Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a service announcement.
Advertising may be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful, in 2015, the world spent an estimate of US$592.43 billion on advertising. Its projected distribution for 2017 is 40. 4% on TV,33. 3% on digital, the largest advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Publicis, and WPP. In Latin, ad vertere means to turn toward, egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell candy, advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons, the first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in Les Crieries de Paris, a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in newspapers in England. However, false advertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, thomas J. Barratt from London has been called the father of modern advertising. Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an advertising campaign for the company products. One of his slogans, Good morning, have you used Pears soap. was famous in its day and into the 20th century. Barratt introduced many of the ideas that lie behind successful advertising
Cult of personality
Sociologist Max Weber developed a tripartite classification of authority, the cult of personality holds parallels with what Weber defined as charismatic authority. A cult of personality is similar to divinization, except that it is established by media and propaganda usually by the state. The term cult of personality probably appeared in English around 1800–1850, along with the French, at first it had no political connotations but was instead closely related to the Romantic cult of genius. The political use of the phrase came first in a letter from Karl Marx to German political worker, Wilhelm Blos,10 November 1877, robert Service notes that a more accurate translation of the Russian культ личности is the cult of the individual. Throughout history and other heads of state were almost always held in enormous reverence, through the principle of the divine right of kings, in medieval Europe for example, rulers were said to hold office by the will of God. Ancient Egypt, the Inca, the Aztecs, Siam, the spread of democratic and secular ideas in Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries made it increasingly difficult for monarchs to preserve this aura.
It was from these circumstances in the 20th century that the personality cults arose. Often these cults are a form of political religion, personality cults were first described in relation to Totalitarianism regimes that sought to alter or transform society according to radical ideas. Not all dictatorships foster personality cults, while not all personality cults are practiced in dictatorships, for example, during the Cambodian Khmer Rouge regime, images of dictator Pol Pot were rarely seen in public, and his identity was under dispute abroad until after his fall from power. The same applied to numerous Eastern European communist regimes following World War II
A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes, John Milton Yinger originated the term contraculture in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture and it became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to counterculture, mainstream culture is of course difficult to define, and in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose mass culture, or middle-class culture and values, Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values.
Counterculture may or may not be explicitly political and it typically involves criticism or rejection of currently powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on party politics or authoritarianism, typically, a fringe culture expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak, go into decline, leaving an impact on mainstream cultural values. Their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance, during the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States. The cultural shadows left by the Romantics, Beats, the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, and sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham.
Some genres tend to challenge societies with their content that is meant to question the norms within cultures. More often than not, sources of these controversies can be found in art such as Marcel Duchamp whose piece Fountain was meant to be an attack on the most basic conventions of art in 1917. Instead of being a topic to fear, they have initiated subtle trends that other artists, in order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. At the outset of the 20th century, homosexual acts were punishable offenses in these countries, the prevailing public attitude was that homosexuality was a moral failing that should be punished, as exemplified by Oscar Wildes 1895 trial and imprisonment for gross indecency. But even then, there were dissenting views, according to Charles Kaisers The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States. There were bars and bathhouses that catered to gay clientele, but homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself
When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form, Radio systems need a transmitter to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation. Radio systems need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, an antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected, the electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, a radio communication system sends signals by radio. The term radio is derived from the Latin word radius, meaning spoke of a wheel, beam of light, this invention would not be widely adopted. The switch to radio in place of wireless took place slowly and unevenly in the English-speaking world, the United States Navy would play a role.
Although its translation of the 1906 Berlin Convention used the terms wireless telegraph and wireless telegram, the term started to become preferred by the general public in the 1920s with the introduction of broadcasting. Radio systems used for communication have the following elements, with more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialised for different communications purposes. Each system contains a transmitter, This consists of a source of electrical energy, the transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle such as amplitude, phase. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker. It was the used for the first audio radio transmissions.
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. FM has the capture effect whereby a receiver only receives the strongest signal, Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at Very high frequency radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music, analog TV sound is broadcast using FM. Angle modulation alters the phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal
The purpose of a boycott is to inflict some economic loss on the target, or to indicate a moral outrage, to try to compel the target to alter an objectionable behavior. Sometimes, a boycott can be a form of consumer activism, when a similar practice is legislated by a national government, it is known as a sanction. As harvests had been poor that year, Lord Erne offered his tenants a ten percent reduction in their rents, in September of that year, protesting tenants demanded a twenty five percent reduction, which Lord Erne refused. Boycott attempted to evict eleven tenants from the land, while Parnells speech did not refer to land agents or landlords, the tactic was first applied to Boycott when the alarm was raised about the evictions. Despite the short-term economic hardship to those undertaking this action, Boycott soon found himself isolated – his workers stopped work in the fields and stables, local businessmen stopped trading with him, and the local postman refused to deliver mail. The concerted action taken against him meant that Boycott was unable to hire anyone to harvest the crops in his charge, eventually 50 Orangemen from Cavan and Monaghan volunteered to do the work.
This protection ended up costing far more than the harvest was worth, after the harvest, the boycott was successfully continued. Within weeks Boycotts name was everywhere, the New York Tribune reporter, James Redpath, first wrote of the boycott in the international press. The Irish author, George Moore, Like a comet the verb boycott appeared and it was used by The Times in November 1880 as a term for organized isolation. According to an account in the book The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland by Michael Davitt, john OMalley of County Mayo to signify ostracism applied to a landlord or agent like Boycott. The Times first reported on November 20,1880, The people of New Pallas have resolved to boycott them, the Daily News wrote on December 13,1880, Already the stoutest-hearted are yielding on every side to the dread of being Boycotted. By January of the year, the word was being used figuratively. She Boycotted London from Kew to Mile End, girlcott is a portmanteau of girl and boycott intended to focus on the rights or actions of women.
The term was coined in 1968 by American track star Lacey ONeal during the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, speaking for black women athletes, she advised that the group would not girlcott the Olympic Games, because female athletes were still focused on being recognized. It appeared in Time magazine in 1970, and was used by retired tennis player Billie Jean King in reference to Wimbledon. The term girlcott was revived in 2005 by women in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania protesting what they said were sexist, during the 1973 oil crisis, the Arab countries enacted a crude oil embargo against the West. The first Olympic boycott was in the 1956 Summer Olympics with several countries boycotting the games for different reasons, iran has an informal Olympic boycott against participating against Israel, and Iranian athletes typically bow out or claim injuries when pitted against Israelis. A boycott is typically a one-time affair intended to correct a single wrong. g
Corporate media is a term which refers to a system of mass media production, distribution and funding which is dominated by corporations and their CEOs. It is sometimes used as a term in place of mainstream media. The common misinterpretation of this model is that all bias is conscious, due to the desire to reduce operation costs, the mainstream media favor news pieces that are pre-made by these news agencies instead of conducting their own reporting. Perhaps the most infamous current example of the impact of the model on world events. These false statements were virtually uncontested by the media and presented as a sound rationale for both the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the War on Terror. The result was the manufacturing of consent for the invasion of Iraq, as an example, Jessica Yellin on Anderson Cooper 360 admitted being pressured by corporate executives to present positive stories during the run up to the Iraq war. ANDERSON COOPER360 Transcript of Jessica Yellin reporting, COOPER, the liberal media -- in quotes -- didnt live up to its reputation.
If it had, the country would have better served. Dan Bartlett, former Bush adviser, called the allegation total crap, did the press corps drop the ball. JESSICA YELLIN, CNN CONGRESSIONAL CORRESPONDENT, I wouldnt go that far, I think the press corps dropped the ball at the beginning. COOPER, You had pressure from executives to put on positive stories about the president. YELLIN, Not in that exact—they wouldnt say it in that way and they would push me in different directions. They would turn down stories that were critical and try to put on pieces that were more positive. Studies show that those who rely on the media for their information have an understanding of the issues and are unable to discern misrepresentations in political advertising. Other factors include the cost of litigation, large corporations tend to sue over any news that are against their interests, causing great expense for the news editors. Even if the litigation is lost, the cost of time, to illustrate the growing problem of monocracy, Bagdikian notes that in the 1980s, less than 1 percent of all corporations, have 87 percent of all sales.
Are the aristocrats of the American Industrial economy, the remaining 359,500 and this conflict continues to arise as dominant media companies are further into the ruling forces of the economy. The directorates of major companies interlock with others and control the content of multiple dominating media and they become directly influenced by still other powerful industry, creating the Endless Chain of mass media and economic aristocracy
Robert K. Merton
Robert King Merton was an American sociologist. He spent most of his teaching at Columbia University, where he attained the rank of University Professor. In 1994 he was awarded the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the field and he is considered a founding father of modern sociology. Merton developed notable concepts such as unintended consequences, the group, and role strain. Mertons work on the model first appeared in a study on the socialization of medical students at Columbia University. The term grew from his theory of the group, the group to which individuals compare themselves. Social roles were central to Mertons theory of social groups, Merton emphasized that, rather than a person assuming one role and one status, they have a status set in the social structure that has, attached to it, a whole set of expected behaviors. Robert K. Merton was born on 4 July 1910 in Philadelphia as Meyer Robert Schkolnick into a family of Yiddish-speaking Russian Jews who had immigrated to the United States in 1904 and his mother was Ida Rasovskaya, an unsynagogued socialist who had freethinking radical sympathies.
His father was Aaron Schkolnickoff, a tailor who had officially registered at his United States port of entry as Harrie Skolnick. Mertons family lived in straitened circumstances after his father’s uninsured dairy-product shop in South Philadelphia burned down, the father became a carpenter’s assistant to support the family. Even though Merton grew up poor, however, he believed that he had been afforded many opportunities. He adopted the name Robert K. Merton initially as a name for his magic performances. Young Merton developed a strong interest in magic, heavily influenced by his sister’s boyfriend, for his magic acts he initially chose the stage name “Merlin”, but he eventually settled on the surname “Merton” in order to further Americanize his immigrant-family name. He picked the given name Robert in honor of the 19th-century French magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, thus his stage name became Robert Merton, and he kept it as his personal name on receiving a scholarship to Temple University.
He started his career under the guidance of George E. Simpson at Philadelphias Temple University. Mertons work as Simpsons research assistant on a project dealing with race, under Simpsons leadership, Merton attended an American Sociological Association annual meeting where he met Pitrim A. Sorokin, the founding chair of the Harvard University Sociology Department. Merton applied to Harvard and went to work as an assistant to Sorokin. Many had doubted that Merton would be accepted into Harvard after graduating from Temple, after completing these, Merton went on to graduate from Harvard with an M. A. and Ph. D. in sociology
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The term narcotic originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States, it has become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin. The primary three are morphine and thebaine, legally speaking, the term narcotic is imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations. When used in a context in the U. S. a narcotic drug is simply one that is totally prohibited, or one that is used in violation of governmental regulation. In the medical community, the term is more precisely defined, statutory classification of a drug as a narcotic often increases the penalties for violation of drug control statutes. The adoption of this Convention is regarded as a milestone in the history of drug law. The Convention established the International Narcotics Control Board, merging the Permanent Central Board, the 1961 Convention seeks to control more than 116 drugs that it classifies as narcotic. These include, plant-based products such as opium and its derivatives morphine and heroin, synthetic narcotics such as methadone and pethidine, and cannabis and cocaine.
The Convention divides drugs into four groups, or schedules, in order to enforce a greater or lesser degree of control for the various substances, opium smoking and eating, coca leaf chewing, cannabis resin smoking and the non-medical use of cannabis are prohibited. In medicine, an agent that induces stupor, coma. In the context of drug control, “narcotic drug” means any drug defined as such under the 1961 Convention. In doing so, they approach the term from the law enforcement point of view, the best example is the definition of narcotics in the United Nations Conventions. Narcotics are substances and preparations that induce drowsiness, stupor, etc. thus, the legal definition of a narcotic is whether or not it is listed on the Schedules of the Convention. If it is on some of the Schedules, it is narcotic, the term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In common parlance and legal usage, it is often used imprecisely to mean illicit drugs, for example, narcotics control legislation in Canada, USA, and certain other countries includes cocaine and cannabis as well as opioids.
Because of this variation in usage, the term is best replaced by one with a specific meaning. Such term does not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium, poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw. Coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as the father of modern linguistics, Chomsky is a figure in analytic philosophy. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism, born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. At the age of sixteen he began studies at the University of Pennsylvania, taking courses in linguistics and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955 he was appointed to Harvard Universitys Society of Fellows and he is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. Chomsky played a role in the decline of behaviorism. Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism, while expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he became involved in the Linguistics Wars.
In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky co-wrote an analysis articulating the propaganda model of media criticism, his defense of unconditional freedom of speech—including for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. Following his retirement from teaching, he has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror. One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced an array of academic fields. Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7,1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia and his father was William Zev Chomsky, an Ashkenazi Jew originally from Ukraine who had fled to the United States in 1913. Chomskys mother was the Belarusian-born Elsie Simonofsky, a teacher and activist whom William had met while working at Mikveh Israel, Noam was the Chomsky familys first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was five years later. The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive, as a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.
He was substantially influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He described his discovery of anarchism as an accident, because it allowed him to become critical of other far-left ideologies, namely Stalinism. Chomskys primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere. It was here, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, from the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. User-generated content, such as posts or comments, digital photos or videos. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the media organization. Social media facilitate the development of social networks by connecting a users profile with those of other individuals or groups. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses, organizations and individuals, Social media changes the way individuals and large organizations communicate. These changes are the focus of the field of technoself studies. In America, a reported that 84 percent of adolescents in America have a Facebook account. Over 60% of 13 to 17-year-olds have at least one profile on social media, according to Nielsen, Internet users continue to spend more time on social media sites than on any other type of site.
For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building a reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income. Social media differ from paper-based or traditional media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, immediacy. Social media operate in a Dialogic transmission system and this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a paper newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers. Some of the most popular social media websites are Baidu Tieba, Gab, Google+, LinkedIn, Reddit, Tumblr, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp, and YouTube. These social media websites have more than 100,000,000 registered users, observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment.
Currently, about half of adults have been cyberbullied and of those,20 percent said that they have been cyberbullied on a regular basis. Another survey was carried out among 7th grade students in America which is known as the Precaution Process Adoption Model, according to this study,69 percent of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying and they said that it is worse than face to face bullying. The variety and evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services introduces a challenge of definition, the terminology is unclear, with some referring to social media as social networks. A2015 paper reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to then-current social media services, in 2016, Merriam-Webster defined social media as Forms of electronic communication through which people create online communities to share information, personal messages, etc