometimes abbreviated as LOTGH, is a series of science fiction novels written by Yoshiki Tanaka. In humanity's distant future, two interstellar states – the monarchic Galactic Empire and the democratic Free Planets Alliance – are embroiled in a never-ending war; the story focuses on the exploits of rivals Reinhard von Lohengramm and Yang Wen-li as they rise to power and fame in the Galactic Empire and the Free Planets Alliance respectively. An anime adaptation of the novels, produced by Kitty Films and animated for the most part by Artland and Magic Bus, ran from 1988 to 1997. There is a manga based on the novels, with art by Katsumi Michihara. In addition, there are several video game adaptations with the most recent release in 2008 being a real-time strategy game; the series did not receive an official English release until 2015, when North American anime and manga distributor Viz Media announced they had acquired the license to the novels.
On the same day, North American anime licensor Sentai Filmworks announced their license to the anime and the anime was released on Hidive starting in June 20, 2017. In AD 2801 the Galactic Federation is formed, which results in political power moving away from the planet Earth and the Space Era calendar replacing the Gregorian calendar, with 2801 AD now being SE 1. Rudolf von Goldenbaum, an ex-admiral turned dictatorial politician is elected to power, makes himself Emperor Rudolf I, absolute monarch of the renamed Galactic Empire, restarts the calendar again, starting the Imperial Calendar on SE 310/AD 3110. Rudolf adopts extremist policies including the suppression of any opposition and the extermination of anyone perceived too weak, such as the disabled and those in poverty, which he carried out until his death in IC 42/SE 351/AD 3151, he moves the capital of the Empire to the planet Odin, third planet in the Valhalla system. In IC 164/SE 473/AD 3273, a group of serfs in the Altair star system manage to escape captivity and make "the Long March of 10,000 Light-Years" into the Sagittarius Arm to escape the Galactic Empire, located within the Orion Arm.
These people set up the Free Planets Alliance, a democratic republic, using the Space Era calendar, founding the Alliance in SE 527/IC 218/AD 3327 on the planet Heinessen. In SE 640/IC 331/AD 3440 the first battle between the Empire and Alliance occurs, resulting in a major Alliance victory; the two realms have been at war since. A third realm is set up, the Dominion of Phezzan, a planet-state with connections to Terra, it technically remains a part of the Empire and pays tribute, but it maintains a relationship with the Alliance. Ruled by a domain lord called the "landsherr" Phezzan gains power by acting as both the paragon and trickster, providing the only link between the Empire and Alliance whilst playing the two sides against one another; the story is staged in the distant future within our own Milky Way Galaxy, starting in SE 796/IC 487/AD 3596. A portion of the galaxy is filled with terraformed worlds inhabited by interstellar traveling human beings. For 150 years two mighty space powers have intermittently warred with each other: the Galactic Empire and the Free Planets Alliance.
Within the Galactic Empire, based on mid 19th century Prussia, an ambitious military genius, Reinhard von Müsel conferred Reinhard von Lohengramm, is rising to power. He is driven by the desire to free his sister Annerose, taken by the Kaiser as a concubine, he wants not only to end the corrupt Goldenbaum dynasty but to defeat the Free Planets Alliance and to unify the whole galaxy under his rule. In the Free Planets Alliance Star Fleet is Yang Wen-li, he aspired to become a historian through a military academy, joined the tactical division only out of need for tuition money. He was promoted to an admiral because he demonstrated excellence in military strategy in a number of decisive battles and conflicts, he becomes the archrival of Reinhard, though they respect one another. Unlike Reinhard he is better known for his underdog victories and accomplishments in overcoming impossible odds and mitigating casualties and damages due to military operations; as a historian, Yang predicts the motives behind his enemies and narrates the rich history of his world and comments on it.
One of his famous quotes is: "There are few wars between evil. Besides the two main heroes, the story is full of intricate politics. All types of characters, from high nobility and politicians, to common soldiers and farmers, are interwoven into the story; the story switches away from the main heroes to the Unknown Soldier fighting for his life on the battlefield. There is a third neutral power nominally attached to the Galactic Empire called the Phezzan Dominion, a planet-state which trades with both warring powers. There is a Terraism cult, which claims that humans should go back to Earth, gaining popularity throughout the galaxy. Throughout the story executive political figures of Phezzan in concert with the upper-hierarchy of the Terraism cult orchestrate a number of conspiracies to shift the tide of the galactic war so that it may favor their objectives; the series proper is based on a 10-novel series written by Yoshiki Tanaka, as well as a number of other shorter stories set in the same universe.
It won the Seiun Award for "Best Novel of the Year" in 1988. On July 2, 2015, Viz Media had announced that they had licensed the novels for
A. Bertram Chandler
Arthur Bertram Chandler was an Anglo-Australian mariner-turned-science fiction author. He was born in Aldershot, England, he was a merchant marine officer, sailing the world in everything from tramp steamers to troop ships. In 1956, he became an Australian citizen. By 1958 he was an officer on the Sydney-Hobart route. Chandler commanded various ships in the Australian and New Zealand merchant navies, was the last master of the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne as the law required that it have an officer on board while it was laid up waiting to be towed to China to be broken up. Chandler's daughter, Jenny Chandler, married British horror fiction writer Ramsey Campbell. Chandler wrote over 200 works of short fiction, he won Ditmar Awards for the short story "The Bitter Pill" and for three novels: False Fatherland, The Bitter Pill, The Big Black Mark. Chandler's descriptions of life aboard spaceships and the relationships between members of the crew en route derive from his experience on board seagoing ships and thus carry a feeling of realism found with other writers.
He was most well known for his Rim World series and John Grimes novels, both of which have a distinctly naval flavor. In the latter, Chandler's principal hero John Grimes is an enthusiastic sailor who has occasional adventures on the oceans of various planets. In the books, there is a repeated reference to an obsolete type of magnetically powered spaceship known as the "Gaussjammer", remembered nostalgically by "old timers" –, modelled on the windjammer; the heyday of the Gaussjammer, some centuries earlier than the Rim Worlds books, is the setting of the less well-known The Deep Reaches of Space which has undisguised autobiographical elements: its protagonist is a seaman turned science-fiction writer who travels to the future and uses his nautical experience to save a party of humans stranded on an alien planet. Chandler arrived at the John Grimes series in a rather roundabout way, his original Rim Worlds protagonist was Derek Calver, the merchant spaceman who drifted from the Galactic center to the Rim.
In The Rim of Space and The Ship from Outside, Calver had various adventures around the Rim, became a ship's captain and met and married the purser Jane "Calamity" Arlen - like him a refugee from the center. Appeared Sonia Verril, the glamorous femme fatale and temptress who messed up Calver's life and came close to wrecking his marriage. While this love triangle was moving towards an explosive confrontation deep in space, the grumpy Commodore Grimes was introduced as a secondary character far in the background. However, the plot culminated with Calver, along with Arlen, going to the mysterious Outsiders' Ship and being taken off away from the Galaxy and out of all human ken, leaving the stage empty, it was that Sonia Verril got Commodore Grimes to join her in an adventure Into the Alternate Universe which ended with their hitching up for life and with Grimes becoming Chandler's undoubted no.1 character. Chandler went on to provide Commodore Grimes with numerous new adventures as well as chart his career backwards to its humble beginnings.
Chandler's Australian background is evident in his depiction of a future wherein Australia becomes a major world power on Earth, Australians take the lead in space exploration and in colonising other planets. Drongo Kane, a pirate captain, the villain in several books, comes from the planet Austral, other books mention the planet Australis in another part of the galaxy, his story "The Mountain Movers" includes the song of future Australian space adventurers, sung to the tune of "Waltzing Matilda", with the first stanza running: "When the jolly Jumbuk lifted from Port Woomera Out and away for Altair Three Glad were we all to kiss the tired old Earth goodbye Who'll come a-sailing in Jumbuk with me?"The colonists who sing the song end up re-enacting the darker part of Australian history and dispossessing the natives of the planet Olgana – humanoids who resemble the Australian Aborigines. As revealed at the climax of the story, the resemblance is not accidental. In his novel Kelly Country Chandler explored an alternate history, in which the bushranger Ned Kelly was not captured and hanged, but led a rebellion becoming the president of an Australian republic which degenerated into a hereditary dictatorship.
Chandler made heavy use of the parallel universe plot device throughout his career, with many Grimes stories involving characters crossing over into other realities. In "The Dark Dimensions", set at a point in space where various realities meet, meets not only another John Grimes, still in the Federation Survey Service, but the characters from the Empress Irene books and Poul Anderson's Dominic Flandry. In his ironic short story "The Cage", a band of shipwrecked humans wandering naked in the jungles of a faraway planet are captured by aliens and placed in a zoo, failing in all their efforts to convince their captors that they are intelligent, some are dissected, they become resigned to captivity and adopt a small local rodent as a pet, placing him in a wicker cage. Seeing this, their captors apologise for the mistake and repatriate them to Earth, remarking that "only intelligent creatures put other creatures in cages". Sex is frequent in Chandler's books in free fall. Women on board are
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica