Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
A samosa is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, peas, or lentils. It may take different forms, including triangular, cone, or half-moon shapes, depending on the region; the Indian style accompanied by a chutney, is the most widely-known of a broad family of recipes from Africa to China, which have origins in medieval times or earlier. Samosas are a popular entrée, appetizer, or snack in the local cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, Western Asia, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa. Due to cultural diffusion and emigration from these areas, samosas in today's world are prepared in other regions; the word samosa can be traced to the sanbosag. The pastry's name in other countries can derive from this root, such as the crescent-shaped sanbusak or sanbusaj in the Arab world, sambosa in Afghanistan, shingara in Bengal, samosa in Pakistan, samosa in India, samboosa in Tajikistan, Sambôsy in Madagascar, samsa by Turkic-speaking nations, sambuus by Somalis of Somalia, Somali Region of Ethiopia and North Eastern Province of Kenya, chamuça in Goa and Portugal.
While they are referred to as sambusak in the Arabic-speaking world, Medieval Arabic recipe books sometimes spell it sambusaj. The samosa originated in the Middle Central Asia, it spread to Africa, Southeast Asia, South Asia, elsewhere. The term samosa and its variants cover a family of pastries and dumplings popular from north-eastern Africa to western China. An ancient recipe for samosa, widespread in the Near East and the Indian subcontinent, involves mixing 1 cup of oil, 1 cup of melted butter, 1 cup of warm water, 1 teaspoon of salt with dough; the samosa spread to the Indian subcontinent, alongside the spread of Islam, during Muslim rule in the region. A praise of samosa can be found in a 9th-century poem by the Persian poet Ishaq al-Mawsili. Recipes for the dish are found in 10th–13th-century Arab cookery books, under the names sanbusak and sanbusaj, all of which derive from the Persian word sanbosag. In Iran, the dish was popular until the 16th century, but by the 20th century, its popularity was restricted to certain provinces.
Abolfazl Beyhaqi, an Iranian historian, mentioned it in Tarikh-e Beyhaghi. Central Asian samsa were introduced to the Indian subcontinent in the 13th or 14th century by traders from Central Asia. Amir Khusro, a scholar and the royal poet of the Delhi Sultanate, wrote in around 1300 CE that the princes and nobles enjoyed the "samosa prepared from meat, onion, so on". Ibn Battuta, a 14th-century traveler and explorer, describes a meal at the court of Muhammad bin Tughluq, where the samushak or sambusak, a small pie stuffed with minced meat, pistachios and spices, was served before the third course, of pulao. Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi, a medieval Indian cookbook started for Ghiyath al -Din Khalji, the ruler of the Malwa Sultanate in central India, mentions the art of making samosa; the Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th-century Mughal document, mentions the recipe for qutab, which it says, “the people of Hindustan call sanbúsah”. Regions where the dish serves as a staple of local cuisine have different ways of preparing it.
The samosa is made with all-purpose flour locally known as maida shell stuffed with some filling a mixture of mashed boiled potato, green peas, lentils and green chili, or fruits. The entire pastry is deep-fried in vegetable oil or ghee to a golden brown color, it is served hot and is eaten with fresh green chutney, such as mint, coriander, or tamarind. It can be prepared as a sweet form, rather than as a savoury one. Samosas are served in chaat, along with the traditional accompaniments of either chick pea or white pea preparation, garnished with yoghurt and green chutney, chopped onions and chaat masala, it can be served with tomato sauce. Some people relish the crunchy samosa without any accompaniment. In Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, a bigger version of the samosa with a spicy filling of masala potatoes, crushed green chillies and dried fruits, as well as other variations, is quite popular; this samosa is bigger compared to other foreign variants. In Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, shingadas are popular snacks.
They are found everywhere. They are a bit smaller compared to those in other parts of India, the filling consists of boiled and diced potato, along with of other ingredients, they are wrapped in a thin sheet of fried. Good shingaras are distinguished by flaky textures as if they are made with a savoury pie crust. Shingaras are deep-fried to a golden brown colour in vegetable oil, they are served hot and consumed with ketchup or chutney, such as mint, coriander, or tamarind, or are served in chaat, along with the traditional accompaniments of yogurt, chopped onions and chaat masala. Shingaras are eaten at tea time as a snack, they can be prepared in a sweet form, rather than as a savoury one. Bengali shingaras tend to be triangular, filled with potato, onions, diced almonds, or other vegetables, are more fried and crunchier than either shingara or their Indian samosa cousins. Fulkopir shingara is another popular variation. In Bengal, there are non-vegetarian varieties of shingara called m
Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine. Pasta is made from an unleavened dough of durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, formed into sheets or various shapes cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes, such as beans or lentils are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pastas are divided into two broad categories: fresh. Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an extrusion process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines. Fresh pastas available in grocery stores are produced commercially by large-scale machines. Both dried and fresh pastas come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known by over 1300 documented names. In Italy, the names of specific pasta shapes or types vary by locale. For example, the pasta form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending upon the town and region. Common forms of pasta include long and short shapes, flat shapes or sheets, miniature shapes for soup, those meant to be filled or stuffed, specialty or decorative shapes.
As a category in Italian cuisine, both fresh and dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes: as pasta asciutta, cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary side sauce or condiment. A third category is pasta al forno, in which the pasta is incorporated into a dish, subsequently baked in the oven. Pasta dishes are simple, but individual dishes vary in preparation; some pasta dishes are served for light lunches, such as pasta salads. Other dishes may be used for dinner. Pasta sauces may vary in taste and texture. In terms of nutrition, cooked plain pasta is 31% carbohydrates, 6% protein, low in fat, with moderate amounts of manganese, but pasta has low micronutrient content. Pasta may be made from whole grains. First attested in English in 1874, the word "pasta" comes from Italian pasta, in turn from Latin pasta, latinisation of the Greek παστά "barley porridge". In the 1st century AD writings of Horace, lagana were fine sheets of fried dough and were an everyday foodstuff.
Writing in the 2nd century Athenaeus of Naucratis provides a recipe for lagana which he attributes to the 1st century Chrysippus of Tyana: sheets of dough made of wheat flour and the juice of crushed lettuce flavoured with spices and deep-fried in oil. An early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, an ancestor of modern-day lasagna. However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough does not correspond to our modern definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and the shape; the first concrete information concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th century. Historians have noted several lexical milestones relevant to pasta, none of which changes these basic characteristics. For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made of flour and water; the Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium, a kind of boiled dough, was common in Palestine from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD.
A dictionary compiled by the 9th century Arab physician and lexicographer Isho bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking. The geographical text of Muhammad al-Idrisi, compiled for the Norman King of Sicily Roger II in 1154 mentions itriyya manufactured and exported from Norman Sicily: West of Termini there is a delightful settlement called Trabia, its ever-flowing streams propel a number of mills. Here there are huge buildings in the countryside where they make vast quantities of itriyya, exported everywhere: to Calabria, to Muslim and Christian countries. Many shiploads are sent. One form of itriyya with a long history is laganum, which in Latin refers to a thin sheet of dough, gives rise to Italian lasagna. In North Africa, a food similar to pasta, known as couscous, has been eaten for centuries. However, it lacks the distinguishing malleable nature of pasta, couscous being more akin to droplets of dough. At first, dry pasta was a luxury item in Italy because of high labor costs.
There is a legend of Marco Polo importing pasta from China which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries with the goal of promoting pasta in the United States. Rustichello da Pisa writes in his Travels that Marco Polo described a food similar to "lagana". Jeffrey Steingarten asserts that Arabs introduced pasta in the Emirate of Sicily in the ninth century, mentioning that traces of pasta have been found in ancient Greece and that Jane Grigson believed the Marco Polo story to have originated in the 1920s or 30s in an advertisement for a Canadian spaghetti company. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the god Hephaestus invented a device that made strings of dough; this was the earliest reference to a pasta maker. In the 14th and 15th centuries, dried pasta became popular for its easy storage; this allowed people to store pasta on ships. A century pasta was present around the globe during the voyages of discovery. Although tomatoes were introduced to Italy in the 16th century and incorporated in Italian cuisine in the 17th century, description of the first
Pilaf, or pilau is a rice dish or, in some regions, a wheat dish, whose recipe involves cooking in stock, adding spices, other ingredients such as meat, employing some technique for achieving cooked grains that do not adhere. At the time of the Abbasid Caliphate, such methods of cooking rice at first spread through a vast territory from Spain to Afghanistan, to a wider world; the Spanish paella, the South Asian pilau or pulao, biryani, evolved from such dishes. Pilaf and similar dishes are common to Balkan, Middle Eastern, Eastern Europe, South Caucasian and South Asian, East African, Latin American, Caribbean cuisines, it is a staple food and a popular dish in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Israel, India, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition the English word pilaf, the and North American English form of spelling the word pilau, is a borrowing from Turkish, its etymon, or linguistic ancestor, the Turkish pilav, whose etymon is the Persian pilāv.
The British and Commonwealth English spelling, has etymon Persian pulaw, whose line of descent is: Hindi pulāv, Sanskrit pulāka, which in turn is of Dravidian descent. Although the cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from South Asia to Central and West Asia, it was at the time of the Abbasid Caliphate that methods of cooking rice which approximate modern styles of cooking the pilaf at first spread through a vast territory from Spain to Afghanistan, to a wider world; the Spanish paella, the South Asian pilau or pulao, biryani, evolved from such dishes. According to author K. T. Achaya, the Indian epic Mahabharata mentions an instance of rice and meat cooked together. According to Achaya, "pulao" or "pallao" is used to refer to a rice dish in ancient Sanskrit works such as the Yājñavalkya Smṛti. However, according to other authors, these references do not correlate to the used meaning and history implied in pilafs, which appear in Indian accounts after the medieval Central Asian Muslim invasions of India.
Alexander the Great and his army have been reported to be so impressed with Bactrian and Sogdian pilavs that his soldiers brought the recipes back to Macedonia when they returned. Similar stories exist of Alexander introducing pilaf to Samarkand; the earliest documented recipe for pilaf comes from the tenth-century Persian scholar Avicenna, who in his books on medical sciences dedicated a whole section to preparing various dishes, including several types of pilaf. In doing so, he described the advantages and disadvantages of every item used for preparing the dish. Accordingly, Persians consider Ibn Sina to be the "father" of modern pilaf. Thirteenth-century Arab texts describe the consistency of pilaf that the grains should be plump and somewhat firm to resemble peppercorns with no mushiness, each grain should be separate with no clumping. Another primary source for pilaf dishes comes from the 17th-century Iranian philosopher Molla Sadra. Pilau became standard fare in the Middle East and Transcaucasia over the years with variations and innovations by the Persians, Arabs and Armenians.
It was introduced to Israel by Persian Jews. During the period of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian versions of the dish spread throughout all Soviet republics, becoming a part of the common Soviet cuisine; some cooks prefer to use basmati because it is easier to prepare a pilaf where the grains stay "light and separate" with this type of rice. However, other types of long-grain rice are used; the rice is rinsed before use to remove the starch. Pilaf can be cooked in stock. Common additions include fried onions and fragrant spices like bay leaves and cinnamon. Pilaf is made with meat or vegetables, but it can be made plain, called sade pilav in Turkish, chelo in Farsi and ruzz mufalfal in Arabic. On special occasions saffron may be used to give the rice a yellow color. Pilaf is made by adding the rice to hot fat and stirring before adding the cooking liquid; the fat used varies from recipe to recipe. Cooking methods vary with respect to details such as pre-soaking the rice and steaming after boiling.
There are thousands of variations of pilaf made with rice or other grains like bulgur. In Central Asia there are plov, pilau on the Indian subcontinent, variations from Turkmenistan and Turkey; some include different combinations of meats, fruits or vegetables, while others are simple and served plain. In the present day, Central Asian, Turkish cuisine and Caribbean cuisine are considered the five major schools of pilaf. In Afghan cuisine, Kabuli palaw or qabili palaw is made by cooking basmati with mutton, beef or chicken, oil. Kabuli Palaw is cooked in large thick dishes. Fried sliced raisins are added. Chopped nuts like pistachios, walnuts, or almonds may be added as well; the meat is buried in the middle of the dish. The Kabuli Palaw rice with carrots and raisins is popular in Saudi Arabia, where it is known as roz Bukhari, meaning Bukharan rice. Armenians use a lot of bulgur
Beshbarmak is the national dish among nomadic Turkic peoples in Central Asia and Russia. It is known as Naryn, as Turama/Dograma and as Kullama; the term Beshbarmak means "five fingers". The boiled meat is finely chopped with knives, mixed with boiled noodles, spiced with onion sauce, it is served in a big round dish. Beshbarmak is served with shorpo – mutton broth in bowls called kese. Shorpo is served as a first course, followed by courses of beshbarmak and a drink called ak-serke; the cuisine of Central Asia developed within the constraints of a nomadic life, when people were reliant on their animals, reflected in their food, rich in meat and dairy products. The serving of beshbarmak is steeped in ritual with different sections of the meat proportioned to people depending on their gender and rank in the social structure. On special occasions, a lamb's head may be served on the table, it is served to the most respected person, he cuts off pieces from her and treats others with various desires.
Festive beshbarmak could be cooked with Kazy together. No special equipment is needed to make Beshbarmak. A pot to boil the meat and noodles in is required, as well as a rolling pin and knife to prepare the pasta. Beshbarmak is an easy dish to prepare. Meat is boiled. In the original version of Beshbarmak you should ideally use a piece of hind quarters of a horse and sujuk, rack of lamb, it may change with the seasons. In warm seasons, beshbarmak is cooked using meat lamb. At the same time we make dough using flour and eggs, add salt and let it sit for 40 minutes. After that we roll out the pastry, making it thin, cut it into noodles; the noodles are boiled in meat-broth for 5–7 minutes. The boiled noodles and finely chopped meat is placed on a tray and sauce is poured. Everything is mixed. Finely chopped meat in beshbarmak is a sign of respect for guests. Presentation is important; the dish is served on big platter. Hospitality is serious business in Central Asia. Ordinarily, being invited for beshbarmak is an honor.
Guests are never invited to sit at an empty table, but beshbarmak is always presented after all the guests have been assembled. It is still a dish that carries with it nomadic identity, not one to be taken lightly. Besh barmak
Qazı is a traditional sausage-like food of Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other ethnic groups of Central Asia those of Turkic origin. Kazy is a common element on a table set for a festive meal. Qazy is a dish in Kazakh and Kyrgyz cuisines made from horse rib meat sausage in natural intestine casing and sliced horse butt. A reviewer from Vice described the dish as earthy. Horse flesh ribs are hung for 5 -- 7 hours to drain the remaining blood; the intestines of the horse are washed and kept in saline water for 1–2 hours. The meat from the ribs is salted, seasoned with pepper and garlic and left roped in cloth for 2–3 hours; the intestines are filled with the rib meat and the two ends of the filled intestine are tied. After this preparation, the kazy can be smoked or hung to dry for a week at a sun-lit placed exposed to wind. Smoking is performed in a thick smoke of 50–60° for 12–18 hours. Before serving, the kazy is cooked in boiling water for 2 hours; the cooked kazy is served with onion and seasonal crops.
In Uzbekistan this dish is served to Pilaf, in Kazakhstan it could be included to Beshbarmak or sliced as an appetizer to the table. In mountain regions sometimes kazy is made from deer. Kazi is eaten cold. Sundae Beshbarmak Sujuk Qarta Kazakh cuisine Kyrgyz cuisine Tatar cuisine List of sausage dishes Food portal
Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses. Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment. Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat, environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry, or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.
Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BCE, several breeds were established by 2500 BCE. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.
Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France, Italy and Japan, among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam. Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China and sometimes in Northern Italy. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are hunted for their flesh, in Japan, Siberia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to speed artificial selection by breeding animals to acquire the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now becoming available. Though it is a old industry, meat production continues to be shaped by the evolving demands of customers; the trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. More animals not exploited for their meat are now being farmed the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.
Examples are the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as non-