MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Johnny Cash was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 90 million records worldwide. Although remembered as a country music icon, his genre-spanning songs and sound embraced rock and roll, blues and gospel; this crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of being inducted into the Country Music and Roll, Gospel Music Halls of Fame. Cash was known for his deep, calm bass-baritone voice, the distinctive sound of his Tennessee Three backing band characterized by train-sound guitar rhythms, a rebelliousness coupled with an somber and humble demeanor, free prison concerts, a trademark, all-black stage wardrobe, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black." He traditionally began his concerts by introducing himself, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash," followed by his signature song "Folsom Prison Blues". Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, redemption in the stages of his career, his other signature songs include "I Walk the Line", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm", "Man in Black".
He recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue". During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails and "Rusty Cage" by Soundgarden. Johnny Cash was born on February 1932, in Kingsland, Arkansas, to Ray Cash and Carrie Cloveree, he was the fourth of seven children, who were in birth order: Roy, Margaret Louise, Jack, J. R. Reba and Tommy, he was of English and Scottish descent. As an adult he traced his surname to 11th-century Fife, after meeting with the then-laird of Falkland, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart. Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family. At birth, Cash was named J. R. Cash; when Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force, he was not permitted to use initials as a first name, so he changed his name to John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he started going by Johnny Cash. In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas, a New Deal colony established to give poor families a chance to work land that they had a chance to own as a result.
J. R. started singing along with his family while working. The Cash farm flooded during the family's time in Dyess which led Cash to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising", his family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs those about other people facing similar difficulties. He had sympathy for the poor and working class. Cash was close to his older brother, Jack. On Saturday May 12, 1944, Jack was pulled into an unguarded table saw at his high school while cutting oak into fence posts as his job and was cut in two, he lingered until the following Saturday. Cash spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but Johnny and his mother, Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, his mother urged Jack to go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of angels. Decades Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in Heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel radio. Taught guitar by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing and writing songs at the age of 12; when young, Cash had a high-tenor voice, before becoming a bass-baritone after his voice changed. In high school, he sang on a local radio station. Decades he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book, he was significantly influenced by traditional Irish music, which he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program. Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950. After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, Cash was assigned to the 12th Radio Squadron Mobile of the U. S. Air Force Security Service at Landsberg, Germany, as a Morse code operator intercepting Soviet Army transmissions, it was there he created his first band, named "The Landsberg Barbarians". He was honorably discharged as a staff sergeant on July 3, 1954, returned to Texas.
During his military service, he acquired a distinctive scar on the right side of his jaw as a result of surgery to remove a cyst. On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Italian-American Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio, they dated for three weeks. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters. On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church in San Antonio; the ceremony was performed by Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy and Tara. In 1961, Johnny moved his family to a hilltop home overlooking Casitas Springs, California, a small town south of Ojai on Highway 33, he had moved his parents to the area to run a small trailer park called the Johnny Cash Trailer Park. Johnny's drinking led to several run-ins with local law enforcement
Laten John Adams Jr. was an American blues and gospel singer, known as "The Tan Canary" for the multi-octave range of his singing voice, his swooping vocal mannerisms and falsetto. His biggest hits were his versions of "Release Me" and "Reconsider Me" in the late 1960s. Adams was born in New Orleans, the oldest of 10 children, he became a professional musician on leaving school. He began his career singing gospel with the Soul Revivers and Bessie Griffin's Consolators, but crossed over to secular music in 1959, his neighbor, the songwriter Dorothy LaBostrie persuaded him to start performing secular music after hearing him sing in the bathtub. He recorded LaBostrie's ballad "I Won't Cry" for Joe Ruffino's Ric label. Produced by the teenaged Mac Rebennack, the record became a local hit. Adams recorded several more singles for the label over the next three years, most of them produced by Rebennack or Eddie Bo, his first national hit came in 1962, when "A Losing Battle", written by Rebennack, reached number 27 on the Billboard R&B chart.
After Ruffino's death in 1963, Adams left Ric and recorded for a succession of labels, including Eddie Bo's Gone Records, the Los Angeles–based Modern Records, Wardell Quezergue's Watch label. His records had little success until he signed with Shelby Singleton's Nashville-based SSS International Records in 1968. A reissue of "Release Me" released by Watch, reached number 34 on the R&B chart and number 82 on the pop chart, its follow-up, "Reconsider Me", a country song produced by Singleton, became his biggest hit, reaching number 8 on the R&B chart and number 28 on the pop chart in 1969. Two more singles, "I Can't Be All Bad" and "I Won't Cry", were lesser hits the same year, the label released an album and Soul. Adams left SSS International in 1971 and recorded unsuccessfully for several labels, including Atlantic and Ariola, over the next few years. At the same time, he began performing at Dorothy's Medallion Lounge in New Orleans and touring nightclubs in the south. In 1983, he signed with Rounder Records, for which he recorded nine critically acclaimed albums produced by Scott Billington, beginning with From the Heart in 1984.
These records highlighted Adams's voice. The albums included tributes to the songwriters Percy Doc Pomus; the jazz-influenced Good Morning Heartache included the work of composers like George Gershwin and Harold Arlen. Other albums in this series are Room with a View of the Blues, Walking on a Tightrope, The Real Me; these recordings earned him a number of awards, including a W. C. Handy Award, he toured internationally, with frequent trips to Europe, worked and recorded with such musicians as Aaron Neville, Harry Connick Jr. Lonnie Smith, Dr. John, he died in Louisiana, in 1998 after a long battle with prostate cancer. Heart & Soul I Won't Cry A Christmas in New Orleans with Johnny Adams Stand By Me After All the Good Is Gone From the Heart After Dark Room with AaView of the Blues Walking on a Tightrope The Real Me: Johnny Adams Sings Doc Pomus Good Morning Heartache The Verdict One Foot in the Blues Man of My Word Johnny Adams "Heart & Soul
Roy Kelton Orbison was an American singer and musician known for his powerful voice, wide vocal range, impassioned singing style, complex song structures, dark, emotional ballads. The combination led many critics to describe his music as operatic, nicknaming him "the Caruso of Rock" and "the Big O". While most male rock-and-roll performers in the 1950s and 1960s projected a defiant masculinity, many of Orbison's songs instead conveyed vulnerability. During performances, he was known for standing still and solitary and for wearing black clothes to match his dyed jet-black hair and dark sunglasses. Born in Texas, Orbison began singing in a country-and-western band in high school, he was signed by Sam Phillips, of Sun Records, in 1956, but his greatest success came with Monument Records. From 1960 to 1966, 22 of his singles reached the Billboard Top 40, he wrote or co-wrote all that rose to the Top 10, including "Only the Lonely", "Running Scared", "Crying", "In Dreams", "Oh, Pretty Woman". Soon afterward, he was struck by a number of personal tragedies.
In the 1980s, Orbison experienced a resurgence in popularity following the success of several cover versions of his songs. In 1988, he co-founded the Traveling Wilburys, a rock supergroup, with George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, Jeff Lynne. Orbison died of a heart attack in December 1988 at the age of 52. One month Orbison's song "You Got It", co-written with Lynne and Petty, was released as a solo single and became his first hit to break the U. S. Top 10 in 25 years. Orbison's honors include inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987, the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in the same year, the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1989. Rolling Stone placed him at number 37 on their list of the "Greatest Artists of All Time" and number 13 on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time'. In 2002, Billboard magazine listed Orbison at number 74 in the Top 600 recording artists. Roy Kelton Orbison was born in Vernon, the middle son of Orbie Lee Orbison, an oil well driller and car mechanic, Nadine Vesta Shults, a nurse.
After the Great Depression, the family moved to Fort Worth in 1942 searching for work, according to Marcel Riesco's research on the "Authorized Roy Orbison" both parents found jobs at the aircraft factories, expanded as a result of the United States entering World War II. Orbison’s direct paternal ancestor was Thomas Orbison from Lurgan, County Armagh, Northern Ireland who settled in Pennsylvania Colony in the mid 18th century. Young Roy Orbison attended Denver Avenue Elementary School until a polio scare prompted the family to return to Vernon. In 1946, they moved to Wink, Texas. Orbison described life in Wink as "football, oil fields, oil and sand" and expressed relief that he was able to leave the desolate town. All the Orbison children were afflicted with poor eyesight, he was not confident about his appearance and began dyeing his nearly-white hair black when he was still young. He was quiet, self-effacing, remarkably polite and obliging—a product, biographer Alan Clayson wrote, of his Southern upbringing.
He was available to sing and became the focus of attention when he did. He considered his voice memorable. On Roy's sixth birthday, his father gave him a guitar, he recalled that by the age of seven, "I was finished, you know, for anything else". His major musical influence as a youth was country music, he was moved by Lefty Frizzell's singing, with its slurred syllables.. He enjoyed Hank Williams and Jimmie Rodgers. One of the first musicians he heard in person was Ernest Tubb, playing on the back of a flatbed truck in Fort Worth. In West Texas, he was exposed to many forms of music: "sepia", Tex-Mex, the orchestral arrangements of Mantovani, cajun; the cajun favorite "Jole Blon" was one of the first songs. At the age of eight, he began singing on a local radio show. By the late 1940s, he was the show's host. In high school and some friends formed a band, the Wink Westerners, they played country standards and Glenn Miller songs at local honky-tonks and had a weekly radio show on KERB in Kermit. When they were offered $400 to play at a dance, Orbison realized that he could make a living in music.
After graduating from Wink High School, he enrolled at North Texas State College in Denton, planning to study geology so that he could secure work in the oil fields if music did not pay. Orbison heard that his North Texas State schoolmate Pat Boone had signed a record deal, which further strengthened his resolve to become a professional musician. While at North Texas State College, Roy heard a song called "Ooby Dooby", composed by Dick Penner and Wade Moore in mere minutes atop a fraternity house at the college, after his first year of college, he returned to Wink with "Ooby Dooby" in hand and continued performing with the Wink Westerners. Orbison moved to Odessa and enrolled in Odessa Junior College; as two members of the band quit, one to attend school elsewhere and one to join the Navy, two new members were added to the group, who won a talent contest and obtained their own television show on KMID-TV in Midland, Texas. The Wink Westerners kept performing on local TV, played dances on the weekends, attended college during the day.
While living in
"Everlasting Love" is a song written by Buzz Cason and Mac Gayden a 1967 hit for Robert Knight and since remade several times, most by the Love Affair, as well as Town Criers, Carl Carlton, Sandra. In 1989, U2 released a version of "Everlasting Love" as a B-side on various formats of the "All I Want Is You" single; the original version of "Everlasting Love" was recorded in Nashville by Robert Knight, whose producers Buzz Cason and Mac Gayden aimed to record him in a Motown style with especial reference to the Four Tops and the Temptations. "Everlasting Love" was released as an A-side for Knight and reached #13 in 1967. Subsequently, the song has reached the US Top 40 three times, most by Carl Carlton, who peaked at #6 in 1974, with more moderate success afforded remakes by Rex Smith and Rachel Sweet and Gloria Estefan. In the UK "Everlasting Love" was covered by the Love Affair: with a standout vocal performance by Steve Ellis it achieved #1 status in January 1968; that version eclipsed the Robert Knight original, which stalled at #40, although it was reissued in 1974 and reached #19 UK.
In 1968, a cover by the Australian group, Town Criers, reached #2 in the Australian charts. A 1981 duet version, sung by Rex Smith and Rachel Sweet, reached #35 UK, in the 1990s "Everlasting Love" reached the UK Top 20 three times via remakes by Worlds Apart, Gloria Estefan and, most a charity single by the cast from Casualty that reached #5 in 1998. In 2004, Jamie Cullum reached #20 with his version. Thus, "Everlasting Love" is one of two songs to become a Billboard Hot 100 top 40 hit in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and the only song to become a UK top 40 hit in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, always – with the exception of the 1980s – reaching the UK top 20. In 1987, the rendition of "Everlasting Love" by Sandra reached the Top 20 in at least eight territories, going Top 10 in four, her version reached UK #45 in early 1989, affording "Everlasting Love" its second UK Top 50 incarnation of the decade. The versions of the song by Love Affair, Rex Smith and Rachel Sweet, Worlds Apart, Gloria Estefan saw multinational chart action, strong for the Love Affair version.
As early as 1968, "Everlasting Love" was remade for the country music market by Hank Locklin, who charted at #57. Narvel Felts would make the song a major C&W hit in 1979. Just prior to the release of Jamie Cullum's 2004 version, Buzz Cason theorized on his composition's appeal: "It's an uplifting song, with a real positive feeling, it's danceable. I think people get a lift from it; when it comes to that chorus it just lets go." The original version of "Everlasting Love" was recorded at Fred Foster Sound Studio in Nashville. According to Cason, the track "had some different sounds on it that, for the time period, were kind of innovative; the string sound is a farfisa organ that Mac came up with, we used a lot of echo." Robert Knight recalls: "Buzz was into country but Mac was R&B...so we made it more of an R&B song like the rhythm and melody Mac had. I practiced on with Mac, as he had written the song for my voice and made it mine. Mac used his bandmates: Kenny Buttrey, Norbert Putnam, Charlie McCoy and himself on guitar."
The background vocals on the song were performed by Carol Montgomery. Robert Knight recalls that he heard "Everlasting Love" for the first time at the actual recording session: "I didn’t sing it the written I made some changes to fit my voice, I didn’t do it note for note, they had the melody going too fast, it was jamming, it wasn’t doing right, it wasn’t sounding right. So I started. I start singing a half: ` hearts-go-a-stray' -- like that, it wasn’t like that in the beginning, I think that's what got'Everlasting Love' off the ground." Although Buzz Cason and Mac Gayden had written "Everlasting Love" to serve as the B-side for their composition "The Weeper" which Robert Knight would record the next day, the hit potential of "Everlasting Love" was evident at the end of that recording session, it was the last-named song, issued as Knight's single in July 1967. "The Weeper" would in fact never be released, the track "Somebody's Baby" serving as the B-side for "Everlasting Love". Debuting on the Billboard Hot 100 dated September 30, 1967, "Everlasting Love" had reached #1 in Philadelphia and Detroit by the time of its Top 40 debut on October 21, 1967.
Cason - " drove...the promotion guys nuts since it hit in one market several weeks pop up somewhere else." The track spent its second week at its Hot 100 peak of #13 on the chart dated December 2, 1967 dropped off the Hot 100 over the next three weeks. The R&B chart peak of "Everlasting Love" was #14. In its original release, Knight's "Everlasting Love" lost out in the UK to a cover by Love Affair, although Knight's version did spend two weeks at #40 UK in January 1968. In the spring of 1974, Knight's "Everlasting Love" had a second UK release to follow up the Top Ten success of the reissue of Knight's "Love on a Mountain Top". An airplay staple on American oldies radio stations, Knight's "Everlasting Love" has become a "cult favorite" of the beach music scene. In a 2011 interview, Buzz Cason stated that the Robert Knight original of "Everlasting Love" remained Cason's favourite version of the song: "I just think Robert's was the one that had the magi
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012