Constance Foore "Connee" Boswell was an American female vocalist born in Kansas City but raised in New Orleans, Louisiana. With sisters Martha and Helvetia "Vet", she performed in the 1930s as The Boswell Sisters, they became a influential singing group during this period via recordings and radio. Connee herself is considered one of the greatest jazz female vocalists and was a major influence on Ella Fitzgerald who said, "My mother brought home one of her records, I fell in love with it.... I tried so hard to sound just like her." In 1936, Connee's sisters retired and Connee continued on as a solo artist. Boswell was born on December 1907 in Kansas City, Missouri; the Boswells came to be well known locally while still in their early teens, making appearances in New Orleans theaters and radio. They made their first recordings for Victor Records in 1925, which included "Cryin' Blues" where Connee is featured singing in the style of her early influence, African-American singer Mamie Smith; the Boswell Sisters became stage professionals that year when they were tapped to fill in for an act at New Orleans' Orpheum Theatre.
They received an invitation to go to Chicago and perform in 1928 and honed their act on the Western vaudeville circuit. When their tour ended, they traveled to San Francisco; the hotel, recommended had a less than savory reputation, the man at the desk suggested that these three young ladies might be better off in another hotel. That man, Harry Leedy, part owner of Decca Records, would become the sisters' manager on a handshake and Connee's husband; the sisters traveled to Los Angeles, where they performed on local radio and "side-miked" for the soundies, including the 1930 production Under Montana Skies. They did not attain national attention, until they moved to New York City in 1930 and started making national radio broadcasts. After a few recordings with Okeh Records, they made numerous recordings for Brunswick Records from 1931-1935. In addition to the Boswell Sister's recordings for Brunswick, Connee herself was recorded as a solo artist and experienced several successful singles. In 1935, the Boswell Sisters had a #1 hit with "The Object of My Affection", the biggest of twenty top 20 records they would enjoy.
In 1936, the group signed to Decca Records and after just three releases called. Connee continued to have a successful solo career as a singer for Decca but later recorded for the new Apollo label, RCA Victor and Decca subsidiary, Design. In addition to being a co-star on NBC Radio's Kraft Music Hall in 1940-41, Boswell subsequently starred in her own radio show on the NBC Blue Network The Connee Boswell Show. In 1946 she was featured on CBS Radio Tonight On Broadway, her other guest appearances on radio included The Salute To Irving Berlin/Alexander's Ragtime Band, CBS, August 5, 1938. Boswell sang in a number of Hollywood films, including It's All Yours and Models, Syncopation and Swing Parade of 1946, as well as with the Boswell Sisters in 1932's The Big Broadcast and 1934's Moulin Rouge. Boswell was interviewed via phone by Bill Fisher on WOWO; the acetate disk's label contained no date. But since her new Decca single of "Begin The Beguine" was promoted in it, the date should be presumed to be 1952.
All through her career with The Boswell Sisters, into the early 1940s, her name was spelled "Connie". She changed the spelling to Connee. Stories vary as to. Connee sang from a wheelchair - or seated position - during her career, due to either a childhood bout with polio or a fall from the back of a coaster wagon; the general public was not aware of her condition. During World War II, she tried to get involved with the USO tours but was not given permission to travel overseas; the Army thought it might not be a morale-booster to have a singer who used a wheelchair perform for the troops. She was active in philanthropic efforts to bring awareness and support to those affected by disabilities, including support of the March of Dimes through recordings, personal appearances and television promotional spots. Boswell was a favorite duet partner of Bing Crosby and they sang together on radio as well as recording several hit records as a duo in the 1930s and 1940s, she and Crosby recorded a version of Alexander's Ragtime Band, introduced by Eddie Cantor, a #1 hit in 1938.
This recording benefited the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which would become the March of Dimes. In 1939, Crosby and Boswell had three hit duet records that each climbed into the top 12 on Billboard. Boswell had several dozen solo hits, including "Moonlight Mood", her last charted hit was "If I Give My Heart to You". Boswell's career slackened in the 1950s but she still recorded and would be featured on a number of television broadcasts including Jazz Party and a regular stint on the 1959 series Pete Kelly's Blues as "Savannah Brown". Connee Boswell
Johnny Bayersdorffer was a New Orleans jazz cornetist and bandleader. Bayersdorffer was a popular bandleader at the Spanish Fort resort on Bayou St. John by Lake Pontchartrain, he is best remembered to generations for his 1920s recordings for Okeh Records. Bayersdorffer played with Happy Schilling and Tony Parenti's bands. New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album by Al Rose and Edmond Souchon
David Roy Eldridge, nicknamed "Little Jazz", was an American jazz trumpet player. His sophisticated use of harmony, including the use of tritone substitutions, his virtuosic solos exhibiting a departure from the dominant style of jazz trumpet innovator Louis Armstrong, his strong impact on Dizzy Gillespie mark him as one of the most influential musicians of the swing era and a precursor of bebop. Eldridge was born on the North Side of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on January 30, 1911, to parents Alexander, a wagon teamster, Blanche, a gifted pianist with a talent for reproducing music by ear, a trait that Eldridge claimed to have inherited from her. Eldridge began playing the piano at the age of five; the young Eldridge looked up to his older brother, Joe Eldridge because of Joe's diverse musical talents on the violin, alto saxophone, clarinet. Roy took up the drums at the age of six, playing locally. Joe recognized his brother's natural talent on the bugle, which Roy played in a local church band, tried to convince Roy to play the valved trumpet.
When Roy began to play drums in his brother's band, Joe soon convinced him to pick up the trumpet, but Roy made little effort to gain proficiency on the instrument at first. It was not until the death of their mother, when Roy was eleven, his father's subsequent remarriage that Roy began practicing more rigorously, locking himself in his room for hours, honing the instrument's upper register. From an early age, Roy lacked proficiency at sight-reading, a gap in his musical education that would affect him for much of his early career, but he could replicate melodies by ear effectively. Eldridge led and played in a number of bands during his early years, moving extensively throughout the American Midwest, he absorbed the influence of saxophonists Benny Carter and Coleman Hawkins, setting himself the task of learning Hawkins's 1926 solo on "The Stampede" in developing an equivalent trumpet style. Eldridge left home after being expelled from high school in ninth grade, joining a traveling show at the age of sixteen.
He was picked up by the "Greater Sheesley Carnival," but returned to Pittsburgh after witnessing acts of racism in Cumberland, Maryland that disturbed him. Eldridge soon found work leading a small band in the traveling "Rock Dinah" show, his performance therein leading swing-era bandleader Count Basie to recall young Roy Eldridge as "the greatest trumpet I'd heard in my life." Eldridge continued playing with similar traveling groups until returning home to Pittsburgh at the age of 17. At the age of 20, Eldridge led a band in Pittsburgh, billed as "Roy Elliott and his Palais Royal Orchestra", the agent intentionally changing Eldridge's name because "he thought it more classy." Roy left this position to try out for the orchestra of Horace Henderson, younger brother of famed New York City bandleader Fletcher Henderson, joined the ensemble referred to as The Fletcher Henderson Stompers, Under the Direction of Horace Henderson. Eldridge played with a number of other territory bands, staying for a short while in Detroit before joining Speed Webb's band which, having garnered a degree of movie publicity, began a tour of the Midwest.
Many of the members of Webb's band, annoyed by the leader's lack of dedication, left to form a identical group with Eldridge as bandleader. The ensemble was short-lived, Eldridge soon moved to Milwaukee, where he took part in a celebrated cutting contest with trumpet player Cladys "Jabbo" Smith, with whom he became good friends. Eldridge moved to New York in November 1930, playing in various bands in the early 1930s, including a number of Harlem dance bands with Cecil Scott, Elmer Snowden, Charlie Johnson, Teddy Hill, it was during this time that Eldridge received his nickname,'Little Jazz', from Ellington saxophonist Otto Hardwick, amused by the incongruity between Eldridge's raucous playing and his short stature. At this time, Eldridge was making records and radio broadcasts under his own name, he laid down his first recorded solos with Teddy Hill in 1935, which gained immediate popularity. For a brief time, he led his own band at the reputed Famous Door nightclub. Eldridge recorded a number of small group sides with singer Billie Holiday in July 1935, including "What a Little Moonlight Can Do" and "Miss Brown to You", employing a Dixieland-influenced improvisation style.
In October 1935, Eldridge joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra, playing lead trumpet and singing. Until he left the group in early September 1936, Eldridge was Henderson's featured soloist, his talent highlighted by such numbers as "Christopher Columbus" and "Blue Lou." His rhythmic power to swing a band was a dynamic trademark of the jazz of the time. It has been said that "from the mid-Thirties onwards, he had superseded Louis Armstrong as the exemplar of modern'hot' trumpet playing". In the fall of 1936, Eldridge moved to Chicago to form an octet with older brother Joe Eldridge playing saxophone and arranging; the ensemble boasted nightly broadcasts and made recordings that featured his extended solos, including "After You've Gone" and "Wabash Stomp." Eldridge, fed up with the racism he had encountered in the music industry, quit playing in 1938 to study radio engineering. He was back to playing in 1939, when he formed a ten-piece band that gained a residency at New York's Arcadia Ballroom.
In April 1941, after receiving many offers from white swing bands, Eldri
Francis Joseph "Muggsy" Spanier was a prominent jazz cornet player based in Chicago. Spanier was born in Chicago. At 13 he began playing the cornet and played with Elmer Schoebel in 1921, he borrowed the sobriquet of Muggsy from John "Muggsy" McGraw, the manager of the New York Giants baseball team. In the early 1920s, he played with The Bucktown Five. In 1929 he became a member of a band led by Ted Lewis spent two years with Ben Pollack. After an illness, he assembled His Ragtime Band. In 1939 the band recorded several sessions of Dixieland standards for Bluebird Records that were called The Great Sixteen and influenced a Dixieland revival; the band's members included George Brunies, Rod Cless, George Zack or Joe Bushkin, Ray McKinstry, Nick Ciazza or Bernie Billings, Bob Casey. His other most important ventures were the quartet he co-led with Sidney Bechet in 1940. From 1940–1941 he played with Bob Crosby. In the 1950s, he moved to the West Coast and joined Earl Hines's band from 1957–1959. After touring Europe, he retired in 1964.
The Ragtime Band's theme tune was "Relaxin' at the Touro", named for Touro Infirmary, the New Orleans hospital where Spanier had been treated for a perforated ulcer early in 1938. At the point of death, he was saved by Dr. Alton Ochsner who drained the fluid and eased his weakened breathing. One of Spanier's Dixieland numbers is entitled, "Oh Doctor Ochsner."'Relaxin' at the Touro' is a straightforward 12-bar blues with a piano introduction and coda by Joe Bushkin. The pianist recalled, many years later: "When I joined Muggsy in Chicago we met to talk it over at the Three Deuces, where Art Tatum was appearing. Muggsy was now playing opposite Fats Waller at the Sherman hotel and we worked out a kind of stage show for the two bands. Muggsy was a man of great integrity. We played a blues in C and I made up a little intro. After that I was listed as the co-composer of'Relaxin' at the Touro'". In 1950, in Chicago, Spanier's second marriage was to Ruth Gries O’Connell, he became the stepfather of her sons, Hollywood film writer and director Tom Gries and Charles Joseph Gries professionally known as Buddy Charles, a pop and jazz vocalist and pianist in Chicago.
When Spanier was performing at a concert in Chicago in 1956, Buddy Charles was performing at the nearby Black Orchid nightclub. Spanier was heard to exclaim “that’s my boy.” Bert Whyatt, Muggsy Spanier: The Lonesome Road
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog