Napster is a set of three music-focused online services. It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing Internet software that emphasized sharing digital audio files audio songs, encoded in MP3 format; as the software became popular, the company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement. It ceased operations and was acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnation, Napster became an online music store until it was acquired by Rhapsody from Best Buy on December 1, 2011. More decentralized projects followed Napster's P2P file-sharing example, such as Gnutella, BearShare and Soulseek; some services, like AudioGalaxy, LimeWire, Kazaa, Madster, eDonkey2000, were brought down or changed due to copyright issues. Napster was founded by Sean Parker. Napster was envisioned as an independent peer-to-peer file sharing service by Shawn Fanning; the service operated between June 1999 and July 2001. Its technology allowed people to share their MP3 files with other participants. Although the original service was shut down by court order, the Napster brand survived after the company's assets were liquidated and purchased by other companies through bankruptcy proceedings.
Although there were networks that facilitated the distribution of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Usenet, Napster specialized in MP3 files of music and a user-friendly interface. At its peak the Napster service had about 80 million registered users. Napster made it easy for music enthusiasts to download copies of songs that were otherwise difficult to obtain, such as older songs, unreleased recordings, studio recordings, songs from concert bootleg recordings. Napster paved the way for streaming media services and transformed music into a public good for a brief period of time. High-speed networks in college dormitories became overloaded, with as much as 61% of external network traffic consisting of MP3 file transfers. Many colleges blocked its use for this reason before concerns about liability for facilitating copyright violations on campus; the service and software program began as Windows-only. However, in the year 2000, Black Hole Media wrote. Macster was bought by Napster and designated the official Mac Napster client, at which point the Macster name was discontinued.
Before the acquisition of Macster, the Macintosh community had a variety of independently-developed Napster clients. The most notable was the open source client called MacStar, released by Squirrel Software in early 2000 and Rapster, released by Overcaster Family in Brazil; the release of MacStar's source code paved the way for third-party Napster clients across all computing platforms, giving users advertisement-free music distribution options. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the network before it was released; this led to it being played on several radio stations across the United States and alerted Metallica to the fact that their entire back catalogue of studio material was available. On March 13, 2000, they filed a lawsuit against Napster. A month rapper and producer Dr. Dre, who shared a litigator and legal firm with Metallica, filed a similar lawsuit after Napster refused his written request to remove his works from its service.
Separately, Metallica and Dr. Dre delivered to Napster thousands of usernames of people who they believed were pirating their songs. In March 2001, Napster settled both suits, after being shut down by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in a separate lawsuit from several major record labels. In 2000, Madonna's single "Music" was leaked out onto the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage. Verified Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001. In 2000, the American musical recording company A&M Records along with several other recording companies, through the Recording Industry Association of America, sued Napster on grounds of contributory and vicarious copyright infringement under the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Napster was faced with the following allegations from the music industry: That its users were directly violating the plaintiffs' copyrights; that Napster was responsible for contributory infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights.
That Napster was responsible for vicarious infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights. Napster lost the case in the District Court but appealed to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Although it was clear that Napster could have commercially significant non-infringing uses, the Ninth Circuit upheld the District Court's decision. After, the District Court commanded Napster to keep track of the activities of its network and to restrict access to infringing material when informed of that material's location. Napster wasn't able to comply and thus had to close down its service in July 2001. In 2002, Napster sold its assets to a third party. In a 2018 Rolling Stones article, Kirk Hammett of Metallica upheld the band's opinion that suing Napster was the "right" thing to do. Along with the accusations that Napster was hurting the sales of the record industry, there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster stimulated, rather than hurt, sales; some evidence may have come in July 2000 when tracks from English rock band Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the album's release.
Aitor Esteban Bravo is a Spanish jurist and politician who serves as Member of the Congress of Deputies since 2004. The ideology of Esteban is Basque nationalism, he is a member of the Basque Nationalist Party and serves as the party's Spokesperson in the Congress of Deputies since 2012. Esteban's mother is from the Province of Soria and his father is from the Province of Biscay. Esteban studied in the Corazón de María School of Bilbao and he studied baccalaureate in the Central High School of Bilbao, he studied law in the University of Deusto. He supports the Basque independence but he considers himself as pragmatic. Esteban holds a PhD in Law from the University of Deusto and has been a professor at the same university of the subjects of Constitutional Law and the Institutional System of the Basque Country, Administrative Law and Indigenous History and Culture of North America and Mesoamerica, he is an expert in Native American Culture and a scholar of the native legislation. He is married to a high-ranking member of the Basque Nationalist Party.
They have two children. Esteban joined the Basque Nationalist Party at the age of 16 and in 1983 he was appointed Secretary of the youth branch of the PNV. Two years he was appointed representative of the PNV's General Assembly and in 1991 he was appointed Spokesperson and Secretary of the Presidency of the General Assembly of Biscay. From 1995 to 2003 he was the President of the General Assembly of Biscay. Esteban made the leap to national politics in 2004 when he was elected MP to the Congress of Deputies for Biscay in the 2004 general election, he was re-elected in the general elections of 2008, 2011, 2015, 2016 and 2019. In 2012 he was appointed Spokesperson of the Basque Group in Congress. Media related to Aitor Esteban at Wikimedia Commons
Glenbow Ranch Provincial Park is a provincial park in the Calgary Region of Alberta, Canada. The majority of the park is located on the north bank of the Bow River within Rocky View County. Portions of the eastern and western extremeties of the park are located within the City of Calgary and the Town of Cochrane respectively. Plans to establish Glenbow Ranch Provincial Park began in 2006 when the children of Alberta rancher Neil Harvie sold 3,246 acres of land to the Government of Alberta for less than market value to conserve the land and protect it from development. Appraised at $67 million in 2005 and with an estimated value of $80 million in 2006, the land was sold to the province for $40 million and a $27 million charitable tax receipt. Under the deal, the Harvie family established a $6 million foundation to promote and develop the park and Lois Hole Centennial Provincial Park near Edmonton. Glenbow Ranch was designated as a provincial park by an order in council on April 17, 2008; the designation involved an additional 51 acres of land for a total of 3,297 acres.
The park opened to visitors on August 9, 2011. List of Alberta provincial parks List of Canadian provincial parks List of National Parks of Canada Glenbow Ranch Provincial Park Alberta Parks – Glenbow Ranch Provincial Park Glenbow Ranch Park Foundation
Clayton James Cubitt known as Siege, is an American photographer and writer living in Brooklyn. He is known for applying an "arrestingly controlled and sleek sense of style" to art, portrait and fashion photography, he has been described as "one of a new breed of photographers no longer content to draw a distinction between the worlds of fashion and porn." Cubitt grew up in New Orleans and other parts of the Gulf Coast. He was inspired to explore photography after seeing the photograph "Susie Smoking," shot by Nick Knight for a Yohji Yamamoto ad campaign. Cubitt cites Helmut Newton's photograph "Green Room Murder" as an early inspiration, he moved north after high school settling in Brooklyn in early 2000. From 2004 to 2008, Cubitt published a photography/confessional blog titled "The Daily Siege" at sex/culture online magazine Nerve, it was described by Eyemazing Journal as "one of the best sources of intelligent, open sexuality on the web.” In addition to erotic content, including images and podcasts, the blog featured Cubitt’s writing on a variety of topics, including politics and his creative process.
In 2005, Cubitt collaborated on a generative art fashion series with creative coder Tom Carden. To create the images, Cubitt used software that experimented with attractors; the software was written by Carden using the alpha version of the Processing Programming Language, the images were published in Metropop Magazine. Cubitt is known for "Lagos Calling", an alternate-reality fashion story that reimagined the skinhead fashion movement as a product of late-1960s Lagos, rather than London; the images were presented as a set of resurfaced, faded anthropological portraits. The series was used as stylistic inspiration for the Gnarls Barkley music video for "Going On". Websites have mistakenly published the images as historical reference. Cubitt created a series called "Damaged Doll" that featured pornographic actress Justine Joli in a sexual, high-fashion context. Two of the images were included in a collectible boxed set of fashion artwork. Two different printers refused to print the pieces due to their explicit nature, so the book publishers printed them manually.
However, Barney's New York refused to stock the boxed set due to the inclusion of the two pieces. In 2005, Cubitt traveled to Pearlington, ground zero for Hurricane Katrina, after hearing that his mother's home there had been destroyed. Upon arriving, Cubitt began to document the area's devastation, he set up a photography studio in order to interview and photograph Katrina's survivors and volunteers in Pearlington's former school gymnasium, serving as a distribution point for aid in the town. Cubitt published their stories and images on a blog he created, titled "Operation Eden." For a time, the blog became a central hub for volunteers and people seeking to send relief, citizens who were curious about what the mainstream media wasn't covering. The blog has been described as "a powerful piece of citizen journalism." It was featured on MSNBC, LIFE Magazine, Rolling Stone. Cubitt returned to the area subsequently to photograph survivors in New Orleans, his Katrina portraits were used by ad agency Grey Worldwide, in conjunction with SAMHSA and the Ad Council, to create a series of PSAs urging Katrina survivors to reach out for help.
Cubitt’s celebrity portrait subjects include David Byrne, Peter Murphy, Xeni Jardin, Levon Helm, Shaun Ross, Big Freedia, Justine Joli, Molly Crabapple. Cubitt is credited for discovering underground South African rap-rave group Die Antwoord, subsequently shot their portrait and album cover for the band's debut, $O$. In 2008–2009, Cubitt created a video series of Long Portraits, in which subjects were filmed sitting still for five minutes or more; the Long Portrait format became popular on Vimeo, inspiring many other photographers to create their own versions. In 2012, Cubitt created a video series entitled Hysterical Literature. Shot clinically in black and white, each film shows a dressed woman reading a passage from a book of her choice while brought to orgasm by a vibrator controlled by an unseen assistant under the table; the first installment in the video series featured adult performer Stoya reading Necrophilia Variations by Supervert, has received over twenty-three million views on YouTube as of May 2018.
Subsequent videos feature "friends and industry comrades" like Margaret Cho, Toni Bentley and others reading passages from books including Bret Easton Ellis' American Psycho and Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. In 2016, Cubitt became a vocal supporter of senator Bernie Sanders' presidential campaign. Cubitt interviewed them about what Sanders' candidacy means to them; the images were used by the official Bernie Sanders campaign. Group Shows 2003 SENT: America's First Phonecam Art Show, Los Angeles, CA 2008 Anonymous, New York, NY 2008 u = ____, New York, NY 2009 Talk Dirty to Me, New York, NY 2011 Fashioning Photography, Essex Junction, VT 2012 LEWD, New York, NY Cubitt's site Operation Eden Clayton Cubitt Every Day, Cubitt's tumblelog
"The Ghost of You" is the fourth and final single and sixth track from My Chemical Romance's second studio album, Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge. "The Ghost of You" was released to radio on September 27, 2005. The song deals with the fear of loss; the song's title is an allusion to an ad from Watchmen, reading "Oh, how the ghost of you clings". The ad itself was an allusion to the song, "These Foolish Things"; the song's lyrics deal with losing a loved one. The music video was shot over two days in Malibu and cost over US $1,000,000 to make. Marc Webb directed the video. In an interview with Fuse, My Chemical Romance said "We shot a movie and just edited it to be a video. It's like if you put'Helena' and'I'm Not Okay' together to make one long music video, it still would top that." It parallels the Omaha invasion scene from the movie Saving Private Ryan. Most of the video takes place at a USO dance where the band is performing, but switches over to a D-Day scene, in which the band members play as United States soldiers in fierce combat.
The video takes an emotional turn when bassist Mikey Way is shot and killed by Axis fire despite the medic's attempts to save him, adding emphasis to the aspects of loss in the song. This is foreshadowed in a bar scene where vocalist Gerard Way, his brother, appears to be reassuring him at a bar that he will be alright, that there is no reason to be afraid, he is seen wearing a 1st Infantry Division patch in the video. Mikey "dies" with his eyes open. Gerard is restrained by his squadmates/band members as he sees his brother die, is seen screaming as he tries to run to him; the 1st Infantry Division, the "Big Red One", were among the first wave on Omaha Beach, June 6, 1944. In Life on the Murder Scene, Ray is told to talk to Mikey to look." Obligingly, he shouts "Mikey! You're dead! " All songs written by My Chemical Romance. US promotional CD UK promotional CD UK 7" vinyl UK CD1 UK CD2 iTunes EP Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The 65th Mobil 1 12 Hours of Sebring fueled by Fresh from Florida was an endurance sports car racing event held at Sebring International Raceway near Sebring, Florida from 16–18 March 2017. The race was the second round of the 2017 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, as well as the second round of the North American Endurance Cup; the race was won by Wayne Taylor Racing's Cadillac DPi-V. R driven by Ricky Taylor, Jordan Taylor, Alex Lynn, ahead of Mustang Sampling Racing's Cadillac DPi-V. R and Whelen Engineering Racing's Cadillac DPi-V. R; the PC class winners were Performance Tech Motorsports with drivers James French, Patricio O'Ward, Kyle Masson driving an Oreca FLM09. Corvette Racing won the GTLM class for the third straight year with Antonio García, Jan Magnussen, Mike Rockenfeller taking the win in their Chevrolet Corvette C7. R; the GTD category was won by Riley Motorsports - WeatherTech Racing's Ben Keating, Jeroen Bleekemolen, Mario Farnbacher in a Mercedes-AMG GT3. Class winners are denoted in bold.