Tuskahoma is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in northern Pushmataha County, four miles east of Clayton. The population at the 2010 census was 151. A United States Post Office was established at Tushka Homma, Indian Territory on February 27, 1885. On October 28, 1891, the spelling changed to Tushkahomma. On December 6, 1910 the official spelling changed to Tuskahoma; the community has been served by post office locations at nearby Council House and Lyceum, Oklahoma. Council House was located at the Choctaw Capitol Building and Lyceum was located at the former Choctaw Female Academy. Tuskahoma is a compound word meaning “red warrior” in the Choctaw language. Tuskahoma was designated as capital of the Choctaw Nation in 1882 when an Act of the Choctaw Nation dated October 20, 1882, established the community as the permanent seat of government; the Nation's first capital after the Trail of Tears was at Nanih Waiyah, two miles east of Tuskahoma. Afterward, during a time of constitutional experimentation, the Choctaw shifted their capital from Nanih Waiyah to Doaksville, Fort Towson and Boggy Depot.
The Choctaw wartime capital during the American Civil War was located at Armstrong Academy known as Chahta Tamaha. After the Choctaw Nation decided to make Tuskahoma the permanent capital, it decided to construct an appropriate building to house the government. A spacious Choctaw Capitol Building was completed in the fall of 1884, it was two stories, with a garret under its French mansard roof. Many called it the finest building in the Indian Territory, it included large rooms for the Senate, House of Representatives, Supreme Court. Included was an Executive Office for the Principal Chief, or Governor, of the Choctaw Nation, five smaller rooms for the national officers, five committee rooms, it was heated by numerous fireplaces. A bustling town sprang up by the Capitol building. Several hotels, boarding houses, barber shops, blacksmith shop, photographer's tent, homes were built, but when the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built its tracks through the Kiamichi River valley in the mid-1880s, they ran two miles to the south of the Capitol.
Business flocked to the vicinity of the new Tuskahoma railroad station and the Capitol precinct was abandoned, except during sessions of the government. This twist of history altered Tuskahoma's prominence; the Choctaw Nation constitution directed the constitutional officers, such as Principal Chief, National Secretary, National Treasurer, National Auditor and National Attorney to reside “at or near the seat of government”, but this provision was never enforced. During the National Council's first session in its new Capitol, the principal chief of the day, J. F. McCurtain, proposed building five homes on the site to accommodate the national officers, but this was never done. In addition to serving as a government center, Tuskahoma was intended to be a cultural center and was the location of the Choctaw Nation's national girls' school. Tuskahoma Female Academy opened in 1892 at nearby Lyceum with Peter J. Hudson serving as superintendent; the academy known as the Choctaw Female Academy, occupied a classical-style two-story colonnaded building.
It was not rebuilt. From that time forward Tuskahoma's role as a center of education ceased. Tuskahoma's new site along the railroad prospered, became a vibrant community and trading center. Banks, stores, churches, a school, numerous homes lined its commercial district and residential streets, its importance began to wane during the middle and years of the 20th century, as commerce shifted to nearby Clayton, Oklahoma or elsewhere, following the construction of highways and shifting of transport off the railroads. Prior to Oklahoma's statehood and the Choctaw Capitol Building were located in Wade County, Choctaw Nation. More information on Tuskahoma may be found in the Pushmataha County Historical Society. Local transportation was revolutionized during the 1950s by the construction of U. S. Highway 271, which provided paved all-weather highway connections to Clayton and the county seat at Antlers, Oklahoma to the east and south, Talihina and Poteau to the northeast; the Kiamichi River, important as a source of water, is not navigable at Tuskahoma and has never played a role in local transportation.
It did, cause the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway to place its station at Tuskahoma's present location, due to the trains’ need for a reliable water supply, rather than its original location at the Capitol; the Kiamichi Mountains define life in the Tuskahoma region, one of Oklahoma's most scenic. The Kiamichi River valley stretches to the west of the community. To the north lie the unusually serrated Potato Hills, with peaks topping out at 1,000 feet in elevation. To the south is a scenic but imposing mountain wilderness, with summits topping off at 1,600 feet in elevation. Here roads do not penetrate and all transportation is via unimproved—but marked and well maintained—timber company roads, including Clayton Trail, Hurd Creek Trail, K Trail, Cripple Mountain Trail and Black Fork Trail. Unusual and striking geological features abound in the Tuskahoma region. I
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Greenwood is a historic freedom colony in Tulsa, Oklahoma. As one of the most prominent concentrations of African-American businesses in the United States during the early 20th century, it was popularly known as America's "Black Wall Street" until the Tulsa race riot of 1921, in which white residents massacred 26 black residents, injuring hundreds more, razed the neighborhood within hours; the riot was one of the most devastating massacres in the history of U. S. race relations, destroying the once thriving Greenwood community. Within ten years after the massacre, surviving residents who chose to remain in Tulsa rebuilt much of the district, they accomplished this despite the opposition of many white Tulsa political and business leaders and punitive rezoning laws enacted to prevent reconstruction. It resumed being a vital black community until segregation was overturned by the Federal Government during the 1950s and 1960s. Desegregation encouraged blacks to live and shop elsewhere in the city, causing Greenwood to lose much of its original vitality.
Since city leaders have attempted to encourage other economic development activity nearby. Many African-Americans began moving to Oklahoma for the land rushes 1889 through 1891 and continued in the years leading to 1907, the year Oklahoma became a state, hoping that a majority black population could build a firewall against further extension of the system of racial degradation and segregation known as Jim Crow. Oklahoma represented the hope of change and provided a chance for African Americans to not only leave the lands of slavery but oppose the harsh racism of their previous homes. Travelling from other states Oklahoma seemed to offer these people a chance to start over, they travelled to Oklahoma by wagons, trains, on foot. Many of the black Americans who traveled to Oklahoma had ancestors who could be traced back to Oklahoma. Many of the settlers were relatives of Native Americans who had traveled on foot with the Five Civilized Tribes along the Trail of Tears. Others were the descendants of people.
Many Black residents were from the various Muskogee speaking peoples, such as Creeks and the Yuchi, while some had been adopted by the tribe after the Emancipation Proclamation. They were thus able to live in the Oklahoma Territory; when Tulsa became a booming and rather well-known town in the United States, many people considered Tulsa to be two separate cities rather than one city of united communities. The white residents of Tulsa referred to the area north of the Frisco railroad tracks as "Little Africa"; the success there led Booker T. Washington to visit in 1905 during which he encouraged them to continue to build and co-operate among themselves, reinforcing what he called "industrial capacity" and thus securing their ownership and independence. Washington highlighted that he had directed the creation of a 4,000 acre black-owned district in Tuskegee under the direction of C. W. Greene and designated Greenwood when it was formally organized in 1901 to create a demonstration of his vision.
The Tulsa community took the name Greenwood. By 1921 it was home to about 10,000 black residents. Greenwood Avenue in Tulsa was important because it ran north for over a mile from the Frisco Railroad yards, it was one of the few streets that did not cross through both black and white neighborhoods; the citizens of Greenwood took pride in this fact because it was something they had all to themselves and did not have to share with the white community of Tulsa. Greenwood Avenue was home to the black American commercial district with many red brick buildings; these buildings belonged to black Americans and they were thriving businesses, including grocery stores, banks and much more. Greenwood was one of the most affluent communities and it became known as "Black Wall Street." Greenwood Tulsa, AKA Black Wall Street, was one of the most commercially successful and affluent majority-African American communities in the United States. Booker T. Washington, a well-known African-American scientist, referred to the Greenwood neighborhood as “Negro Wall Street.”
Many Americans, including African-Americans, had moved to Oklahoma in hopes of gaining a shot at quick economic gains through the mining and oil industries. Though blacks were only a small percentage of the overall population in Oklahoma, the percentage of African-Americans in Tulsa had increased to around 12.3 percent during the oil boom. Many African-Americans had come from the Deep South and Kansas because of the opportunity to strike gold because of the rich oil fields. Though Jim Crow Laws and other racially biased laws were in place to inhibit African-Americans from achieving economic mobility and social status, racial segregation helped African-Americans in Tulsa because Black Wall Street was one of the few neighborhoods where blacks were allowed to gain and spend their money. During the Jim Crow era, African-Americans were not allowed to make purchases or services in predominantly white areas. In particular, Oklahoma was known to have some of the harshest and most unjust Jim Crow laws in the country as there were countless lynching parties in Oklahoma and “whipping parties,” which were social gatherings where white people would whip black people for entertainment purposes.
This forced many blacks to spend their money where they would feel welcomed, which allowed the Greenwood community to flourish and prosper. On Black Wall Street, there were African-American attorneys, real-estate agents, dentists and doctors who offered their services in the neighborhood. One primary example of the black entrepreneurial spirit is illustrated in this example: J. B. Stradford. J. B. Stradford had graduated from Indiana U
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Little River (Red River tributary)
The Little River is a tributary of the Red River, with a total length of 217 miles, 130 miles in southeastern Oklahoma and 87 miles in southwestern Arkansas. In southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Arkansas in the United States. Via the Red, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River. Six large reservoirs impound its tributaries; the drainage basin of the river totals 4,204 square miles, 2,204 square miles in Oklahoma and 2,036 square miles in Arkansas. The Little River and its upper tributaries are popular for recreational kayaking; the highest sources of the Little River are at an elevation of more than 2,000 feet in southwestern Le Flore County, Oklahoma in the Ouachita Mountains. It flows westward into Pushmataha County south into McCurtain County where it turns to flow southeast, past Wright City and through the Little River National Wildlife Refuge and a portion of the Ouachita National Forest, into Arkansas, where it flows through or along the boundaries of Sevier, Little River and Hempstead counties, past the Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge.
It enters the Red River on the common boundary of Little River and Hempstead counties, about 1 mile west of Fulton. Principal tributaries of the Little River in Oklahoma include the Glover River and the Mountain Fork, both of which join it in McCurtain County. In Arkansas, it receives the Cossatot River from the north in Sevier County. Dams of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers on the Little River create Pine Creek Lake 3,750 acres in Oklahoma and Millwood Lake 29,200 acres in Arkansas. Dams on tributaries create Broken Bow Lake 14,200 acres in 1,680 acres. Despite its modest length, the Little River is the sixth largest river in Oklahoma in terms of its flow which averages 3,275 cubic feet per second near the border with Arkansas; the Little River originates in the Ouachita mountains, the most humid part of Oklahoma receiving precipitation of up to 60 inches of precipitation annually. There are no towns on the Little River. Idabel, Oklahoma and DeQueen, Arkansas are near the river; the Little River and its major tributaries are popular for kayaking.
The upper Little River from the hamlet of Honobia, Oklahoma to Pine Creek Lake, 46 river miles, has a moderate gradient and Class I and II rapids. At Pine Creek Lake the river issues from the highlands and thereafter flows through a low, swampy floodplain; the upper river may have insufficient water for boating from July to September except after rains. Water quality of the Little River is excellent with little residential or commercial development along its banks; the Honobia Creek Wildlife Management Area of 80,316 acres includes much of the upper course of the Little River within its boundaries. The WMA is a partnership between the government of three timber companies. Most of the land is utilized for plantations of Loblolly Pine but hardwood forest is preserved in some areas. Twenty-one miles of the river flows through the WMA. Sport fishes include Flathead catfish and Smallmouth bass, Green sunfish, Chain Pickerel. A fee is charged to access the WMA; the Little River National Wildlife Refuge in Oklahoma and the Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas protect portions of the lower Little River and provide habitat for a large variety of animals and plants.
The 13,660 acres Little River NWR has the largest tree in Oklahoma, a Bald Cypress, within its boundaries and the largest specimens in Oklahoma of ten other tree species. Pond Creek NWR includes 30,500 acres on the north bank of the Little River. Breeding populations of the American alligator are found in Millood Lake and Pond Creek NWR and alligators are sometimes seen in the Little River National Wildlife Refuge; this lower section of the river is characterized by swamps, oxbow lakes and a seasonally-flooded bottomland hardwood forest. List of Arkansas rivers List of Oklahoma rivers Little River National Wildlife Refuge Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge Pine Creek Lake Millwood Lake Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Arkansas Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 978-0-89933-345-8. DeLorme. Oklahoma Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 978-0-89933-283-3. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little River Little River National Wildlife Refuge website Millwood Lake website Pine Creek Lake website Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge website Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
Antlers is a city in and the county seat of Pushmataha County, United States. The population was 2,453 at the 2010 census, a 3.9 percent decline from 2,552 in 2000. The town was named for a kind of tree that becomes festooned with antlers shed by deer, is taken as a sign of the location of a spring frequented by deer. Evidence exists of prehistoric occupation and activity within the city limits of present-day Antlers. Arrowheads are found periodically at sites throughout the town. Most of the prehistoric sites are atop hills, which the inhabitants could use for defensive purposes and found the most healthful. A Mississippian culture settlement developed at Spiro Mounds, active from the mid-9th into the 15th century; this is the westernmost site of the culture and it is "one of the most important archeological discoveries in North America." The 80-acre site is preserved today as Oklahoma's only state archeological park. The Spiro Mounds leaders controlled the area of Antlers and the rest of the Kiamichi River valley, as well as a large portion of what is now southeastern Oklahoma and adjacent states.
The Mississippian culture was based along its tributaries. Its largest center was at Cahokia, just to the east of the Mississippi in present-day Illinois; the peoples had an extensive trading network that spanned the continent from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes. Spiro Mounds culture was part of the Southeast Ceremonial Complex, an important culture which extended into what is now known as the Southeastern United States. In the era of European exploration and colonization, the historic Caddo Indians, descendants of the Mississippians, had this area as part of their large territory. Establishing permanent settlements, they were nomadic, they lived in bands. They lived by gathering plants and nuts and fishing. Not recognizing that this was Caddo territory, the United States granted the lands to the Choctaw Indians in 1832 by the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek; this was in exchange for the Choctaw ceding their land in the American Southeast to the federal government during the period of Indian Removal.
The other Five Civilized Tribes were forced to cede their lands in the same period. The Choctaw established communities that replicated the three major divisions of their people in the Southeast, so there were three centers of loose government. White settler encroachment on their land soon began again. During the American Civil War, most of the Choctaw allied with the Confederate States of America, which had suggested it would support an independent Indian state if it won the war. During the 1880s the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway, more popularly known as the “Frisco", built a north-south line through the Choctaw Nation, connecting Fort Smith, Arkansas with Paris, Texas; the US treaties required the tribes to grant the railroads rights of way. The railroad paralleled the Kiamichi River throughout much of its route in present-day Pushmataha County; the railroads established train stations every few miles to be centers of new development. They were the sites of section houses; these stations served as points at which the trains could draw water.
The site of Antlers was selected for a station due to a local freshwater spring. Adjacent stations were established at Davenport — now Kellond — to the north, Hamden to the south; the Choctaw in this sparsely populated area, at that time known as Jack’s Fork County of the Choctaw Nation in the Indian Territory, farmed or subsisted on the land. The Choctaw had built improved trails; the Frisco Railroad was the chief form of transportation through the Territory. It offered six trains per day; the loss of passenger rail followed the construction of several highways linking Antlers to other communities, including U. S. Highway 271, Oklahoma State Highway 7, Oklahoma State Highway 2; the southern section of the Indian Nation Turnpike, which has an interchange at Antlers, opened in 1970. The Frisco Railroad continued freight operations until 1981, when it closed altogether and its rails were removed; this was an era of railroad restructuring and reductions nationwide. A United States Post Office was established at Antlers, Indian Territory, on August 26, 1887.
According to early European-American settler Colonel Victor M. Locke, Jr. the following is an account of how the name was attached to it. A hunter was encamped at the spring at present-day Antlers early one autumn and killed a “magnificent buck.” He nailed its antlers to a tree close to the spring as a challenge to other hunters, who followed suit. Railroad officials designated the new station stop as “Antlers” in recognition of this prominent local landmark tree bristling with points; the Choctaw government allowed some European Americans to settle on their land, but provided them no protections or government services of any kind. During the 1890s the U. S. government acted to provide a minimal level of support. It established Recording Districts throughout the lands of all Five Civilized Tribes of the Indian Territory. Antlers became Record Town of Recording District #24, which covered all of present-day Pushmataha, Choctaw and McCurtain counties. American citizens living in this area were provided with the rudiments of a justice system, with a US Court operating on a part-time schedule.
To support the needs of a Record Town, a United States Court was established at Antlers. A large wooden courthouse was built to accommodate the justices and courtroom fa