Geraldton is a coastal city in the Mid West region of Western Australia, 424 kilometres north of Perth. At the 2016 Census, Geraldton had an urban population of 37,432. Geraldton is the seat of government for the City of Greater Geraldton, which incorporates the town of Mullewa and large rural areas forming the shires of Greenough and Mullewa; the Port of Geraldton is a major west coast seaport. Geraldton is an important service and logistics centre for regional mining, wheat and tourism industries. Clear evidence has established indigenous people living on the west coast of Australia for at least 40,000 years, though at present it is unclear when the first indigenous people may have explored and lived in and around Geraldton; the original local Aboriginal people of Geraldton are the Naaguja people with the Nanda to the north and Badimia to the east. Today the Aboriginal people of the region identify as "Yamatji" or "Wajarri" people. Wajarri country is inland from Geraldton and extends as far south and west as Mullewa, north to Gascoyne Junction and east to Meekatharra.
The Aboriginal people of the Murchison-Gascoyne region were instrumental in assisting early settlers in the area in identifying permanent water sources, worked in the pearling and fishing industries. Yamatji art is a distinctive style of painting, using thousands of dots of ochre and other earth-based pigments to create patterns and images relevant to Yamatji/Wajarri culture; the Western Australia Museum at the marina in Geraldton hosts a permanent exhibit on Yamatji/Wajarri culture and history of the region. Many European mariners encountered, or were wrecked on, the Houtman Abrolhos islands 60 kilometres west of Geraldton during the 17th and 18th centuries. Although two mutineers from the Batavia were marooned on the mainland in 1629 there is no surviving evidence that they made landfall at or near the site of the current town; the wreck of the Batavia, flagship of the Dutch East India Company fleet on her maiden voyage, on Morning Reef of the Houtman Abrolhos on 4 June 1629, the events surrounding the subsequent mutiny and punishment of her crew are of great historical significance to the region.
A detailed account of the events is recorded in a 24 December 1897 Western Mail article "The Abrolhos Tragedy", translated from the notes of Francois Pelsaert, the commander of the Batavia when she ran aground. The Western Australian Museum in Geraldton houses an exhibition of clay pipes, silver coins, the original Batavia stone portico and numerous other relics recovered from the wreck of the Batavia and other notable local historical shipwrecks such as the Zuytdorp and Vergulde Draeck; the explorer George Grey, while on his second disastrous expedition along the Western Australian coast, passed over the future site of Geraldton on 7 April 1839. George Fletcher Moore, on the colonial schooner Champion, explored the region in January 1840 and discovered Champion Bay, he was followed by Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle, who led an expedition to the area in April 1840, named and surveyed Champion Bay. A decade explorer Augustus Gregory travelled through the area. A member of his party, James Perry Walcott, discovered lead ore in 1848 in the bed of the Murchison River.
The Geraldine mine was subsequently established, named after the County Clare family home of Charles FitzGerald, the 4th Governor of Western Australia. The town of Geraldton, named after Governor FitzGerald, was surveyed in 1850 and land sales began in 1851. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,432 people in the Geraldton Significant Urban Areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 9.6% of the population. 76.4% of people were born in Australia. The most common other countries of birth were England 4.1%, New Zealand 1.9%, South Africa 1.4%, Philippines 1.3% and India 0.6%. 83.8% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malay 0.8%, Afrikaans 0.8%, Tagalog 0.6%, Italian 0.6% and Filipino 0.4%. The most common responses for religion were Christian 62.2% and No Religion 30.0%. The economic output generated within Greater Geraldton, the 12,626-square-kilometre local government area incorporating Geraldton, is estimated at $2.944 billion.
Greater Geraldton represents 56.26% of the $5.233 billion in output generated in Mid West Region and 1.19% of the $247.705 billion in output generated in Western Australia. The Port of Geraldton is a major west coast port with seven bulk handling berths and an average loading rate of seven tonnes per hour, ranking nationally 12th in exports; the major exports from the Geraldton port in 2012/2013 were: iron ore. Major imports were petroleum products. In 2012/2013 the Geraldton port serviced 328 bulk haulage vessels; the Geraldton Visitor Centre is located at 246 Marine Terrace the original Railway Station. The historic building is an icon in Geraldton's West End and was built in 1878, it was the first railway station constructed on a Government line in Western Australia. Now more than 140 years on, the building’s heritage has been preserved through careful restoration and many elements from the original building feature in the Visitor Centre; the Point Moore Lighthouse, located south of the Geraldton Port is a cultural and historical attraction.
It is the oldest surviving Commonwealth lighthouse in Western Australia and was the first steel t
Electoral district of Geraldton
Geraldton is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Western Australia. Geraldton was one of the original 30 seats contested at the 1890 colonial election; the district is based on the eponymous regional city. Labor held throughout most of the twentieth century, Geraldton has since become a seat that has changed hands in the last two decades; the district has always been based on the regional coastal city of Geraldton. Electoral reform ahead of the 2008 state election necessitated an increase in the district's enrolment and thus an expansion of its boundaries, as it did for all non-metropolitan districts; this means the district now includes all outlying suburbs of the city, as well as adjacent rural areas. The district's current boundaries are identical with the former City of Geraldton-Greenough, itself a newly formed local government area. Geraldton changed hands between different members and parties during the early history of the seat in the late 19th and early 20th century.
After 1914 however, the seat was held by the Labor Party for all but three of the next 77 years. The seat's longest serving and most famous member was John Willcock, member from 1917 to 1947 and Premier of Western Australia from 1936 to 1945; the resignation of Labor member Jeff Carr following his sacking as minister in 1991 triggered a by-election, won by the Liberal Party's Bob Bloffwitch, the seat's first non-Labor member in more than four decades. Bloffwitch held the seat at the subsequent 1993 state election, when the Liberal Party won government; the seat changed hands with the next change of government at the 2001 state election when Labor candidate Shane Hill was elected. Hill held the seat for two terms before Liberal Ian Blayney won it with a change of government at the 2008 state election. In fact the redistribution prior to that election had turned the seat into a notionally Liberal seat. Antony Green. "2005 Election Profile: Geraldton". ABC. Antony Green. "2008 Election Profile: Geraldton".
ABC. "Map of Geraldton". Boundarieswa.com. "Map of Geraldton". Boundarieswa.com. "Map of Geraldton". Boundarieswa.com
Walkaway, Western Australia
Walkaway is a small town in the City of Greater Geraldton local government area of Western Australia. At the 2016 census, Walkaway had a population of 270, its name is a corruption of the native "Wagga wah", referring to the bend in the nearby Greenough River, was given to the railway station when a line was built from Geraldton in 1887. In 1894 Midland railway line, Western Australia was linked with Midland Junction by the building of a private line–that of the Midland Railway Company, constructed by an engineer and the first General Manager of the Company, Edward Keane. With the railway and an expanding agricultural area, the township grew until with the dieselisation of the railway systems, the take-over by the State of the Midland Railway in 1964, decline set in; this was accentuated by the gradual absorption of the original smallholdings into the larger holdings of today's farming demands. A number of renewable energy generation projects are located near Walkaway. Current projects produce 162 Megawatts of electrical power.
Additional projects along with upgrades to current projects are scheduled for construction. The Mid West region is identified as a potential location for developing renewable energy technologies that include additional wind and solar photovoltaic electricity projects, solar thermal, geothermal and ocean energy; the Walkaway Wind Farm, 9 kilometres east of Walkaway, was completed in August 2005. It consists of 54 turbines, each producing 1.8 megawatts, 80 metres high, with 40-metre blade spans. Development consent has been given for an expansion of the project to up to 400MW; the Mumbida Wind Farm, 5 kilometres east of Walkaway, is a 55 MW renewable energy project developed by a joint venture of Verve Energy and Infrastructure Capital Group. Mumbida was completed in 2013 and is now operational. Mumbida Wind Farm utilises the 2.5 MW General Electric 2.5xl wind turbines, the first time that this model of wind turbine has been used in Australia. The Mumbida wind farm has been designed to be expanded to 85MW in the future.
The Greenough River Solar Farm is the first stage of a 40MW solar photo voltaic electricity generator. Stage 1 produces 10MW and was commissioned in 2012. At the time of commissioning, it was the largest solar PV generator in Australia. Construction of Stage 2 is scheduled to begin in 2014 and will add an additional 30MW to the project, located 30 kilometres east of Walkaway and 50 kilometres southeast of Geraldton, on the Walkaway-Nangetty Road. Gunzburg, Adrian The Midland Railway Company of Western Australia - Locomotives Melbourne, Vic: Light Railway Research Society of Australia. ISBN 0-909340-27-7 Heritage Council of W. A. Greenough/Walkaway heritage trail: settlement of the Greenough River Flats: a Commonwealth/State Bicentennial Project. Perth, W. A.: Heritage Council of W. A.. Heritage Council of W. A. Heritage trail, Greenough/Walkaway: settlement of the Greenough River Flats. East Perth, W. A.: Heritage Council of Western Australia. - Part of the Heritage Trails Network
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate, its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is 1–x4x–y. Zircon forms in silicate melts with large proportions of high field strength incompatible elements. For example, hafnium is always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%; the crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal system. The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, brown and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond and are known as "Matura diamond"; the name derives from the Persian zargun, meaning "gold-hued". This word is corrupted into "jargoon", a term applied to light-colored zircons; the English word "zircon" is derived from Zirkon, the German adaptation of this word. Yellow and red zircon is known as "hyacinth", from the flower hyacinthus, whose name is of Ancient Greek origin.
Zircon is ubiquitous in the crust of Earth. It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks, in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Large zircon crystals are rare, their average size in granite rocks is about 0.1–0.3 mm, but they can grow to sizes of several centimeters in mafic pegmatites and carbonatites. Zircon is very resistant to heat and corrosion; because of their uranium and thorium content, some zircons undergo metamictization. Connected to internal radiation damage, these processes disrupt the crystal structure and explain the variable properties of zircon; as zircon becomes more and more modified by internal radiation damage, the density decreases, the crystal structure is compromised, the color changes. Zircon occurs in many colors, including reddish brown, green, blue and colorless; the color of zircons can sometimes be changed by heat treatment. Common brown zircons can be transformed into colorless and blue zircons by heating to 800 to 1000 °C. In geological settings, the development of pink and purple zircon occurs after hundreds of millions of years, if the crystal has sufficient trace elements to produce color centers.
Color in this red or pink series is annealed in geological conditions above temperatures of around 400 °C. Zircon is consumed as an opacifier, has been known to be used in the decorative ceramics industry, it is the principal precursor not only to metallic zirconium, although this application is small, but to all compounds of zirconium including zirconium dioxide, one of the most refractory materials known. Other applications include use in refractories and foundry casting and a growing array of specialty applications as zirconia and zirconium chemicals, including in nuclear fuel rods, catalytic fuel converters and in water and air purification systems. Zircon is one of the key minerals used by geologists for geochronology. Zircon is a part of the ZTR index to classify highly-weathered sediments. Zircon is a common accessory to trace mineral constituent of most felsic igneous rocks. Due to its hardness and chemical inertness, zircon persists in sedimentary deposits and is a common constituent of most sands.
Zircon is rare within mafic rocks and rare within ultramafic rocks aside from a group of ultrapotassic intrusive rocks such as kimberlites and lamprophyre, where zircon can be found as a trace mineral owing to the unusual magma genesis of these rocks. Zircon forms economic concentrations within heavy mineral sands ore deposits, within certain pegmatites, within some rare alkaline volcanic rocks, for example the Toongi Trachyte, New South Wales Australia in association with the zirconium-hafnium minerals eudialyte and armstrongite. Australia leads the world in zircon mining, producing 37% of the world total and accounting for 40% of world EDR for the mineral. South Africa is Africa’s main producer, with 30% of world production, second after Australia. Zircon has played an important role during the evolution of radiometric dating. Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium and can be dated using several modern analytical techniques; because zircons can survive geologic processes like erosion, transport high-grade metamorphism, they contain a rich and varied record of geological processes.
Zircons are dated by uranium-lead, fission-track, cathodoluminescence, U+Th/He techniques. For instance, imaging the cathodoluminescence emission from fast electrons can be used as a prescreening tool for high-resolution secondary-ion-mass spectrometry to image the zonation pattern and identify regions of interest for isotope analysis; this is done scanning electron microscope. Zircons in sedimentary rock can identify the sediment source. Zircons from Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, have yielded U-Pb ages up to 4.404 billion years, interpreted to be the age of crystallization, making them the oldest minerals so far dated on Earth. In addition, the oxygen isotopic compositions of some of these zircons have been interpreted to indicate that more than 4.4 billion years ago there was water on the surface of the Earth. This interpretation is supported by additional trace element data, but is the subject of debate. In 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in the Jack Hills of Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth... it could be common in the universe
Mid West (Western Australia)
The Mid West region is one of the nine regions of Western Australia. It is a sparsely populated region extending from the west coast of Western Australia, about 200 kilometres north and south of its administrative centre of Geraldton and inland to 450 kilometres east of Wiluna in the Gibson Desert, it has a total area of 472,336 square kilometres, a permanent population of about 52,000 people, more than half of those in Geraldton. The western portion of this region was known earlier as "The Murchison" based on the river of the same name, the named goldfield; the Mid West region has a diversified economy that varies with the climate. Near the coast, annual rainfall of between 400 and 500 millimetres allows intensive agriculture. Further inland, annual rainfall decreases to less than 250 millimetres, here the economy is dominated by mining of iron ore, gold and other mineral resources. Geraldton is an important hub for the tourism industry; the Mid West has the highest value fishing industry in Western Australia, with Geraldton the hub of the Western Rock Lobster industry.
Western Rock Lobster netted $234.5 million in revenue for WA in the 2012–13 financial year, making it Australia's most valuable single-species wild capture fishery. Gross Regional Product for the Mid West in 2013 was AU$6,000,000,000 On 25 August 2015 The Hon. Terry Redman, MLA, Minister for Regional Development, launched the "Mid West Regional Blueprint"; the Blueprint proposes strategies against five priority pillars to drive or reduce barriers to, regional growth and development in the Mid West. The Blueprint strategies are intended to focus on the region’s key strengths and the identification of regional opportunities, providing a guide for regional development to 2050. Due to its relative isolation from radio-frequency interference, The Mid West region was selected to host one of two primary radiotelescope locations of the Square Kilometre Array project; when operational in 2024, this AU$2bn project will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio interferometer instrument. The radiotelescope antennae and the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory are located near Boolardy, Western Australia 315 km northeast of Geraldton, with logistics and science support provided by CSIRO from their facilities in Geraldton.
High-capacity optical fibre cables connect the SKA telescope to the MRO support facility in Geraldton and to the Pawsley Supercomputing Centre in Perth, Western Australia. Located at Yatharagga, 40 km from Mingenew, the WA Space Centre is an $8,000,000 114ha satellite park owned and operated by Space Australia, a subsidiary company of the Swedish Space Corporation; the park is located in one of several Radio Quiet Zones in the region, making it an ideal location for radioastronomy. The SSC is the largest commercial operator of satellite tracking ground station facilities; the facilities include compounds operated by NASA, The European Space Agency, CSIRO, MOBLAS and VLBI, amongst others. The local government areas in the Mid West region are Carnamah, Chapman Valley, Cue, Greater Geraldton, Meekatharra, Morawa, Mount Magnet, Northampton, Sandstone, Three Springs and Yalgoo. Regions of Western Australia Mid West Development Commission Yamatji Marlpa Barna Baba Maaja Aboriginal Corporation, the Native Title Representative Body incorporating the Yamatji Land and Sea Council
Cue, Western Australia
Cue is a small town in the Mid West region of Western Australia, located 620 km north-east of Perth. At the 2016 census, Cue had a population of 178, it is known as the Queen of the Murchison. Cue is administered through the Cue Shire Council, which has its chambers in the historic Gentlemans Club building; the current president is Ross Pigdon. The Cue Parliament is held twice yearly in November. Gold was discovered in 1892. Michael Fitzgerald and Edward Heffernan collected 260 ounces after being given a nugget by an Aboriginal known as'Governor'. Tom Cue travelled to Nannine to register their claim; the townsite was named after Tom Cue. In 1895 the town had 7 ten head stamp mills operating around the town; the town's first water supply was a well in the centre of the main street. The water supply was replaced by another well dug near Lake Nallan and carted 20 km south to the townsite; the town of Day Dawn, 8 km south, was established within a year. The rivalry between the towns fuelled a diverse sporting culture in the area.
Cycling and horse-racing groups held regular events attracting competitors from as far away as Perth and Kalgoorlie. Following heavy rains in 1913 the old Cue Battery Dam broke away from the force of the water pressure. Cue was the terminus for the Northern Railway in 1898 until the route was extended to Meekatharra ten years and was the junction for the branch line to Big Bell; the line closed in 1978. By around 1900 Cue was the centre of the Murchison goldfields and boasted a population of about 10,000; as World War I drew men from the goldfields into the Australian Army the townsite of Day Dawn was abandoned. After the war many of the mines did not reopen and this started the decline of Cue as a major population centre. After the Great Depression and the fall in the price of gold, by 1933 the population of Cue had dropped to fewer than 500; the current population is around 200. The Shire of Cue has ten employees and most other residents are self-employed as prospectors or in supplying the tourist and sheep-grazing industries.
Cue was heritage listed as a town of significant historical value. The main street has changed little. There are several buildings within the townsite. Cue mild to cool winters; the area is prone to the occasional inundation: In 1912 the area was struck by drought, followed by flooding in 1913 when the town received 2.19 inches of rain over the course of a day resulting in washaways and other storm damage. In 1925 several buildings in the town collapsed following heavy flood waters; the town received 2.59 inches of rain over the course of two days.'Along the Cue railway. Inspection of line with suggested improvements, visit to Georgina Siding'. West Australian, 11 June 1898, p. 5 Palmer, Alex. Agnew. Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, Western Australia. ISBN 0-85905-267-2. Cue Cue Heritage trail info
Australian Railroad Group
Australian Railroad Group was an Australian rail freight operator. It began operations in Western Australia on 17 December 2000 following its purchase of the Westrail freight business, it was purchased by QR National in June 2006. The main commodities hauled by ARG included grain, mineral sands, bauxite, woodchips, quartz and iron ore around Western Australia. In June 2011 it ceased trading as a separate brand, became part of QR National. In 2000 the Australian Railroad Group was formed as a 50/50 joint venture between United States rail operator Genesee & Wyoming Inc and Australian rural services company Wesfarmers, to bid for the freight operator Westrail, being sold by the Western Australian state government. Genessee & Wyoming had an Australian presence, having purchased the South Australian freight operations of Australian National in November 1997 and rebranded the operation Australia Southern Railroad. In October 2000 Australian Railroad Group were announced as the successful bidder for Westrail with operations commencing on 17 December 2000.
Under the deal 95 locomotives, 2,500 wagons, freight terminals and customer contracts were purchased with the infrastructure remaining in government ownership, leased to ARG for 49 years. As part of the deal, the joint venture assumed ownership of Genesee & Wyoming's South Australian operation, Australian Southern Railroad. Trains in Western Australia operated under the Australia Western Railroad name, with AWR logos being applied to locomotives in the orange and yellow of Genesee & Wyoming. With ARG's involvement with the Asia Pacific Transport Consortium building the Alice Springs to Darwin line, resulting in some locomotives operating construction trains on the line receiving Australia Northern Railroad logos, it was decided to rebrand all ANR, ASR and AWR operations under the Australian Railroad Group banner from August 2002. In June 2006 the joint venture was dissolved with Wesfarmers selling its 50% share in the South Australian operations back to Genesee & Wyoming; the above rail operation in Western Australia was sold to QR National and the below the rail WestNet Rail infrastructure business to Babcock & Brown.
In June 2011 it ceased trading as a separate brand, became part of QR National. With the introduction of the ARG name and corporate colours, ARG began a gradual process of standardising the locomotive classification based on horsepower, with a progressive renumbering; as of February 2006 new letter classes will be used in conjunction with the new horsepower based numbering system. 700 class 830 class DA/900 class CK/1000 class A class DE/1300 class AB/1500 class NJ/1600 class GM/1800 class DA/DAZ/1900 class DC/2200 class DB/DBZ/2300 class D/2350 class P/2500 class CL/CLZ/3000 class L/LZ/3100 class ALF/3200 class S/3300 class Q/4000 class AC/4300 class Forrestfield Yard, suburban Perth Kwinana Yard, Kwinana Avon Yard, Northam West Merredin Yard, Merredin Picton Yard, Bunbury West Kalgoorlie Yard, Kalgoorlie Narngulu Yard, Geraldton Esperance Depot, Esperance Wagin Depot, Wagin Albany Depot, Albany Collie Depot, Collie