Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Booligal /ˈbuːlɪɡəl/ is a village in the Riverina area of western New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the Cobb Highway, on the Lachlan River north of Hay, Booligal is a part of Hay Shire local government area. The name of the village is an Anglicised corruption of an Aboriginal word meaning either place, or large swamp. Booligal is situated on the boundary of the Muthi Muthi. The site where Booligal township developed was originally a crossing-place on the Lachlan River on the Boolegal pastoral run, the township developed on the opposite side of the river to Boolegal station. The builder Edward Roset and his family were living at the locality by about 1856, Edward Roset constructed a hotel at Booligal, which probably operated initially as a sly-grog shop. In 1859 Robert Whiteus was operating a punt at the locality, the township of Booligal was laid out by Surveyor Edward Twynam and gazetted as a township in July 1860. In December 1860 it was reported that a store and two public-houses were being erected in the new township, licences for the two hotels were initially refused by the Bench of Magistrates at Hay on account of there being no police belonging to the locality.
On appeal however the applications for licences at Booligal were granted, neil McColl became the licensee of the Drovers Arms Hotel and John Ledwidge was granted a licence for the Booligal Hotel. On 31 January 1861 – the first red letter day at this new township on the Lower Lachlan – both hotels were opened to the public, in March 1861 the Adelaide firm of Randell and Scott opened at store at Booligal. The manager, Thomas Hitchcox, was briefly postmaster, Booligal Post Office opened on 7 March 1861. In August 1862 it was reported that both hotels at Booligal were closed and the two publicans were insolvent, hitchcock resigned as storekeeper to take over the licence of the Booligal Hotel. Another Adelaide firm and Pollard, opened a store at Booligal by 1863, managed by Henry N. Smith. During 1871-2 Edward Roset had a bridge built over the Lachlan River at Booligal, the bridge, which still remains at the lower end of Lachlan Street, was built above flood level and flanked by extensive banked-up approaches.
The school-house and parsonage were new buildings, still incomplete, at that stage the population of Booligal was over 100 persons. In 1878 the telegraph line was extended to Booligal, booligal’s position on the direct transport route linking the Murrumbidgee and Darling rivers ensured its importance in the district during the latter half of the 19th century. Drays hauling wool from stations north of the Lachlan passed through the township in large numbers, Booligal was a major stopping-place for the mail and passenger coach travelling between Hay and Wilcannia on the Darling River. In 1890 Booligal had a population of about 500 people, a new public bridge was built at Booligal in 1912
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
The Muthi Muthi people are an Aboriginal group of the Kulin Nation whose traditional lands are located in the Northern Riverina and Far West regions of New South Wales. Clans of the Muthi Muthi include the Yita Yita, Kunji Kunji, Tati Tati, the Muthi Muthi are the traditional owners of Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee as well as the Willandra Lakes, Lake Mungo and the Lake Mungo remains. The Muthi Muthi are associated with the lands of the far western region of New South Wales, the Mutthi Mutthi tribal lands were a meeting place of many tribes for ceremonies and marriages. The Muthi Muthi lands are referred to as the Five Rivers Region of Australia. The rivers are the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee, the Nari Nari/Wathi Wathi boundary to the east has not been formally marked out but the Nari Nari Tribal Council refer to Dry Lake as being the western most reach of their lands. Archaeological investigation has confirmed a tribal boundary in this location as this is the last known location of Muthi Muthi burial mounds.
Muthi Muthi lands include the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area, Mungo National Park, Yanga National Park, Booligal National Park, Nimmie Caira and the Lowbidgee Conservation Area. Tindale notes that the Muthimuthi traditional lands were On Murrumbidgee River at Balranald, southwest to Murray River, west to near Lake Benanee, at Reedy Lake, north to west of Carrawathal. There are 64 variations of the spelling of the tribal name Mutthi Mutthi in common literature so far in that describes the people, the tribal names may be double-barrelled, hyphenated or singular depending on the reference document. The most common spellings being Muthi Muthi or Mutti Mutti in archaeological references, Mathimathi in linguistical reference, other common spelling variations in historical literature include Maadi, Madhi Madhi, Muttu Muttu and Mataua. Within the native title claim group there is a preference for the spelling Muthi Muthi or Mutthi Mutthi, there are references to Matuara and Maruara. In 1997 a claim for native title was made for an area in the south of New South Wales, as of 2016 a native title claim is before the Federal Court of Australia.
Kutcha Edwards, musician Mungo Man and Mungo Lady
Aboriginal History is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published as an open access journal by Aboriginal History Inc. The Journal has been described as, a flagship of the field of Australian Aboriginal history. The journals scope includes the areas of Australian Indigenous history and oral histories, biographies, bibliographic guides, a focus on cultural and economic history is complemented by critiques of current events of relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and society. The journal is co-published by ANU Press, an open access academic publisher located at the Australian National University in Canberra, the journal is fully accessible online from the ANU Press website. Aboriginal History Inc. the journals publisher, publishes monographs on a range of topics in Aboriginal. Since 2006 the monographs have been available through the website of open access co-publisher, official website Open access to journal through co-publisher ANU Press Open access to monographs through co-publisher ANU Press
In the 21st century, major Wiradjuri groups live in Condobolin, Peak Hill and Griffith. There are significant populations at Wagga Wagga and Leeton and smaller groups at West Wyalong, Dubbo, Cootamundra, the Wiradjuri name for themselves is Wirraaydhuurray or Wirraayjuurray. This is derived from wirraay, meaning no or not, with the suffix -dhuurray or -juuray meaning having, the Wiradjuri are the largest Aboriginal group in New South Wales. They occupy an area in central New South Wales, from the Blue Mountains in the east, to Hay in the west, north to Nyngan and south to Albury. The Wiradjuri tribal area has been described as the land of the three rivers, the Wambool known as the Macquarie, the Kalare known as the Lachlan, the Murray River forms the Wiradjuris southern boundary, the change from woodland to open grassland form their eastern boundary. Occupation of the land by the Wiradjuri can be seen by carved trees, carved trees are more commonly found around the Macquarie and Lachlan rivers in the north rather than the Murrumbidgee in the south.
Campsites, which indicate regular seasonal occupation by small groups, have found on river flats, open land. Norman Tindale quotes Alfred Howitt as mentioning several of these groups of the tribe, for example. There were differences in dialect in areas, including around Bathurst. The Wiradjuri are identified as a coherent group as they maintained a cycle of ceremonies that moved in a ring around the tribal area. This cycle led to tribal coherence despite the large occupied area, the Wiradjuri diet included yabbies and fish such as Murray cod from the rivers. In dry seasons, they ate kangaroos and food gathered from the land, including fruit, yam daisies, wattle seeds, the Wiradjuri travelled into Alpine areas in the summer to feast on Bogong moths. The Wiradjuri were known for their handsome possum-skin cloaks stitched together from several possum furs, governor Macquarie was presented with one of these cloaks by a Wiradjuri man when he visited Bathurst in 1815. D. Who has previously studied Australian Aboriginal languages in Arnhem Land and it is a member of the small Wiradhuric branch of the Pama–Nyungan family.
It is now taught in primary schools and can be studied at TAFE. One student says I love singing the songs like Heads, the copyright for A First Wiradjuri Dictionary is held by the Wiradjuri Council of Elders. The name of the town of Wagga Wagga comes from the Wiradjuri word wagga, meaning crow, to create the plural, the name translates as the place of many crows. Clashes between European settlers and the Aboriginal Peoples were very violent from 1821 to 1827, particularly around Bathurst, the loss of fishing grounds and significant sites was retaliated through attacks with spears on cattle and stockmen
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Booroorban is a locality in the central part of the Riverina. It is in the Edward River Council local government area and on the Cobb Highway between Hay and Deniliquin, around 769 kilometres south west of the capital, Sydney. The community sits alongside the Booroorban State Forest, facilities include a pub—the Royal Mail Hotel—and a public hall. Booroorban Post Office opened on 16 September 1881 and closed in 1986, media related to Booroorban, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons