Eastern Time Zone
Places that use Eastern Standard Time when observing standard time are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. Eastern Daylight Time, when observing daylight saving time DST is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time, in the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2,00 a. m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3,00 a. m. EDT leaving a one-hour gap, on the first Sunday in November, at 2,00 a. m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1,00 a. m, southern parts of the zone do not observe daylight saving time. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 ruled that daylight saving time would run from the last Sunday of April until the last Sunday in October in the United States, the act was amended to make the first Sunday in April the beginning of daylight saving time as of 1987. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended daylight saving time in the United States beginning in 2007. So local times change at 2,00 a. m. EST to 3,00 a. m. EDT on the second Sunday in March, in Canada, the time changes as it does in the United States.
However, a handful of communities unofficially observe Eastern Time because they are part of the Columbus, Georgia metropolitan area – Phenix City, Smiths Station and Valley. Florida, All of Florida is in the Eastern Time zone except for the portion of the Florida Panhandle west of the Apalachicola River, as the Eastern–Central zone boundary approaches the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the Bay/Gulf county line. Indiana, All of Indiana observes Eastern Time except for six counties in the Chicago metropolitan area. Kentucky, the half of the state, including all of metropolitan Louisville, is in the Eastern Time Zone. Historically the entire state observed Central Time, when daylight saving time was first introduced, the Lower Peninsula remained on DST after it formally ended, effectively re-aligning itself into the Eastern Time Zone. The Upper Peninsula continued to observe Central Time until 1972, when all, Most of the eastern third of Tennessee is legally on Eastern Time. Eastern Time is used somewhat as a de facto official time for all of the United States, since it includes the capital and the largest city.
Major professional sports leagues post all game times in Eastern time, for example, a game time between two teams from Pacific Time Zone will still be posted in Eastern time. Most cable television and national broadcast networks advertise airing times in Eastern time, national broadcast networks generally have two primary feeds, an eastern feed for Eastern and Central time zones, and a tape-delayed western feed for the Pacific Time Zone. The prime time is set on Eastern and Pacific at 8,00 p. m. with the Central time zone stations receiving the eastern feed at 7,00 p. m. local time. Mountain Time Zone stations receive a separate feed at 7,00 p. m. local time, as Arizona does not observe daylight saving time, during the summer months, it has its own feed at 7,00 p. m. local time
A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
Hardenburgh, New York
Hardenburgh is a town located in the western part of Ulster County, New York, United States. The population was 215 at the 2010 census, the town is located inside the Catskill Park. Hardenburgh was established in 1859 from the Towns of Denning and Shandaken, the town was named for Johannes Hardenbergh, a landowner and patentee. Between 1976 and 1983,236 residents became ministers of the Universal Life Church, the Balsam Lake Mountain Fire Observation Station, Coykendall Lodge, and Grant Mills Covered Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Town has an area of 81.5 square miles. Hardenburgh sits in the corner of the county, bordering Sullivan and Delaware counties. Five of the Catskill High Peaks are within or along its borders, because of the mountains, the only direct route from Hardenburgh to the rest of the county are hiking trails over them. Any vehicular traffic must go through either Sullivan or Delaware counties, one of those lesser mountains, Dry Brook Ridge, effectively divides the town as well.
The portion north of it, in the Dry Brook valley, uses the ZIP code, alder Lake, a 45-acre lake made in the 1900s, is located in the town. As of the census of 2000, there were 208 people,95 households, the population density was 2.6 people per square mile. There were 275 housing units at a density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96. 15% White,0. 48% African American,2. 40% Asian,0. 96% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 96% of the population. 35. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.70. In the town, the population was out with 15. 4% under the age of 18,5. 3% from 18 to 24,26. 4% from 25 to 44,33. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 47 years, for every 100 females there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.5 males, the median income for a household in the town was $35,278, and the median income for a family was $41,250.
Males had an income of $27,083 versus $21,389 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,184
Hoornbeek Store Complex
The Hoornbeek Store Complex is a Registered Historic Place in the hamlet of Napanoch, New York, United States. It consists of buildings located on a one-acre parcel on Main Street between Clinton and Church streets. They reflect Napanochs transition from its original settlement into the Delaware and Hudson Canal era, there are three main buildings in the complex, erected over a 30-year period. The oldest is the William Doll House, built around 1810 in the Federal style house by a local physician and it boasts five bays and an unusual eight-panel door. The interior features some of the fabrics, as well as renovations, such as the staircase. It remains in use today as a private home, in 1833 the Hoornbeek Store was constructed to the south by Richard and George Southwick. Its Greek Revival features include the front porch with five pillars, massive cornice. Four years after it was opened, it was connected to the Doll House via a small addition when Doll bought out the Southwicks during foreclosure proceedings, owners in the 20th century added the second-story porches.
The last main structure, the Napanoch Female Seminary, was built in 1841 by Gabriel Ludlum, at one point it, was connected to the store, probably in 1856 when Ludlum bought out Doll and became the sole owner of the complex. That connection was demolished in the 20th century, scattered around the property are several outbuildings. These fulfilled service functions for customers and residents, such as an ice house, wagon, Ludlum leased the store and house to John Decker and Eli DuBois, who operated the former as a combination of shops and tavern and the latter as a hotel. In 1864 they bought the property from him and refurbished it, sold the house and it would remain in their hands for over a century, giving it its popular local name. Calvin Hoornbeek operated the complex as a combination of shops and apartments and he rented it out as a single-family residence and continued to operate the store until his death in 1940. Various sons and daughters continued to live there until the last died in 1975, a subsequent owner, Amy Plummer Hoffman, got the property listed on the New York State and National Registers of Historic Places in the early 1980s
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, was chosen to suggest that the travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly. The basic format consists of five numerical digits, an extended ZIP+4 code, introduced in 1983, includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, a hyphen, and four additional digits that determine a more specific location within a given ZIP Code. The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, USPS style for ZIP is all caps and the c in code is capitalized, although style sheets for some publications use sentence case or lowercase. The early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers, the United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example, Mr. John Smith 3256 Epiphenomenal Avenue Minneapolis 16, by the early 1960s a more organized system was needed, and on July 1,1963, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide.
Three months later, on October 1,1963, the U. S, an earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with one exception, according to the historian of the U. S. Robert Moon, an employee of the post office, is considered the father of the ZIP Code, he submitted his proposal in 1944 while working as a postal inspector. The post office gives credit to Moon only for the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or sec center, an SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes, the mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight.
The United States Post Office used a character, which it called Mr. ZIP. He was often depicted with a such as USE ZIP CODE in the selvage of panes of stamps or on labels contained in, or the covers of. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4, often called plus-four codes, add-on codes, or add ons. But initial attempts to promote use of the new format met with public resistance. For Post Office Boxes, the rule is that each box has its own ZIP+4 code. However, there is no rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box. It is common to use add-on code 9998 for mail addressed to the postmaster,9999 for general delivery, for a unique ZIP Code, the add-on code is typically 0001
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
Denning, New York
Denning is an isolated town in Ulster County, New York, USA. The population was 551 at the 2010 census, the town is named after an early landowner, William Denning. Denning is located in the part of the county, deep inside the Catskill Mountains. The location of the town in the Catskill State Park accounts in part for its low population, Denning was established in 1849 from part of the Town of Shandaken. The region had been part of the Hardenburgh Patent granted to Johannes Hardenburgh in 1708, William H. Denning, for whom the settlement was named, bought a tract of land at a tax sale. The Red Hill Fire Observation Station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 105.3 square miles. The town is in the Catskill Mountains and borders Sullivan County and it is rugged and heavily wooded. Since the town is entirely within the Catskill Park, large tracts of land are owned by the state Department of Environmental Conservation as part of New Yorks Forest Preserve.
These forests are either in the Sundown Wild Forest in the parts of the town or the Slide Mountain Wilderness Area in its central regions. Within the former are the three southernmost Catskill High Peaks, Peekamoose and Lone mountains, at 3,847 feet, Tables summit is the highest point in the town. Slide Mountain, the highest peak in the Catskills, is north of Denning, a lower mountain,2, 990-foot Red Hill, has a fire tower on its summit popular with hikers. It is the property in Denning listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2000, there were 516 people,215 households, the population density was 4.9 people per square mile. There were 517 housing units at a density of 4.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95. 93% White,0. 97% Native American,0. 19% Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 55% of the population. 37. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the town, the population was out with 17. 4% under the age of 18,7. 9% from 18 to 24,28. 5% from 25 to 44,28. 7% from 45 to 64
Hurley, New York
Hurley is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States. The population was 6,314 at the 2010 census, the Town of Hurley is in the northeast part of the county, west of the City of Kingston. Much of the town is inside the Catskill Park, located within the town is a hamlet and census-designated place named Hurley. In the Spring of 1662, Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General of New Netherland, on June 7,1663, during the Esopus Wars the Esopus attacked and destroyed the village, and took captives who were released. England acquired the Dutch Colony on September 6,1664, on September 17,1669, the village, abandoned since the Esopus attack, was resettled and renamed Hurley. It has been stated that the village was named after Francis Lovelace. The southern section was settled by farmers and the villages of Bloomingdale and Wagondale were established. The discovery of limestone suitable for cement made this a valuable economic area and these villages and the surrounding area became the core of the Town of Rosendale, established in 1844.
The central part of the Town remained a community of close-knit families. Farming the Esopus Valley they supplied grain to the colony, New England. During October and December 1777, Old Hurley was the headquarters for General George Clintons Continental forces. Old Hurleys Main Street is part of the National Register of Historic Sites due to its stone houses which have served as residences for more than 300 years. Some are open to the once a year in July on Stone House Day. The northern section of the Town was a wilderness until the discovery, in the 1830s. Known as Blue Stone, it was used in the construction of road curbing, West Hurley and Ashton were villages established by the quarry industry. In 1917, New York Citys need for a water supply resulted in land condemnation. The flooded villages of Glenford and West Hurley were resettled on the shores of the reservoir, parts of Hurley have been used to form the Towns of New Paltz, Olive and Woodstock. The construction of the Ashokan Reservoir inundated many communities in 1912, in 1982, parts of the movie Tootsie were filmed at the historic Wynkoop Farm and the Hurley Mountain Inn, both in Hurley