The agger nasi is a small ridge on the lateral side of the nasal cavity. It is located midway at the anterior edge of the middle nasal concha, directly above the atrium of the middle meatus, it is formed by a mucous membrane, covering the ethmoidal crest of the maxilla. It is called the nasoturbinal concha and the nasal ridge. In 90% of patients an anterior ethmoidal cell can be found in the lacrimal bone below the agger nasi ridge. An enlarged agger nasi cell may encroach the frontal recess area, constricting it and causing mechanical obstruction to frontal sinus drainage. "Agger nasi", Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th ed.. ISBN 0-683-40007-X
In the human mouth, the incisive foramen called anterior palatine foramen, or nasopalatine foramen is a funnel-shaped opening in the bone of the oral hard palate behind the incisor teeth where blood vessels and nerves pass. The incisive foramen is continuous with the incisive canal, this foramen or group of foramina is located behind the central incisor teeth in the incisive fossa of the maxilla; the incisive foramen receives the nasopalatine nerves from the floor of the nasal cavity along with the sphenopalatine artery supplying the mucous membrane covering the hard palate of the mouth. In many other species, the incisive foramina allow for passage of ducts to the vomeronasal organ; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 162 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 22:4b-01 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The nasalis is a sphincter-like muscle of the nose whose function is to compress the nasal cartilages. It is the muscle responsible for "flaring" of the nostrils; some people can use it to close the nostrils to prevent entry of water. It consists of two parts and alar: The transverse part arises from the maxilla and lateral to the incisive fossa, it compresses the nostrils and may close them. The alar part arises from the maxilla over the lateral incisor and inserts into the greater alar cartilage, its medial fibres tend to blend with the depressor septi, has been described as part of that muscle. Like all the other muscles of facial expression, nasalis muscle is innervated by the seventh cranial nerve: the facial nerve. Interactive diagram at ivy-rose.co.uk
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, an diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, over 435 families and 28,000 species, it is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into lobe-finned fish; the oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 420 million years old, which are transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern, in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes. Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology, the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology, the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes the terrestrial tetrapods that evolved from lobe-finned fish, whereas prior to 2014 the view of most ichthyologists was that Osteichthyes includes only fishes, were therefore paraphyletic. However, in 2014, an ichthyology paper was published with phylogenetic trees that treat the Osteichthyes as a clade including tetrapods.
Bony fish are characterized by a stable pattern of cranial bones, medial insertion of mandibular muscle in the lower jaw. The head and pectoral girdles are covered with large dermal bones; the eyeball is supported by a sclerotic ring of four small bones, but this characteristic has been lost or modified in many modern species. The labyrinth in the inner ear contains large otoliths; the braincase, or neurocranium, is divided into anterior and posterior sections divided by a fissure. Early bony fish had simple lungs. In many bony fish these have evolved into swim bladders, which help the body create a neutral balance between sinking and floating, they do not have fin spines, but instead support the fin with lepidotrichia. They have an operculum, which helps them breathe without having to swim. Bony fish have no placoid scales. Mucus glands coat the body. Most have overlapping ganoid, cycloid or ctenoid scales. Traditionally, Osteichthyes is considered a class, recognised on having a swim bladder, only three pairs of gill arches, hidden behind a bony operculum and a predominately bony skeleton.
Under this classification systems, the Osteichthyes are paraphyletic with regard to land vertebrates as the common ancestor of all Osteichthyes includes tetrapods amongst its descendants. The largest subclass, the Actinopterygii are monophyletic, but with the inclusion of the smaller sub-class Sarcopterygii, Osteichthyes is paraphyletic; this has led to an alternative cladistic classification, splitting the Osteichthyes into two full classes. Osteichthyes is under this scheme monophyletic, as it includes the tetrapods, making it a synonym of the clade Euteleostomi. Most bony fish belong to the ray-finned fish; the phylogeny of living Osteichthyes, including the tetrapods, is shown in the cladogram. Whole-genome duplication took place in the ancestral Osteichthyes. All bony fish possess gills. For the majority this is their main means of respiration. Lungfish and other osteichthyan species are capable of respiration through lungs or vascularized swim bladders. Other species can respire through their skin, and/or stomach.
Osteichthyes are primitively ectothermic, meaning that their body temperature is dependent on that of the water. But some of the larger marine osteichthyids, such as the opah and tuna have independently evolved various levels of endothermy. Bony fish can be any type of heterotroph: numerous species of omnivore, herbivore, filter-feeder or detritivore are documented; some bony fish are hermaphrodites, a number of species exhibit parthenogenesis. Fertilization is external, but can be internal. Development is oviparous but can be ovoviviparous, or viviparous. Although there is no parental care after birth, before birth parents may scatter, guard or brood eggs, with sea horses being notable in that the males undergo a form of "pregnancy", brooding eggs deposited in a ventral pouch by a female; the ocean sunfish is the heaviest bony fish in the world, while the longest is the king of herrings, a type of oarfish. Specimens of ocean sunfish have been observed up to 3.3 metres in length and weighing up to 2,303 kilograms.
Other large bony fish include the Atlantic blue marlin, some specimens of which have been recorded as in excess of 820 kilograms, the black marlin, some sturgeon species, the giant and goliath grouper, which both can exceed 300 kilograms in weight. In contrast, the dwarf pygmy goby measures a minute 15 millimetres. Arapaima gigas is the largest species of freshwater bony fish; the largest bony fish was Leedsichthys, which dwarfed the beluga sturgeon, ocean sunfish, giant grouper, all the other giant bony fishes alive today. Cartilaginous fishes can be further divided into sharks and chimaeras. In the table below, the comparison is made between sharks and bony fishes. For the further differences with rays, see sharks versus rays. Ostracoderm - armoured jawless fish. Prehistoric fish Helfman, G. S.. E; the Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Sciences. ISBN 978-0-86542-256-8
Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists. A subdiscipline of anatomy and archaeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, microbone morphology, disease, the process of ossification, the resistance and hardness of bones, etc. used by scientists with identification of vertebrate remains with regard to age, sex and development and can be used in a biocultural context. Osteologists work in the public and private sector as consultants for museums, scientists for research laboratories, scientists for medical investigations and/or for companies producing osteological reproductions in an academic context. Osteology and osteologists should not be confused with the holistic practice of medicine known as osteopathy and its practitioners, osteopaths. A typical analysis will include: an inventory of the skeletal elements present a dental inventory aging data, based upon epiphyseal fusion and dental eruption and deterioration of the pubic symphysis or sternal end of ribs stature and other metric data ancestry non-metric traits pathology and/or cultural modifications Osteological approaches are applied to investigations in disciplines such as vertebrate paleontology, forensic science, physical anthropology and archaeology, has a place in research on topics including: Ancient warfare Activity patterns Criminal investigations Demography Developmental biology Diet Disease Genetics of early populations Fossil assemblages Health Human migration Identification of unknown remains Physique Social inequality War crimes A recent endeavor by the city of London to expand their railway system inadvertently uncovered 25 human skeletons at Charterhouse Square in 2013.
Although archaeological excavation of the skeletons temporarily halted the further advances in the railway system, they have given way to new revolutionary discoveries in the field, as well as re-write history. These 25 skeletal remains, along with many more that were found in further searches, are believed to be from the mass graves dug to bury the millions of victims of the Black Death in the 14th century. Archaeologists and forensic scientists have used osteology to examine the condition of the skeletal remains, to help piece together the reason why the Black Death had such a detrimental effect on the European population, it was discovered that most of the population was in poor health to begin with. Through extensive analysis of the bones, it was discovered that many of the inhabitants of Great Britain were plagued with rickets and malnutrition. There has been frequent evidence that much of the population had traces of broken bones from frequent fighting and hard labor; this archaeological project has been named the Crossrail Project.
Archaeologists will continue to excavate and search for remains to help uncover missing pieces of history. These advances in our understanding of the past will be improved by the study of other skeletons buried in the same area. Osteometric points Museum of Osteology Forensic Anthropology Paleontology Bone Clones Bass, W. M. 2005. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual. 5th Edition. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society. Buikstra, J. E. and Ubelaker, D. H. 1994. Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 44. Cox, M and Mays, S. 2000. Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science. London: Greenwich Medical Media. British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology Museum of Osteology
Each Zygomatic process is the part of a bone which articulates with the zygomatic bone. The three processes are: Zygomatic process of frontal bone from the frontal bone Zygomatic process of maxilla from the maxilla Zygomatic process of temporal bone from the temporal boneThe term zygomatic derives from the Greek Ζυγόμα zygoma meaning "yoke"; the zygomatic process is referred to as the zygoma, but this term refers to the zygomatic bone or the zygomatic arch. The supraorbital margin of the frontal bone ends laterally in its zygomatic process, strong and prominent, articulates with the zygomatic bone; the zygomatic process of the frontal bone extends from the frontal bone inferiorly. The zygomatic process of the maxilla is a rough triangular eminence, situated at the angle of separation of the anterior and orbital surfaces. In front it forms part of the anterior surface. Behind it is concave, forms part of the infratemporal fossa. Above it is serrated for articulation with the zygomatic bone. Below it presents the prominent arched border which marks the division between the anterior and infratemporal surfaces.
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone is a long, arched process projecting from the lower part of the squamous portion of the temporal bone. It articulates with the zygomatic bone; this process is at its two surfaces looking upward and downward. The superior border is long and sharp, serves for the attachment of the temporal fascia; the inferior border, short and arched, has attached to it some fibers of the masseter. The lateral surface is convex and subcutaneous; the medial surface is concave, affords attachment to the masseter. The anterior end is serrated and articulates with the zygomatic bone; the posterior end is connected to the squama by two roots, the anterior and posterior roots: The posterior root, a prolongation of the upper border, is marked. The zygomatic bone itself has four processess, namely the frontosphenoidal, orbital and temporal processes; the frontosphenoidal process is serrated. The cranial suture between the frontal and zygomatic bone is found here. On its orbital surface, just within the orbital margin and about 11 mm below the zygomaticofrontal suture is a tubercle of varying size and form, but present in 95 per cent of skulls.
This tubercle isn't seen in the picture. The orbital process is a thick, strong plate, projecting backward and medialward from the orbital margin, it is ethmoidal bones in the image. The maxillary process presents a triangular surface which articulates with the maxilla, it is the area below "zygomatic" in the image. The temporal process, long and serrated, articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal, it is the process to the right of "zygomatic" in the image. Zygomatic arch Zygomatic complex fracture This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Photo - look for #6 "Anatomy diagram: 34256.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Anatomy photo:22:os-1904 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Osteology of the Skull: The Maxilla"