Napranum is a small community on the Cape York Peninsula in remote Far North Queensland. Known as Weipa South, Napranum was established in 1898 by Moravian missionaries on behalf of the Presbyterian church. Napranum is now governed by a local Aboriginal council. At the 2006 census, Napranum had a population of 830; the Protector of Aborigines at the time, Archibald Meston, protested against the establishment of the mission on the grounds that the people were healthy and could adequately sustain themselves. Despite this, the mission went ahead inland near York Downs station to avoid contact with luggers who were notorious for kidnapping Aboriginal people to exploit in their diving operations. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, giving the "Protector" exceptional powers, it stated in sections 10 and 17 that: "The Chief Protector shall be the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, notwithstanding that any such child has a parent or other relative living, until such child attains the age of 21 years."
And, "The Chief Protector may cause any aborigine or half-caste to be kept within the boundaries of any reserve or Aboriginal institution, or be removed from one reserve or institution and kept herein." Jan Roberts notes that the only other people treated like this were the insane. The "Protector" was given the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience, it gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was used by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate at Jessica Point, because of malaria. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite - the ore from which aluminium is made - and to a lesser extent tungsten.
The "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere. The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa South Post Office opened on 1 December 1967 and closed in 1982. Napranum received DOGIT status, has its own community council separate from the Shire of Cook. Napranum has the Mary Ann Coconut Library at Weipa, it is operated by the Napranum Aboriginal Shire Council. Weipa
Shire of Cook
The Shire of Cook is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Shire covers most of the eastern and central parts of Cape York Peninsula, the most northerly section of the Australian mainland, it covers an area of 106,188.4 square kilometres, has existed as a local government entity since 1919. The Daintree and Hann Divisions were created on 11 November 1879 as two of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, they became the Shires of Daintree and Hann on 31 March 1903. On 16 January 1919, they merged to form the Shire of Cook; the Borough of Cooktown was proclaimed as a separate municipality on 3 April 1876 under the Municipal Institutions Act 1864. On 24 August 1932, the Town of Cooktown was absorbed back into Cook Shire. Prior to 2005, a number of Aboriginal communities administered under Deed of Grant in Trust by community councils were part of the Shire's area, but they were formally excised and given a new status as Aboriginal Shires.
This formed part of the Meeting Challenges, Making Choices strategy developed in response to the Cape York Justice Study undertaken by Justice Fitzgerald QC in November 2001. The Local Government Reform process in July 2007 concluded that amalgamation of the Shire would not result in any benefits to service delivery and management for the area, noting that it was the largest local government by area and had no community of interest with any neighbouring areas; the council was, reduced from seven to six councillors with an additional elected mayor. The Shire of Cook includes the following settlements: 1 – shared with the Shire of Douglas 2 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale 3 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Lockhart River 4 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Mapoon And a number of islands in the Coral Sea, including: Raine Island Lizard Island The Cook Shire Council operate public libraries at Bloomfield and Cooktown. 1901–1904: John Hargreaves 1927: H. L. Lee 2008–: Peter Scott The population of the Shire of Cook, along with Torres and Mornington, have been singled out by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, who conduct the quinquennial census, as difficult to measure accurately.
Reasons for this include cultural and language barriers and geographical spread of the population, who are located in isolated communities. As such, all figures are to be lower than the actual population on the census date. Additionally, prior to 1971, Aboriginal people who form a majority of the population were not counted in census statistics; until 1 July 2002, the Australian Bureau of Statistics included the Island and DOGIT councils within the Shire of Cook statistical local area. Information for the reduced Shire back to 1996 has been provided on the ABS website through the Time Series Profile. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cook Shire
Atherton is a rural town and locality on the Atherton Tablelands within the Tablelands Region, Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Atherton had a population of 7,287; the town was named after John Atherton, a pioneer pastoralist who settled at Mareeba in 1875. The area was known as Priors Pocket or Priors Creek. William John Bock was an early pioneer in Atherton, he made an audio recording discussing the early town, prior to his death on 19 February 1953. Atherton Pioneer Cemetery opened in 1897 and closed in 1927 when the Rockley Road Cemetery was opened. Atherton Post Office opened by 1903; the Atherton War Memorial commemorates local residents who died in World War I. It was dedicated on 1 May 1924 by Frederick Grau, it is the only war memorial in Queensland of a digger in an animated pose. The Atherton Courthouse was used as a wartime hospital for officers during World War II and has air raid bunkers beneath the building; the Atherton Public Library was opened in 1978. Atherton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Herberton Road: Chinatown Herberton Road: Atherton Chinese Temple Kennedy Highway: Atherton War Memorial corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road: Atherton War Cemetery 42 Mable Street: Atherton State School Head Teacher's Residence 53 Main Street: Barron Valley Hotel Mazlin Street: Merriland Hall 6 Silo Street: Atherton Performing Arts Theatre Atherton has a humid subtropical climate that differs from the surrounding tropical savannah climate due to the town's elevation 752 metres ASL high on the Atherton Plateau.
Temperature extremes have ranged from 36.7 °C to –0.6 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,379.8 mm Atherton is joined by the Gillies Highway to Yungaburra, the Kennedy Highway north to Mareeba and south to Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet, the Malanda Road to Malanda and the Herberton Road to Herberton. Trans North offers a number of return services during a seven-day week between Atherton, Walkamin, Mareeba and Cairns including drop-offs to airport, railway station and bus depots. There are connections available between Ravenshoe and Herberton and along the Wheelbarrow Way to Chillagoe. There is an Atherton taxi service. Due to its moderate climate and less humid than the tropical coast, its booming agricultural industries, Atherton has a busy and prosperous community, a vibrant social and cultural life. Atherton is attractive to retirees and "tree changers" due to the cool climate, fertile garden soils, housing prices lower than the nearby coastal city of Cairns, the vibrant cultural life; the land around Atherton is used to grow a variety of crops, including sugar cane, mangoes, potatoes, blueberries, blackberries and macadamia nuts.
Dairy and beef cattle are reared in the area. Each year towards the end of August, Atherton celebrates the Maize festival, which features a parade with decorated floats, the Maize Queen pageant, children's amusement rides and activities including tug of war and wood chopping. There are shop window displays and artwork competitions, as well as a prize given to the best float; the annual Atherton Agricultural Show is held in the second week of July at Atherton Show grounds including Heritage Listed Merriland Hall. The Atherton Roosters field teams in the Cairns District Rugby League. Atherton has two primary schools, one secondary school, one independent Prep - Grade 12 school and a technical and further education campus. There are two day care centres in the town. Atherton's schools and other places of education include: Atherton State High School The School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, a virtual campus of Atherton State High School. Atherton State School Jubilee Christian College St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School Tropical North Institute of TAFEAtherton State School opened on 2 March 1891 and celebrated its centenary in 1984.
The Tablelands Regional Council operates the Atherton Library on Atherton. The library facility opened in 1978, with a major refurbishment in 2012; the Atherton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Jack Street and Arnott Lane. Atherton Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it hospital provides obstetric, surgical, operating theatre and emergency services. Peter Beattie, who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland from 1998 to 2007 Ron Grainer, best known for composing the Doctor Who theme music Rod Jensen, former North Queensland Cowboys and Huddersfield Giants player Dallas Johnson, North Queensland Cowboys lock forward and former Melbourne Storm player and Queensland State of Origin representative Elizabeth O'Conner, author Ren Pedersen, children's brain cancer research advocate Alexander Prokhorov, Soviet/Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner Historical weather of Atherton University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Atherton
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Division of Leichhardt
The Division of Leichhardt is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was first contested in 1949 after the expansion of seats in the Parliament of Australia, it is one of Australia's largest electorates, covering an area stretching from Cairns to Cape York and the Torres Strait, including the Torres Strait Islands. The division is named after an explorer and scientist; the area was first covered by the seat of Herbert from 1901 to 1934 and by the seat of Kennedy until 1949. Most of the electorate is uninhabited except for small Aboriginal communities, but the extreme southeast, consisting of the northern half of the Wet Tropics, with rich volcanic soils instead of the extraordinarily infertile lateritic sands and gravels of Cape York proper, is quite densely populated and includes urban Cairns. There are small, intensive sugar cane and mango farms in this region, though they are prone to damage from droughts and cyclones. A safe Labor seat from the late 1950s to the 1970s, it has been marginal for most of the time since then.
While Cairns has tilted toward Labor, the more rural areas tilt toward the Liberals and Nationals. It was a bellwether seat held by the party of government from the 1972 election until the 2010 election; when Warren Entsch, who held the seat from 1996 to 2007, won it back for the LNP in 2010, he became the seat's first opposition member in four decades. It marked the first time Labor had been in government without holding Leichhardt. Ahead of the 2016 federal election, ABC psephologist Antony Green listed the seat in his election guide as one of eleven which he classed as "bellwether" electorates. Division of Leichhardt — Australian Electoral Commission
Babinda is a small town and locality in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is located 60 kilometres south of Cairns; the town is noted for its proximity to Queensland's two highest mountains Mount Bartle Frere and Mount Bellenden Ker. Babinda and Tully annually compete for an award for Australia's wettest town. Babinda is the winner, recording an annual average rainfall of over 4279.4 millimetres each year. Babinda takes its name from the local Indigenous Australian language for mountain. Other sources, claim it is a Yidinji word for water referring to the high rainfall of the area. Babinda State School opened on 4 November 1914. Babinda Post Office opened by 1915; the Babinda War Memorial was unveiled by the chairman of the Cairns Shire Council Seymour Warner on 25 April 1927. The Babinda Public Library building opened in 1955. In March 2006, Babinda was struck by Cyclone Larry. At the 2011 census the town recorded a population of 1,068. Babinda has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 65-85 Munro Street: Babinda Hotel 109 Munro Street: Babinda Air Raid Shelter The 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,167 persons in Babinda on census night.
Of these, 49.7% were male and 50.3% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being Italy and New Zealand; the age distribution of Babinda residents is skewed higher than the greater Australian population. 70.1% of residents were over 25 years in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspapers are The Cairns Post. There are many different community events in Babinda; the annual Harvest Festival is celebrated in October and features some unusual events including the Sugar Bowl competition, the Gumboot Toss and the Umbrella Toss. The festival did not occur in 2006 due to Cyclone Larry. Babinda is served on the corner of Pollard and the Boulders Road. St Rita's School, on Church Street, Babinda Kindergarten on Church Street and Babinda Early Learning on Pollard Road; the Cairns Regional Council operates a public library in Babinda at 24 Munro Street. The Babinda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall in School Road.
The Boulders and Devil's Pool are popular tourist attractions. A picnic area is located nearby, beside Babinda Creek. Babinda is situated on the Bruce Highway; the town has a railway station for access to the long-distance train services only the Spirit of Queensland for which an advance booking must be made for the train to stop in Babinda. Babinda has a tropical rainforest climate with persistently wet weather, it is well known and recognised as the wettest town in Australia, with an annual average rainfall of 4279.4 mm. Monthly totals over 1000 mm are not uncommon, sometimes between January and April, whole months will go by without a single sunny day; the wet season lasts from December to May. During the wet season, heavy monsoonal downpours occur daily and even heavier rain from tropical lows or cyclones occurs. Rainfall still totals well over 100mm a month during the dry season. Thunderstorms with dangerous lightning and damaging winds can be a threat from October to December. Suburbs of Cairns Media related to Babinda, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Babinda Watch historical footage of Babinda and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
Cairns Regional Council "Babinda". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2011
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, is the largest town on the Cape. At the 2011 census, Weipa had a population of 3,334, it exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is involved in exports of bauxite. Over the last decade or so there have been occasional shipments of live cattle from the port. Weipa is just south of Duyfken Point, a location now agreed to be the first recorded point of European contact with the Australian continent. Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon, on his ship the Duyfken, sighted the coast here in 1606; this was 164 years. In 1895 Presbyterian missionary Reverend Nicholas John Hey established a mission at the junction of Embley River and Spring Creek which he called Weipa, believed to derive from the Anhathangayth word meaning fighting ground. In 1932 the mission relocated 28 kilometres to Jessica Point continuing under the same name. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, making the Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience.
It gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was given by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate to its present site, at Jessica Point now called Napranum because of malaria, it is about 12 kilometres south of the present town of Weipa. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite – the ore from which aluminium is made – and to a lesser extent tungsten; the "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere.
The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa has a tropical savanna climate, with hot temperatures above 30 °C throughout the year. Three distinct seasons exist; the wet season, which runs from January to April, is characterised by heavy downpours on an daily basis. Monsoon lows and tropical cyclones cause more extreme rainfall, up to 200 mm in 24 hours; the dry season, running from May to September, features dry days. The build-up season, running from October to December, is oppressively hot and humid, with frequent days over 35 °C. Dewpoints in the wet season average 24 °C. Rainfall during the build-up is infrequent, but when it does occur, it falls in brief, heavy downpours associated with severe thunderstorms; these seasons are not always set, however. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 10.2 °C to 38.4 °C. The highest daily rainfall recorded was 327.8 mm during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013. The present town was constructed by Comalco, a large aluminium company, which began making trial shipments of bauxite to Japan in 1962.
A railway was constructed to transport the ore from the mine at Andoom to the dump of the export facility at Lorim Point. The bauxite mine is the world's largest with planned expansions increasing the margin over other mines in 2010. There are two schools in Weipa; the Western Cape College is a government co-educational school. It is on the corner of Eastern Avenues in Rocky Point. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 1,073 students with 93 teachers. St Joseph's Parish School is a Roman Catholic co-educational primary school at 2 Boundary Road, Rocky Point. Opened in 2016, the school only offered enrolment in years P-3 but expects in 2018 to be able to offer enrolment across all primary levels. Weipa has a visitor's centre, swimming pool, bowling green, golf club and squash courts. There are basketball courts as well as football fields. Weipa Town Authority operates a public library at Hibberd Drive in Weipa. At Nanum the shopping precinct has a Woolworths supermarket, coffee shop, travel agent, clothing shop, post office, newsagency / sports shop and butchers.
There is a chemist and fishing store and within walking distance is a gift shop and whitegoods store, credit union and government social security office. At Evans Landing there are a