Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips; the term is restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded; the most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds have simultaneous velarization, the process may be more called labio-velarization. In phonology, labialization may refer to a type of assimilation process. Labialization is the most widespread secondary articulation in the world's languages, it is phonemically contrastive in Northwest Caucasian and Salishan language families, among others. This contrast is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded, slight rounded, unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called'spread'; these secondary articulations are not universal. For example, French shares the English slight rounding of /ʃ/, /ʒ/ while Russian does not have slight rounding in its postalveolar fricatives.
A few languages, including Arrernte and Mba, have contrastive labialized forms for all of their consonants. Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen, labialization occurred most with velar and uvular segments and least with dental and alveolar segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding; the following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic realizations of prototypical labialization: Labiodental frication, found in Abkhaz Complete bilabial closure, found in Abkhaz and Ubykh "Labialization" without noticeable rounding of the lips, found in the Iroquoian languages. It may be. Rounding without velarization, found in Shona and in the Bzyb dialect of Abkhaz. Eastern Arrernte has labialization at all manners of articulation. Marshallese has labialization at all places of articulation except for coronal obstruents. In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized without participation of the lips.
See Tillamook language for an example. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier, as in /kʷ/. There are diacritics to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding; these are used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa, voiceless velar fricatives distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/; the extensions to the IPA has two additional symbols for degrees of rounding: Spread and open-rounded. It has a symbol for labiodentalized sounds. If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic:. For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson resurrected an old IPA symbol, which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv and zv, which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which seem to be whistled sibilants, without being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon and swoon. The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is unvelarized. Labialization refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages as well as some Australian languages rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels; this appears to have been the case in Eastern Arrernte, for example. The labial vowel sounds still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds. Labialized voiceless alveolar stop labialized voiced alveolar stop labialized voiceless velar stop labialized voiced velar stop ( labialized voiceless uvular stop ( labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop labialized voiced uvular stop ( labialized glottal stop ( labialized voiceless bilabial stop ( labialized voiced bilabial stop ( labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive (in Tamamb
In linguistics, apophony is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information. Apophony is exemplified in English as the internal vowel alternations that produce such related words as sing, sung, song rise, risen lie, lay bind, bound weave, wove food, feed blood, bleed brood, breed doom, deem goose, geese tooth, teeth foot, feetThe difference in these vowels marks variously a difference in tense or aspect, part of speech, or grammatical number; that these sound alternations function grammatically can be seen as they are equivalent to grammatical suffixes. Compare the following: The vowel alternation between i and a indicates a difference between present and past tense in the pair sing/sang. Here the past tense is indicated by the vowel a just as the past tense is indicated on the verb jump with the past tense suffix -ed; the plural suffix -s on the word books has the same grammatical function as the presence of the vowel ee in the word geese. Consonants, can alternate in ways that are used grammatically.
An example is the pattern in English of verb-noun pairs with related meanings but differing in voicing of a postvocalic consonant: Most instances of apophony develop from changes due to phonological assimilation that are grammaticalized when the environment causing the assimilation is lost. Such is the case with English belief/believe. Apophony may involve various types of alternations, including vowels, prosodic elements, smaller features, such as nasality; the sound alternations may be used derivationally. The particular function of a given alternation will depend on the language. Apophony involves vowels. Indo-European ablaut and Germanic umlaut, mentioned above, are well attested examples. Another example is from Dinka: When it comes to plurals, a common vowel alteration in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is shifting the ɑ sound to e as shown in this table: The vowel alternation may involve more than just a change in vowel quality. In Athabaskan languages, such as Navajo, verbs have series of stems where the vowel alternates indicating a different tense-aspect.
Navajo vowel ablaut, depending on the verb, may be a change in vowel, vowel length, and/or tone. For example, the verb stem -kaah/-ką́ "to handle an open container" has a total of 16 combinations of the 5 modes and 4 aspects, resulting in 7 different verb stem forms. Another verb stem -géésh/-gizh "to cut" has a different set of alternations and mode-aspect combinations, resulting in 3 different forms: Various prosodic elements, such as tone, syllable length, stress, may be found in alternations. For example, Vietnamese has the following tone alternations which are used derivationally: Albanian uses different vowel lengths to indicate number and grammatical gender on nouns: English has alternating stress patterns that indicate whether related words are nouns or verbs; this tends to be the case with words in English that came from Latin: Prosodic alternations are sometimes analyzed as not as a type of apophony but rather as prosodic affixes, which are known, variously, as suprafixes, superfixes, or simulfixes.
Consonant alternation is known as consonant mutation or consonant gradation. Bemba indicates causative verbs through alternation of the stem-final consonant. Here the alternation involves spirantization and palatalization: Celtic languages are well known for their initial consonant mutations. In Indo-European linguistics, ablaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as sing, sang and song; the difference in the vowels results from the alternation of the vowel e with the vowel o or with no vowel. To cite a few other examples of Indo-European ablaut, English has a certain class of verbs, called strong verbs, in which the vowel changes to indicate a different grammatical tense-aspect; as the examples above show, a trade in the vowel of the verb stem creates a different verb form. Some of the verbs have a suffix in the past participle form. In Indo-European linguistics, umlaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as foot and feet or strong and strength; the difference in the vowels results from the influence of an i or y on the vowel which becomes e.
To cite another example of umlaut, some English weak verbs show umlaut in the present tense. Germanic a-mutation are processes analogous to umlaut but involving the influence of an a or u instead of an i. In Indo-European historical linguistics the terms ablaut and umlaut refer to different phenomena and are not interchangeable. Ablaut is a process that dates back to Proto-Indo-European times, occurs in all Indo-European languages, refers to unpredictable vowel alternations of a specific nature. From an Indo-European perspective, it appears as a variation between o, e, no vowel, although various sound changes result in different vowel alternations appearing in differe
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages. A vowel or vowels in a word must be members of the same class. In languages with vowel harmony, there are constraints. Suffixes and prefixes will follow vowel harmony rules. Many agglutinative languages have vowel harmony; the term vowel harmony is used in two different senses. In the first sense, it refers to any type of long distance assimilatory process of vowels, either progressive or regressive; when used in this sense, the term vowel harmony is synonymous with the term metaphony. In the second sense, vowel harmony refers only to progressive vowel harmony. For regressive harmony, the term umlaut is used. In this sense, metaphony is the general term while vowel harmony and umlaut are both sub-types of metaphony; the term umlaut is used in a different sense to refer to a type of vowel gradation. This article will use "vowel harmony" for both regressive harmony. Harmony processes are "long-distance" in the sense that the assimilation involves sounds that are separated by intervening segments.
In other words, harmony refers to the assimilation of sounds. For example, a vowel at the beginning of a word can trigger assimilation in a vowel at the end of a word; the assimilation occurs across the entire word in many languages. This is represented schematically in the following diagram: In the diagram above, the Va causes the following Vb to assimilate and become the same type of vowel; the vowel that causes the vowel assimilation is termed the trigger while the vowels that assimilate are termed targets. When the vowel triggers lie within the root or stem of a word and the affixes contain the targets, this is called stem-controlled vowel harmony; this is common among languages with vowel harmony and may be seen in the Hungarian dative suffix: The dative suffix has two different forms -nak/-nek. The -nak form appears after the root with back vowels; the -nek form appears after the root with front vowels. Vowel harmony involves dimensions such as Nasalization In many languages, vowels can be said to belong to particular sets or classes, such as back vowels or rounded vowels.
Some languages have more than one system of harmony. For instance, Altaic languages are proposed to have a rounding harmony superimposed over a backness harmony. Among languages with vowel harmony, not all vowels need to participate in the vowel conversions. Neutral vowels may be opaque and block harmonic processes or they may be transparent and not affect them. Intervening consonants are often transparent. Languages that do have vowel harmony allow for lexical disharmony, or words with mixed sets of vowels when an opaque neutral vowel is not involved. Point to two such situations: polysyllabic trigger morphemes may contain non-neutral vowels from opposite harmonic sets and certain target morphemes fail to harmonize. Many loanwords exhibit disharmony. For example, Turkish vakit,. There are three classes of vowels in Korean: positive and neutral; these categories loosely follow mid vowels. Traditionally, Korean had strong vowel harmony. In modern Korean, it is only applied in certain cases such as onomatopoeia, adverbs and interjections.
The vowel ㅡ is considered a neutral and a negative vowel. There are other traces of vowel harmony in modern Korean: many native Korean words tend to follow vowel harmony such as 사람, 부엌. Mongolian exhibits a rounding harmony. In particular, the pharyngeal harmony involves the vowels: /a, ʊ, ɔ/ and /i, u, e, o/. Rounding harmony only affects the open vowels, /e, o, a, ɔ/. Turkic languages inherit their systems of vowel harmony from Proto-Turkic, which had a developed system. Azerbaijani's system of vowel harmony has rounded/unrounded vowels. Tatar has no neutral vowels; the vowel é is found only in loanwords. Other vowels could be found in loanwords, but they are seen as Back vowels. Tatar language has a rounding harmony, but it is not represented in writing. O and ö could be written only in the first syllable, but vowels they mark could be pronounced in the place where ı and e are written. Kazakh's system of vowel harmony is a front/back system, but there is a system of rounding harmony, not represented by the orthography, which resembles the system in Kyrgyz.
Kyrgyz's system of vowel harmony is a front/back system, but there is a system of rounding harmony, which resembles that of Kazakh. Turkish has a 2-dimensional vowel harmony system, where vowels are characterised by two features: and. There are two sets of vocal harmony systems: a complex one; the simple one is concerned with the low vowels e, a and has only the feature. The complex one has both and features; the close-mid vowels ö, o are not involved