A diadem is a type of crown an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. The word derives from the Greek διάδημα diádēma, "band" or "fillet", from διαδέω diadéō, "I bind round", or "I fasten"; the term referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. Such ribbons were used to crown victorious athletes in important sports games in antiquity, it was applied to a metal crown in a circular or "fillet" shape. For example, the crown worn by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands was a diadem, as was that of a baron later; the ancient Celts were believed to have used a semioval gold plate called a mind as a diadem. Some of the earliest examples of these types of crowns can be found in ancient Egypt, from the simple fabric type to the more elaborate metallic type, in the Aegean world. A diadem is a jewelled ornament in the shape of a half crown, worn by women and placed over the forehead.
In some societies, it may be a wreath worn around the head. The ancient Persians wore a erect royal tiara encircled with a diadem. Hera, queen of the Greek gods, wore; the Priest king of the Indus Valley Civilization wore what is the oldest example of a Diadem approx. 3000BC. By extension, "diadem" can be used for an emblem of regal power or dignity; the head regalia worn by Roman Emperors, from the time of Diocletian onwards, is described as a diadem in the original sources. It was this object that the Foederatus general Odoacer returned to Emperor Zeno after his expulsion of the usurper Romulus Augustus from Rome in 476 AD. Civic crown Fillet Tainia Tiara Diadem. Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Diadem Everything2.com
Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the "horned god" of Celtic polytheism. Cernunnos was a Celtic god of fertility, animals and the underworld; the name itself is only attested once, on the 1st-century Pillar of the Boatmen, but he appears all over Gaul, among the Celtiberians. Cernunnos is depicted with the antlers of a stag, seated cross-legged, associated with animals, holding or wearing torcs; this deity is known from over 50 examples in the Gallo-Roman period in north-eastern Gaul. Not much is known about the god from literary sources, details about his name, his followers or his significance in Celtic religion are unknown. Speculative interpretations identify him as a god of life or fertility; the theonym ernunnos appears on the Pillar of the Boatmen, a Gallo-Roman monument dating to the early 1st century CE, to label a god depicted with stag's antlers in their early stage of annual growth. Both antlers have torcs hanging from them; the name has been compared to a divine epithet Carnonos in a Celtic inscription written in Greek characters at Montagnac, Hérault.
A Gallo-Latin adjective carnuātus, "horned," is found. The Proto-Celtic form of the theonym is reconstructed as either *Cerno-on-os or *Carno-on-os; the augmentative -on- is characteristic of theonyms, as in Maponos, Epona and Sirona. Maier states. Gaulish karnon "horn"is cognate with Latin cornu and Germanic *hurnaz, English horn from Proto-Indo-European *k̑r̥no-; the etymon karn- "horn" appears in both Gaulish and Galatian branches of Continental Celtic. Hesychius of Alexandria glosses the Galatian word karnon as "Gallic trumpet", that is, the Celtic military horn listed as the carnyx by Eustathius of Thessalonica, who notes the instrument's animal-shaped bell; the root appears in the names of Celtic polities, most prominent among them the Carnutes, meaning something like "the Horned Ones," and in several personal names found in inscriptions. The name Cernunnos occurs only on the "Pillar of the Boatmen", now displayed in the Musée National du Moyen Age in Paris. Constructed by Gaulish sailors in 14 CE, it was discovered in 1710 within the foundations of the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, site of ancient Lutetia, the civitas capital of the Celtic Parisii.
The distinctive stone pillar is an important monument of Gallo-Roman religion. Its low reliefs depict and label by name several Roman deities such as Jupiter and Castor and Pollux, along with Gallic deities such as Esus and Tarvos Trigaranus; the name Cernunnos can be read on 18th century drawings of the inscriptions, but the initial letter has been obscured since, so that today only a reading ernunnos can be verifiedAdditional evidence is given by one inscription on a metal plaque from Steinsel-Rëlent in Luxembourg, in the territory of the Celtic Treveri. This inscription read; the Gaulish inscription from Montagnac reads αλλετνος καρνονου αλσοεας, with the last word a place name based on Alisia, "service-tree" or "rock". The god labelled ernunnos on the Pillar of the Boatmen is depicted with stag's antlers in their early stage of annual growth. Both antlers have torcs hanging from them; the lower part of the relief is lost, but the dimensions suggest that the god was sitting cross-legged, providing a direct parallel to the antlered figure on the Gundestrup cauldron.
In spite of the name Cernunnos being attested nowhere else, it is used in Celtological literature as describing all comparable depictions of horned/antlered deities. This "Cernunnos" type in Celtic iconography is portrayed with animals, in particular the stag, frequently associated with the ram-horned serpent, less bulls and rats; because of his frequent association with creatures, scholars describe Cernunnos as the "Lord of the Animals" or the "Lord of Wild Things", Miranda Green describes him as a "peaceful god of nature and fruitfulness". The Pilier des nautes links him with sailors and with commerce, suggesting that he was associated with material wealth as does the coin pouch from the Cernunnos of Rheims —in antiquity, the civitas capital of the Remi tribe—and the stag vomiting coins from Niedercorn-Turbelslach in the lands of the Treveri; the god may have symbolized the fecundity of the stag-inhabited forest. Other examples of "Cernunnos" images include a petroglyph in Val Camonica in Cisalpine Gaul.
The antlered human figure has been dated as late as the 4th. An antlered child appears on a relief from Vendeuvres, flanked by serpents and holding a purse and a torc; the best known image appears on the Gundestrup cauldron found on Jutland, dating to the 1st century BCE, thought to depict Celtic subject matter though regarded as of Thracian workmanship. Among the Celtiberians, horned or antlered figures of the Cernunnos type include a "Janus-like" god from Candelario with two faces and two small horns; the horns are taken to represent "aggressive power, genetic vigor and fecundity."Divine representations of the Cernunnos type are exceptions to the often-expressed view that the Celts only began to picture their gods in human form after the Roman conquest of Gaul. Th
In Celtic mythology Taranis is the god of thunder, worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland but in the Rhineland and Danube regions, amongst others. Taranis, along with Esus and Toutatis as part of a sacred triad, was mentioned by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia as a Celtic deity to whom human sacrificial offerings were made. Taranis was associated, with the wheel. Many representations of a bearded god with a thunderbolt in one hand and a wheel in the other have been recovered from Gaul, where this deity came to be syncretised with Jupiter; the name as recorded by Lucan is unattested epigraphically, but variants of the name include the forms Tanarus, Taranucno-, Taranuo-, Taraino-. The name is continued in Irish as Tuireann, is connected with those of Germanic, Lithuanian and Sami gods of thunder. Taranis is associated with the Gallic Ambisagrus, in the interpretatio romana with Jupiter; the reconstructed Proto-Celtic form of the name is *Toranos "thunder". In present-day Welsh taranu and taran means'to thunder' and'thunder'.
Taranis, as a personification of thunder, is identified with similar deities found in other Indo-European pantheons. Of these, Old Norse Þórr, Anglo-Saxon Þunor, Old High German Donar—all from Proto-Germanic *þunraz —and the Hittite theonym Tarhun contain a comparable *torun- element; the Thracian deity names Zbel-thurdos, Zbel-Thiurdos contain this element. The name of the Sami thunder god Horagalles derives from Thor's; the wheel, more the chariot wheel with six or eight spokes, was an important symbol in historical Celtic polytheism associated with a specific god, known as the wheel-god, identified as the sky- sun- or thunder-god, whose name is attested as Taranis by Lucan. Numerous Celtic coins depict such a wheel; the half-wheel shown in the Gundestrup "broken wheel" panel has eight visible spokes. Symbolic votive wheels were offered at shrines, cast in rivers, buried in tombs or worn as amulets since the Middle Bronze Age; such "wheel pendants" from the Bronze Age had four spokes, are identified as solar symbols or "sun cross".
Artefacts parallel to the Celtic votive wheels or wheel-pendants are the so-called Zierscheiben in a Germanic context. The identification of the Sun with a wheel, or a chariot, has parallels in Germanic and Vedic mythology. In 2013 a British combat drone system developed by defence contractor BAE Systems was named Taranis in reference to the Celtic god. Taranis and Toutatis are mentioned by characters of the Asterix and Obelix cartoon series. Delbáeth Fontes Tamarici Perkūnas Indra Perun Thor Tuireann Ellis, Peter Berresford, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press,: ISBN 0-19-508961-8 MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1. Wood, The Celts: Life and Art, Thorsons Publishers: ISBN 0-00-764059-5 Celtic Gods and Associates Images of Taranis Celtic Gods Doran, Michael. "Marvel Teaser: The NEW God of Thunder? ". Newsarama
Artio was a Celtic bear goddess. Evidence of her worship has notably been found at Bern, her name is derived from the Gaulish word for artos. A bronze sculpture from the Muri statuette group, found near Bern in Switzerland, shows a large bear facing a woman seated in a chair, with a small tree behind the bear; the woman seems to hold fruit in her lap feeding the bear.. The sculpture has a large rectangular bronze base, which bears the inscription "Deae Artioni / Licinia Sabinilla". If the name is Gaulish but the syntax is Latin, a dative Artioni would give an i-stem nominative *Artionis or an n-stem nominative *Artio; that would correspond to a Gaulish n-stem nominative *Artiu. Other inscription to the goddess have been discovered in Daun, Weilerbach and Stockstadt, her name is derived from the Gaulish word artos, from Proto-Celtic *arto-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos, bear. A Celtic word may be the source for the name Arthur. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum vol XIII, Inscriptiones trium Galliarum et Germaniarum Delamarre, X..
Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6 Deyts, Simone Images des Dieux de la Gaule. Paris: Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-067-5. Green, Miranda Animals in Celtic Life and Myth. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18588-2 Wightman, E. M. Roman Trier and the Treveri London: Hart-Davis. ISBN 0-246-63980-6 The dictionary definition of Artio at Wiktionary Media related to Artio at Wikimedia Commons
In Gallo-Roman religion, Rosmerta was a goddess of fertility and abundance, her attributes being those of plenty such as the cornucopia. Rosmerta is attested by statues, by inscriptions. In Gaul she was depicted with the Roman god Mercury as her consort, but is sometimes found independently. A relief from Autun, shows Mercury seated together as a divine couple, she holds a cornucopia, with Mercury holding a patera at her left side. A bas-relief from Eisenberg shows the couple in the same relative positions, with Rosmerta securely identified by the inscription. Rosmerta holds a patera in her left. In a pair of statues from Paris depicting the couple, Rosmerta holds a cornucopia and a basket of fruits. Rosmerta is shown by herself on a bronze statue from Fins d'Annency, where she sits on a rock holding a purse and, unusually bears the wings of Mercury on her head. A stone bas-relief from Escolives-Sainte-Camille shows her holding both a cornucopia. Twenty-seven inscriptions to Rosmerta are listed by Jufer and Luginbühl, distributed in France and Luxembourg, corresponding to the Roman provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Superior.
An additional two inscriptions are known, one from Roman Dacia. An inscription from Metz is a dedication to Rosmerta jointly. Another from Eisenberg was made by a decurion in fulfillment of a vow to the couple jointly. In two inscriptions both from Gallia Belgica, Rosmerta is given sacred. A lengthier inscription from Wasserbillig in Gallia Belgica associates the divine couple with the dedication of a shrine, with "hospitable" rites to be celebrated; the name Rosmerta is Gaulish, is analysed as ro-smert-a. Smert means "provider" or "carer" and is found in other Gaulish names such as Ad-smerio, Smertu-litani, Smertae and others. Ro - is "most" as found in Ro-bili or Ro-cabalus; the -a ending is the typical Gaulish feminine singular nominative. The meaning is thus "the Great Provider". Dalheim Visucia Maia Année Epigraphique volumes 1967, 1987, 1998 Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, volume 13, Tres Galliae Delamarre, X.. Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise. 2nd edition. Paris, Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6 Deyts, S. Images des dieux de la gaule.
Paris, Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-067-5 Jufer, N. and T. Luginbühl Répertoire des dieux gaulois. Paris, Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-200-7
Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon. His name is directly attested in inscriptions, but his importance can be inferred from place names and ethnonyms, his nature and attributes are deduced from the distinctive iconography of Gallo-Roman inscriptions to Mercury, believed to have been identified with Lugus, from the quasi-mythological narratives involving his cognates, Welsh Lleu Llaw Gyffes and Irish Lugh Lámhfhada; the exact etymology of Lugus is unknown and contested. The Proto-Celtic root of the name, *lug-, is believed to have been derived from one of several different Proto-Indo-European roots, such as *leug- "black", *leuǵ- "to break", *leugʰ- "to swear an oath", It was once thought that the root may be derived from Proto-Indo-European *leuk- "to shine", but there are difficulties with this etymology and few modern scholars accept it as being possible; the god Lugus is mentioned in a Celtiberian inscription from Peñalba de Villastar in Spain, which reads: ENI OROSEI VTA TICINO TIATVNEI TRECAIAS TO LVGVEI ARAIANOM COMEIMV ENI OROSEI EQVEISVIQVE OGRIS OLOCAS TOGIAS SISTAT LVGVEI TIASO TOGIASThe exact interpretation of the inscription is debated, but the phrase "to Luguei" indicates a dedication to the god Lugus.
Additionally, the name is attested several times in the plural, for example: nominative plural Lugoues in a single-word inscription from Avenches and dative plural in a well known Latin inscription from Uxama, Spain: Lugovibus sacrum L. L Urcico collegio sutorum d d"L. L. Urcico dedicated this, sacred to the Lugoves, to the guild of shoemakers" The plural form of the theonym is found in the following Latin inscriptions: Lugo, Spain: Luc Gudarovis Vale Cle. V L SOuteiro de Rei, Galicia, Spain: Lucoubu Arquieni Silonius Silo ex votoSober, Galicia, Spain: Lucubo Arquienob C Iulius Hispanus V L S MNemausus, France: Rufina Lucubus v s l mThe majority of the known inscriptions dedicated to Lugus come from the Iberian Peninsula indicating this deity's particular importance and popularity among the Iberian Celts. An inscribed lead plate found in Chamalières in France includes the phrase luge dessummiíis, tentatively interpreted by some scholars as "I prepare them for Lugus", though it may mean "I swear with/by my right".
His name was commemorated in numerous place-names, such as Lugdunum, capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. Other such place-names include Lugdunum Luguvalium, it is possible that Lucus Augusti is derived from the theonym Lugus, but Lucus in that place may in fact be purely Latin. Other places which are named after him include: Loudun and Montluçon in France. Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico identified six gods worshipped in Gaul, by the usual conventions of interpretatio romana giving the names of their nearest Roman equivalents rather than their Gaulish names, he said that "Mercury" was the god most revered in Gaul, describing him as patron of trade and commerce, protector of travellers, the inventor of all the arts. The Irish god Lug bore the epithet samildánach, which has led to the widespread identification of Caesar's Mercury as Lugus. Mercury's importance is supported by the more than 400 inscriptions referencing him in Roman Gaul and Britain; such a blanket identification is optimistic – Jan de Vries demonstrates the unreliability of any one-to-one concordance in the interpretatio romana – but the available parallels are worth considering.
The iconography of Gaulish Mercury includes birds ravens and the cock, now the emblem of France. He is armed with a spear, he is accompanied by his consort Rosmerta, who bears the ritual drink with which kingship was conferred. Unlike the Roman Mercury, always a youth, Gaulish Mercury is also represented as an old man. Gaulish Mercury is associated with triplism: sometimes he has three faces, sometimes three phalluses, which may explain the plural dedications; this compares with Irish myth. In some versions of the story Lug was born as one of triplets, his father, Cian, is mentioned in the same breath as his brothers Cú and Cethen, who nonetheless have no stories of their own. Several characters called Lugaid, a pop
In Celtic mythology, Nantosuelta is the goddess of nature, the earth and fertility. Pseudo-historical texts explain how there is an uncanny resemblance between Nantosuelta and what we know of the Irish goddess The Morrígan, associated with death and war. Evidence suggests that Nantosuelta was the name given to the goddess The Morrígan after a transformation or joining of new alliances; the Mediomatrici depicted her in art as holding a round house with a crow. Other depictions show her with a pot or bee hive. Nantosuelta's round house was a symbol of her connection to the faery habitation of her Irish counterpart and may have symbolized abundance, it was believed that Nantosuelta transformed into a crow on the battlefield, an appropriate transformation for the goddess or may have been a metaphor for her ability to powerfully navigate a battlefield. Nantosuelta is associated with water and depicted as being surrounded by water; the goddess's name translates as'of winding stream' or'sun-drenched valley'.
Nantosuelta is attested by statues, by inscriptions. In this relief from Sarrebourg, near Metz, wearing a long gown is standing to the left. In her left hand she holds a small house-shaped object with a peaked roof, her right hand holds a patera. To the right Sucellus stands, bearded, in a tunic with a cloak on his right shoulder, he holds an olla in his left. Above the figures is a dedicatory inscription and below them in low relief is bird, of a raven; this sculpture was dated by Reinach, from the form of the letters, to the end of the first century or start of the second century. An altar from Metz has a carving of a woman with similar dress to the Sarrebourg example holding a small house on a pole, thus presumed to be Nantosuelta. Sucellus is not shown on this example; the inscription on the Sarrebourg altar reads: Deo Svcello / Nantosvelte / Bellavsvs Mas / se filivs v s l m "To the god Sucellus and to Nantosuelta, son of Massa and deservedly fulfilled his vow."The inscription on the Metz altar says: In h d d / M Tignuarius / v s l m "In honour of the divine house, Marcus Tignuarius willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."Here the dedication is to the Imperial house, Nantosuelta is not explicitly mentioned.
The visual depiction makes the identification secure. Delamarre asserts that the name means'sun-warmed valley'. Roux in 1952, Olmstead in 1994, Polomé in 1997 maintained that the proto-Indo-European root *swel-'swelter', found in Indo-European words denoting'sun', was inherited into Gaulish. Année Epigraphique, volume 1896. Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies. Proto-Celtic—English lexicon. University of Wales. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, volume 13, Tres Galliae. Delamarre, X.. Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise. 2nd edition. Paris, Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-237-6 Deyts, S. Ed. A la rencontre des Dieux gaulois, un défi à César. Paris, Réunion des Musées Nationaux. ISBN 2-7118-3851-X Heichelheim, F. M. and J. E. Housman and Nantosuelta in Mediaeval Celtic Mythology, in: L'antiquité classique 17, pp. 305-316 Jufer, N. and T. Luginbühl Répertoire des dieux gaulois. Paris, Editions Errance. ISBN 2-87772-200-7 Le Roux "Le soleil dans les langues Celtiques." Ogham 4, p. 93. Olmstead, G; the Gods of the Celts and the Indoeuropeans.
Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft-Archaeolingua, Sonderheft 92. Polomé, E. C. Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, 49-50. Porkorny, Julius Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Berlin: Franke Verlag Reinach, S. Cultes, mythes et religions. Le musée de Liffol-le-Grand has a reconstructed shrine to Nantosuelta