Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the latter's ill health, his rule extended over the other dominions that his father had brought under Egyptian rule, namely Syria, Morea and Crete. Ibrahim pre-deceased his father, dying 10 November 1848, only four months after acceding to the throne. Upon his father's death the following year, the Egyptian throne passed to Abbas. Ibrahim remains one of the most celebrated members of the Muhammad Ali dynasty for his impressive military victories, including several crushing defeats of the Ottoman Empire. Among Egyptian historians, his father Muhammad Ali, his son Ismail the Magnificent are held in far higher esteem than other rulers from the dynasty, who were viewed as indolent and corrupt.
Today, a statue of Ibrahim occupies a prominent position in Cairo. His Mother Emine, born at Nusretli in 1770 and died in Cairo 1824, she was the widow of Ottoman Turk Serezli Ali Bey, a daughter of Major Ali Aga of Nusretli. Ibrahim was her first born son, it is further known that he was born in the village of Nusratli, near the town of Drama, the Ottoman province of Rumelia, in what is now the eastern parts of Macedonian region in Greece. In 1805, during his father's struggle to establish himself as ruler of Egypt, the adolescent Ibrahim, at 16, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman captain Pasha. However, Ibrahim was allowed to return to Egypt once his father was recognised as Wāli of Egypt by the Ottoman Sultan, had defeated the British military expedition of Major General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser; when Muhammad Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Ibn Saud in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command of Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mameluks. In 1816, he succeeded his brother Tusun Pasha in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia.
Muhammad Ali had begun to introduce European discipline into his army, Ibrahim had received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his operations. The campaign lasted two years, ended in the destruction of the House of Saud as a political power. Muhammad Ali landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on 1813; the holy cities had been recovered from the Saudis, Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field, but the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Saudis stronghold of Diriyah, some 400 miles east of Medina made the conquest a arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818, he had forced the Saudi leader to surrender, had taken Diriyah, which he sacked. On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo.
After his return Ibrahim gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève, employed to drill the army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. In 1824, Muhammad Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. Mahmud required the assistance of the well-trained Egyptian army against the contemporary Greek Revolution, which his forces had been unable to quell: in 1822, the Greeks had decisively defeated an army of some 30,000 men under Sultanzade Mahmud Dramali Pasha. Ibrahim was sent to the Peloponnese with an army of 17,000 men; the expedition sailed on July 4, 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea; when the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, Ibrahim was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea until the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.
He defeated the Greeks in the open field, though the siege of Missolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Ottoman forces who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on April 24, 1826. But he was defeated in Mani three times in a row; the Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe and led to the intervention of the naval squadrons of the United Kingdom, the Restored Kingdom of France and Imperial Russia in the Battle of Navarino, their victory was followed by the landing of a French expeditionary force in the so-called Morea expedition. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country. In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria, he took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated an Ottoman army at Homs on July 8
Abbas II of Egypt
Abbas II Helmy Bey was the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914. In 1914, after the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the nationalist Khedive was removed by the British ruling Egypt, in favor of his more pro-British uncle, Hussein Kamel, marking the de jure end of Egypt's four-century era as a province of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun in 1517. Abbas II, the great-great-grandson of Muhammad Ali, was born in Alexandria, Egypt on 14 July 1874, he succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as Khedive of Egypt and Sudan on 8 January 1892. In 1887 he was ceremonially circumcised together with his younger brother Mohammed Ali Tewfik; the festivities were carried out under great pomp. As a boy he visited the United Kingdom, he had a number of British tutors in Cairo including a governess who taught him English. In a profile of Abbas II, the boys' annual, gives a lengthy account of his education, his father established a small school near the Abdin Palace in Cairo where European and Turkish masters taught Abbas and his brother Mohammed Ali Tewfik.
An American officer in the Egyptian army took charge of his military training. He attended school at Switzerland. In addition to Turkish, he had good conversational knowledge of English and German, he was still in college in Vienna when he assumed the throne of the Khedivate of Egypt upon the sudden death of his father, 8 January 1892. He was of age according to Egyptian law. For some time he did not cooperate cordially with the British, whose army had occupied Egypt in 1882; as he was young and eager to exercise his new power, he resented the interference of the British Agent and Consul General in Cairo, Sir Evelyn Baring made Lord Cromer. At the outset of his reign, Khedive Abbas II surrounded himself with a coterie of European advisers who opposed the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan and encouraged the young khedive to challenge Cromer by replacing his ailing prime minister with an Egyptian nationalist. At Cromer's behest, Lord Rosebery, the British foreign secretary, sent Abbas II a letter stating that the Khedive was obliged to consult the British consul on such issues as cabinet appointments.
In January 1894 Abbas II made an inspection tour of Sudanese and Egyptian frontier troops stationed near the southern border, the Mahdists being at the time still in control of the Sudan itself. At Wadi Halfa the Khedive made public remarks disparaging the Egyptian army units commanded by British officers; the British commander of the Egyptian army, Sir Herbert Kitchener threatened to resign. Kitchener further insisted on the dismissal of a nationalist under-secretary of war appointed by Abbas II and that an apology be made for the Khedive's criticism of the army and its officers. By 1899 he had come to accept British counsels. In 1899 British diplomat Alfred Mitchell-Innes was appointed Under-Secretary of State for Finance in Egypt, in 1900 Abbas II paid a second visit to Britain, during which he said he thought the British had done good work in Egypt, declared himself ready to cooperate with the British officials administering Egypt and Sudan, he gave his formal approval for the establishment of a sound system of justice for Egyptian nationals, a great reduction in taxation, increased affordable and sound education, the inauguration of the substantial irrigation works such as the Aswan Low Dam and the Assiut Barrage, the reconquest of Sudan.
He displayed more interest in agriculture than in statecraft. His farm of cattle and horses at Qubbah, near Cairo, was a model for agricultural science in Egypt, he created a similar establishment at Muntazah, just east of downtown Alexandria, he had several children. Muhammad Abdul Mun'im, the heir-apparent, was born on 20 February 1899. Although Abbas II no longer publicly opposed the British, he secretly created and sustained the Egyptian nationalist movement, which came to be led by Mustafa Kamil, he funded the anti-British newspaper Al-Mu'ayyad. As Kamil's thrust was aimed at winning popular support for a National Party, Khedive Abbas publicly distanced himself from the Nationalists, their demand for a constitutional government in 1906 was rebuffed by Abbas II, the following year he formed the National Party, led by Mustafa Kamil Pasha, to counter the Ummah Party of the Egyptian moderates. However, in general, he had no real political power; when the Egyptian Army was sent to fight Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi in Sudan in 1896, he only found out about it because the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was in Egypt and told him after being informed of it by a British Army officer.
His relations with Cromer's successor, Sir Eldon Gorst, were excellent, they co-operated in appointing the cabinets headed by Butrus Ghali in 1908 and Muhammad Sa'id in 1910 and in checking the power of the Nationalist Party. The appointment of Kitchener to succeed Gorst in 1912 displeased Abbas II, relations between the Khedive and the British deteriorated. Kitchener, who exiled or imprisoned the leaders of the National party complained about "that wicked little Khedive" and wanted to depose him. On 25 July 1914, at the onset of World War I, Abbas II was in Constantinople and was wounded in his hands and cheeks during a failed assassination attempt. On 5 November 1914 when Great Britain declared war on Turkey, he was accused of deserting
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy, it is a form of government. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy; as of 2017, 159 of the world’s 206 sovereign states use the word “republic” as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word “republic” used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads of state tend to claim that they rule only by the “consent of the governed”, elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of “show” than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.
The word republic comes from the Latin term res publica, which means “public thing,” “public matter,” or “public affair” and was used to refer to the state as a whole. The term developed its modern meaning in reference to the constitution of the ancient Roman Republic, lasting from the overthrow of the kings in 509 B. C. to the establishment of the Empire in 27 B. C; this constitution was characterized by a Senate composed of wealthy aristocrats and wielding significant influence. Most a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as “republican” in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of “Republics” and as a “federal multinational state composed of 15 republics”, was viewed as being a totalitarian form of government and not a genuine republic, since its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.
The term originates from the Latin translation of Greek word politeia. Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as "republic"; the term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. One of Plato's major works on political science was titled Politeia and in English it is thus known as The Republic. However, apart from the title, in modern translations of The Republic, alternative translations of politeia are used. However, in Book III of his Politics, Aristotle was the first classical writer to state that the term politeia can be used to refer more to one type of politeia: "When the citizens at large govern for the public good, it is called by the name common to all governments, government". Amongst classical Latin, the term "republic" can be used in a general way to refer to any regime, or in a specific way to refer to governments which work for the public good.
In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had signoria based governments. In the late Middle Ages, writers such as Giovanni Villani began writing about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime, they used terms such as a free people, to describe the states. The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term res publica has a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin; the term can quite be translated as "public matter". It was most used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government during the period of the Roman Empire. In subsequent centuries, the English word "commonwealth" came to be used as a translation of res publica, its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica.
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was in common use. In Polish the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to Poland. Presently, the term "republic" means a system of government which derives its power from the people rather than from another basis, such as heredity or divine right. While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and Rome, as noted by Aristotle there was a long history of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in Greece but in the Middle East. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many free cities developed again, such as Venice; the modern type of "republic" itself is different from any type of state found in the c
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Fuad II of Egypt
Fuad II is a member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali dynasty. He formally reigned as the last King of Egypt and the Sudan from July 1952 to June 1953, when he was deposed, he was born on 16 January, 1952 and ascended the throne on 26 July 1952 upon the abdication of his father, King Farouk, following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Farouk had hoped that his abdication would appease the revolutionaries and other anti-royalist forces, that his son could serve as a unifying force for the country. Fuad II was less than a year old at the time of his accession to the throne, thus he was never formally crowned. Upon Farouk's abdication, the now former king was exiled, the new king Fuad II left Egypt with him and his family; the Council of Regency headed by Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim formally represented Fuad II in Egypt during his absence. However, the infant king reigned for less than a year until 18 June 1953, when Egypt was declared a republic. Fuad II was the 11th and last monarch of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, which had ruled Egypt since 1805.
His name is sometimes spelled Fouad. After being deposed, Fuad II was brought to Switzerland, he moved to Paris, where he married and had three children before returning to the Lake Geneva area of Switzerland after his divorce. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat restored Fuad II's Egyptian citizenship, he was thus able to visit Egypt multiple times. In May 2010, he recorded a television interview with ONTV and talked about his visits to Egypt, how he felt about the Egyptian people, their view of his late father. Fuad supported the candidacy of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as President of Egypt in October 2013. In 1976, he married Dominique-France Loeb-Picard, the daughter of Robert Loeb and his wife, Paule-Madeleine Picard, she assumed the title of Queen Fadila of Egypt. The couple had three children before they divorced in 1996, their children are: HRH Muhammad Prince of the Sa'id. They have two children. HRH Princess Fawzia-Latifa. HRH Prince Fakhruddin. 16 January 1952 – 26 July 1952: His Royal Highness The Prince of the Sa'id 26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953: His Majesty The King 18 June 1953 – present: His Majesty King Fuad of Egypt and the Sudan Egyptian Revolution of 1952 List of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty List of shortest-reigning monarchs الملك أحمد فؤاد الثاني.
Bibliotheca Alexandrina: Memory of Modern Egypt Digital Archive. Retrieved 2010-02-27. "King Ahmad Fouad II". Official Website of the Egyptian Presidency. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2008-07-27. Hammudah, Adil. Al-Malik Ahmad Fu'ad al-Thani, al-malik al-akhir wa-'arsh Misr. Cairo: Sifinks. ISBN 978-977-5185-06-8. OCLC 29394467. Retrieved 2008-12-05. Egyptian Royalty by Ahmed S. Kamel, Hassan Kamel Kelisli-Morali, Georges Soliman and Magda Malek. L'Egypte D'Antan... Egypt in Bygone Days by Max Karkegi. Facebook's Fuad II of Egypt "unofficial" Egyptian Royalty Genealogy - by Christopher Buyers
Mohamed Tewfik Pasha known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Khedive Ismail, was born on November 15, 1852, his mother was Princess Shafiq-Nur. He grew up in Egypt. In 1866 Ismail succeeded in his endeavor to alter the order of succession to the Khedivate of Egypt; the title, instead of passing to the eldest living male descendant of Muhammad Ali, was now to descend from father to son. Ismail sought this alteration because he disliked his uncle, Halim Pasha, his heir-presumptive, he had imagined that he would be able to select whichever of his sons he pleased for his successor, but he found, after the change had been made, that the Great Powers interpreted the new arrangement as applying to the eldest son. Tewfik therefore became heir-apparent, he was given a palace near Cairo to live in, for twelve years he passed an uneventful life and establishing a reputation for good sense and fair dealing with his fellow tenants.
In Cairo on 15 January 1873 he married Princess Emina Ilhamy, daughter of Prince Ibrahim al-Hami and his wife Münire Sultan. In 1878 he was appointed president of the council after the dismissal of Nubar Pasha, he held this office only for a few months. He went back to his estate, settled down once more to a quiet country life, he was undisturbed only for a short time. On 26 June 1879, Ismail, at the insistence of Britain and France, was deposed by the sultan, who sent orders at the same time that Tewfik should be proclaimed Khedive; the new khedive was so displeased by the news of his accession that he soundly boxed the ears of the servant who first brought the tidings to him. Egypt and Sudan at that time was involved in financial and political troubles brought about by the policy of Ismail, the situation was made worse by the inaction of Britain and France for some months following Tewfik's accession. Tewfik's people were dissatisfied, his army disaffected. Disorder prevailed until November 1879, when the dual control was reestablished by the governments of Britain and France.
For over two years Major Evelyn Baring, Mr. Auckland Colvin, Monsieur de Blignieres governed the country, endeavouring to institute reforms while possessing no means of coercion. During all this time the disaffection in the Egyptian army was increasing. Tewfik had been blamed for his failure to take a firm line with the rebels, but his attitude was governed by his relations with Britain and France, he was unable to control events; the dissatisfaction culminated in the anti-foreign movement headed by Urabi Pasha, who had gained complete command of the army. In July 1882 the attitude of Urabi, carrying out defensive works on a large scale, made the British admiral to declare that he would bombard the forts of Alexandria unless they were handed over to him. Before the bombardment began it was suggested to Tewfik that he should leave the city and embark either upon a man-of-war belonging to one of the neutral powers, or in his own yacht, or in a mail steamer, in the port, his answer was, "I am still Khedive, I remain with my people in the hour of their danger."
At his palace of Qasr el-Raml, three miles from the town, he was beyond reach of the shells, but his life was imperiled. When the rebel soldiers attacked the palace he managed to make his escape and to reach another palace after passing through the burning streets of Alexandria. Here he was obliged to agree that a guard of British bluejackets should protect him from further risk, he showed his courage during the cholera epidemic at Alexandria in 1883. He had gone back to Cairo after the Battle of Tel al-Kebir, had consented to the reforms insisted upon by Britain, had assumed the position of a constitutional ruler under the guidance of Lord Dufferin, the British special commissioner; when cholera broke out, he insisted upon going to Alexandria. His wife accompanied him, he went round the hospitals, setting an excellent example to the authorities of the city, encouraging the patients by kind and hopeful words. In 1884, Sir Evelyn Baring went back to Egypt as diplomatic Consul-General of Britain.
His first task was to demand. Tewfik gave his consent with natural reluctance, having consented, he did everything he could to ensure the success of the policy which Baring had been sent to carry out, he behaved with equal propriety during the negotiations between Sir H. Drummond Wolff and the Turkish envoy, Mukhtar Pasha, in 1886, his position was not a dignified one but that of a titular ruler compelled to stand by while others discussed and managed the affairs of his country. The Sultan was his suzerain; as time went on his confidence in Baring increased, until at last he deferred to the Br
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE