Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Shāh Chérāgh is a funerary monument and mosque in Shiraz, housing the tomb of the brothers Ahmad and Muhammad, sons of Mūsā al-Kādhim and brothers of ‘Alī ar-Ridhā. The two took refuge in the city during the Abbasid persecution of Shia Muslims; the tombs became celebrated pilgrimage centres in the 14th century when Queen Tashi Khatun erected a mosque and theological school in the vicinity. Shāh-é-Chérāgh is Persian for "King of the Light"; the site was given this name due to the nature of the discovery of the site by Ayatullah Dastghā'ib. He decided to investigate the source, he found. The grave that emitted the light was excavated, a body wearing an armor was discovered; the body was wearing a ring saying al-‘Izzatu Lillāh, Ahmad bin Mūsā, meaning "The Pride belongs to God, Ahmad son of Musa". Thus it became known; the site is the most important place of pilgrimage within the city of Shiraz. Ahmad came to Shiraz at the beginning of the third Islamic century, died there. During the rule of Atabeg Abū Sa'id Zangi of the Zengid dynasty, the chief minister to the monarch by the name of Amir Muqarrab al-din Badr al-din built the tomb chamber, the dome, as well as a colonnaded porch.
The mosque remained this way for 200 years before further work was initiated by Queen Tash Khātūn during the years 1344-1349. She carried out essential repairs, constructed an edifice, a hall of audience, a fine college, a tomb for herself on the south side, she presented a unique Qur'an of thirty volumes, written in golden thuluth characters with gold decoration, in the style of the calligraphist of that period, Yahya Jamali. The date written on the Qur'an indicates that they were written from 1344-1345. Nothing now remains of the buildings set up by Queen Tash Khātūn, but the Qur'ans have remained and are preserved in the Pars Museum; the mosque again underwent necessary repairs in 1506, which were initiated by the guardian of the mosque at the time, Mirza Habibullah Sharifi. The mosque was again repaired in 1588 when half of the structure collapsed as a result of an earthquake. During the nineteenth century, the mosque was subsequently repaired. In 1827, Fat'h ‘Alī Shāh Qājār presented an ornamental railing for the tomb.
Another earthquake shook the mosque in 1852, repairs were carried out by Muhammad Nasir Zahir ad-Dawla. The late Nasirol'molk repaired the dome, but on account of the numerous cracks, in 1958 the whole dome was removed, in its place an iron structure, lighter, to last longer, in the shape of the original dome, was made at the cost of the people of Shiraz; the present building consists of the original portico, with its ten columns, on the eastern side, a spacious sanctuary with lofty alcoves on four sides, a mosque on the western side of the sanctuary, various rooms. There are numerous tombs contiguous to the Mausoleum; the decorative work in a mosaic of mirror glass, the inscriptions in stucco, the ornamentation, the doors covered with panels of silver, the portico, the wide courtyard are most attractive. The tomb, with its latticed railing, is in an alcove between the space beneath the dome and the mosque, and this custom of placing the tomb in this position, so that it is not directly under the dome, is to be seen in other famous places of pilgrimage in the city of Shiraz, may be considered a special feature of Shiraz shrines.
Two short minarets, situated at each end of the columned portico, add impressiveness to the Mausoleum, to the spacious courtyard, which surrounds it on three sides. The Shah-e-Cheragh Mausoleum was registered on the 20th of the month, Bahman, 1318, under No. 363 in the list of the national monuments of Iran. Another important pilgrimage centre in the historical city of Shiraz is the mausoleum of Sayyid Husayn, another son of Mūsā al-Kādhim; this mausoleum is located near the south-east corner of Shiraz. The mausoleum itself is a tall building bearing a lofty dome; the original entrance was on the south side, approached by a small courtyard from the road that runs beside it. On the western side there is an area, more or less spacious, a cemetery, but is now regarded as the western courtyard of the mausoleum; the mausoleum's interior consists of a tall sanctuary ornamented with designs in facets of mirror beneath the dome, the tomb, as in the other places of pilgrimage in Shiraz, is situated in an alcove on the northern side, there is a mosque adjacent to the sanctuary behind the railing of the tomb.
The original building of the mausoleum was constructed by Qotlogh Khan, who in the Moghul and Timurid period, at the close of the fourteenth, or at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was Governor of Shiraz, had a garden where the present mausoleum stands, built over the site where the grave appeared to be. There is an inscription in the Sols character above the sanctuary, dated 943 A. H. the writer of, called Seyavash. The present Shrine was built in 923 A. H.. The Soltan Khalil mentioned in the above poem is Soltan Zu'l-qadr who during the reign of the Safavid Shad Esma'il I was for fifteen years, from 911 to 926 A. H. Governor of Fars, who according to what is written in the Naseri Fars-Nameh, on account of misconduct at the battle of Chalderan, was by order of Shah Esmail put to death in 926 A. H; the year 943 A. H. mentioned at the end of th
Jameh Mosque of Tabriz
The Jāmeh Mosque is a large, congregational mosque in Tabrīz city, within the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran. It is located in the Bazaar suburb of Tabriz next to the Grand Bazaar of Tabriz and the Constitutional House of Tabriz. Media related to Jameh Mosque of Tabriz at Wikimedia Commons Blue Mosque, Tabriz Saheb ol Amr Mosque Editorial Board, East Azarbaijan Geography, Iranian Ministry of Education, 2000 http://www.eachto.ir
Shiraz County is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Shiraz. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 1,676,927 in 427,268 families; the county is subdivided into three districts: the Central District, Zarqan District, Arzhan District. The county has six cities: Shiraz, Darian, Zarqan & Khaneh Zenyan. Arjan wood facade company located in Semnan
Gilan Province, is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It lies along the Caspian Sea, in Iran's Region 3, west of the province of Mazandaran, east of the province of Ardabil, north of the provinces of Zanjan and Qazvin, it borders the Republic of Russia across the Caspian Sea. The northern part of the province is part of territory of South Talysh. At the center of the province is the main city of Rasht. Other towns in the province include Astara, Astaneh-e Ashrafiyyeh, Lahijan, Masouleh, Rudbar, Shaft and Sowme'eh Sara; the main harbor port is Bandar-e Anzali. In antiquity, this area was a province of Persia known as Daylam; the Daylam region corresponds to the modern region of Gīlān. It seems that the Gelae entered the region south of the Caspian coast and west of the Amardos River in the second or first century B. C. E. Pliny identifies them with the Cadusii, it is more that they were a separate people, had come from the region of Dagestan, taken the place of the Kadusii. That the native inhabitants of Gilan have originating roots in the Caucasus is supported by genetics and language, as Gilaks are genetically closer to ethnic peoples of the Caucasus than they are towards other ethnic groups in Iran.
Their languages shares typologic features with Caucasian languages. It was the place of origin of the Buyid dynasty; the people of the province had a prominent position during the Sassanid dynasty, so that their political power extended to Mesopotamia. The first recorded encounter between Gilanis and Deylamite warlords and invading Muslim Arab armies was at the Battle of Jalula in 637 AD. Deylamite commander Muta led an army of Gils, Deylamites and people of the Rey region. Muta was killed in the battle, his defeated army managed to retreat in an orderly manner. However, this appears to have been a Pyrrhic victory for the Arabs, since they did not pursue their opponents. Unlike the Russians, Muslim Arabs never managed to conquer Gilan as they did with other provinces in Iran. Gilanis and Deylamites repulsed all Arab attempts to occupy their land or to convert them to Islam. In fact, it was the Deylamites under the Buyid king Mu'izz al-Dawla who shifted the balance of power by conquering Baghdad in 945.
Mu'izz al-Dawla, allowed the Abbasid caliphs to remain in comfortable, secluded captivity in their palaces. In the 9th and 10th centuries AD, Deylamites and Gilanis converted to Zaidite Shi'ism. Several Deylamite commanders and soldiers of fortune who were active in the military theaters of Iran and Mesopotamia were Zoroastrian or were suspected of harboring pro-Zoroastrian sentiments. Muslim chronicles of Varangian invasions of the littoral Caspian region in the 9th century record Deylamites as non-Muslim; these chronicles show that the Deylamites were the only warriors in the Caspian region who could fight the fearsome Varangian vikings as equals. Deylamite infantrymen had a role similar to the Swiss Reisläufer of the Late Middle Ages in Europe. Deylamite mercenaries served as far away as Egypt, Islamic Spain, in the Khazar Kingdom. Buyids established the most successful of the Deylamite dynasties of Iran. In the 9th–11th century AD, there were repetitively military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores of Iran and Dagestan as part of the Caspian expeditions of the Rus'.
The Rus' appeared in Serkland in the 9th century traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs and slaves. The first small-scale raids took place in early 10th century; the Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913. The Turkish invasions of the 10th and 11th centuries CE, which saw the rise of Ghaznavid and Seljuq dynasties, put an end to Deylamite states in Iran. From the 11th century CE to the rise of Safavids, Gilan was ruled by local rulers who paid tribute to the dominant power south of the Alborz range but ruled independently. In 1307 the Ilkhan Öljeitü conquered the region after witnessing a Pyrrhic victory; this was the first time the region came under the rule of the Mongols after the Ilkhanid Mongols and their Georgian allies failed to do it in the late 1270s. After 1336, the region seems to be independent again. Before the introduction of silk production, Gilan was a poor province. There were no permanent trade routes linking Gilan to Persia. There was a small trade in smoked wood products.
It seems that the city of Qazvin was a fortress-town against marauding bands of Deylamites, another sign that the economy of the province did not produce enough on its own to support its population. This changed with the introduction of the silk worm in the late Middle Ages. Gilan recognized twice, for brief periods, the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire without rendering tribute to the Sublime Porte, in 1534 and 1591; the Safavid emperor, Shah Abbas I ended the rule of Khan Ahmad Khan and annexed the province directly to his empire. From this point onward, rulers of Gilan were appointed by the Persian Shah. In the Safavid era, Gilan was settled by large numbers of Georgians, Circassians and other peoples of the
East Azerbaijan Province
East Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is located in Iranian Azerbaijan, bordering with Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Ardabil Province, West Azerbaijan Province, Zanjan Province; the capital of East Azerbaijan is Tabriz. East Azerbaijan Province is in Regions 3 of Iran, with its secretariat located in its capital city, Tabriz; the province covers an area of 47,830 km², it has a population of around four million people. The province has common borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan and Autonomous Nakhchivan in the north, West Azerbaijan in the west, Zanjan in the south, Ardabil in east. A fine network of roads and railways connect East Azerbaijan to other parts of Iran and to neighboring countries; the highest point in East Azerbaijan is the volcanic peak of Sahand Mountain at 3,707 m of elevation, lying south of Tabriz, whereas the lower lying areas are around Garmadooz. The hills and mountains of the province are divided into three ranges: the Qara Daq Mountains, the Sahand and Bozqoosh Mountains, the Qaflan Kooh Mountains.
Climate of East Azerbaijan is affected by Mediterranean Continental as well as cold semi-arid climate. Gentle breezes off the Caspian Sea have some influence on the climate of the low-lying areas. Temperatures run up to 8.9 °C in Tabriz, 20 °C in Maraqeh, in the winter dropping to −10–−15 °C at least. The ideal seasons to visit this province are in the summer months. East Azerbaijan is one of the most archaic territories in Iran. During the reign of Alexander of Macedon in Iran, a warrior known as Attorpat led a revolt in this area a territory of the Medes, thereafter it was called Attorpatkan. Since this vicinity has been known as Azarabadegan and Azarbayjan. Islamic researchers proclaim that the birth of the prophet Zoroaster was in this area, in the vicinity of Lake Orumieh, Konzak City. Needless to say, this province was subject to numerous political and economical upheavals, attracting the interest of foreigners; the Russians in particular have tried to exert a lasting influence in the region over the past 300 years, occupying the area on numerous occasions.
The constitutionalist movement of Iran began here in the late 19th century. Ethnic tensions in Azerbaijan can trace their origins back to the colonialist policies of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. In a cable sent on 6 July 1945 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the local Soviet commander in Russian held Azerbaijan was instructed as such: Begin preparatory work to form a national autonomous Azerbaijan district with broad powers within the Iranian state and develop separatist movements in the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Khorasan". In 1945, the Soviet Union helped set up the Azerbaijan People's Government in what is now East Azerbaijan. At the 1986 census there were twelve counties in East Azerbaijan Province. By the 1996 census two additional counties had been formed, Jolfa from part of Marand, Malekan from part of Bonab. Between 1996 and 2002, five new counties were formed: Ajabshir, Charoimaq and Varzaqan. In 2010 Kalibar was split in half with the northern part becoming Khoda Afarin, while the southern part kept the name Kalibar.
Osku County |- Malekan County |- Azarshahr County |- The most outstanding features from a cultural point of view are the language, Azari/Azerice, folklore of this region. According to Dehkhoda Dictionary, the language of Azerbaijan is "a branch of the Iranian languages known as Azari"; however the modern Azeri language is a Turkic language closely related to the language of Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey. Apart from this, the province boasts numerous learned scholars, several national poets such as Mowlana Baba Mazeed, Khajeh Abdol Raheem Aj Abadi, Sheikh Hassan Bolqari, Abdolqader Nakhjavani, to name a few, the contemporary poet Ostad Mohammad Hossein Shahriyar; the current leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei originally comes from this region. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization has registered 936 sites of historical significance in the province; some are contemporary, some are from the antiquity of ancient Persia. "Zahak Citadel", for example, is the name of an ancient ruin in East Azerbaijan, which according to various experts, was inhabited from the second millennium BC until the Timurid era.
First excavated in the 1800s by British archeologists, Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization has been studying the structure in 6 phases. East Azerbaijan enjoys a rich compendium of Azeri traditions. Many local dances and folk songs continue to survive among the various peoples of the province; as a longstanding province of Iran, Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets. Qatran Tabrizi, poet Ahmad Kasravi, historian Samad Behrangi Sattar Khan, revolutionary leader Bagher Khan, revolutionary leader Gayk Bzhishkyan Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh Parvin E'tesami, poet Ali Daei, Iranian soccer player Karim Bagheri, soccer star Iraj Mirza and politician Maqsud Ali Tabrizi Ivan Galamian Hassan Roshdieh Shams Tabrizi, mystic Vartan Gregorian, President of Carnegie Corporation Ali Salimi Ali Soheili, Prime Minister of Iran Ebrahim Hakimi, Prime Minister of Iran Mahmud Jam, Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Hossein Shahriar Asadi Tusi is buried here East Azerbaijan province is an industrial centre of Iran.
East Azerbaijan province has over 5000 manufacturing units. The value of product from these units in 1997 was US$374 mil
The Sāheb ol Amr Mosque or King Tahmasp Mosque is a mosque located on the east side of Saaheb Aabaad square in Tabriz, Iran. The mosque was built in 1636 and has a history of destruction and repair; the name Sāheb ol Amr is one of the titles of the last Twelver Shī‘ah Imām. The mosque was built in 1636 by the Safavid king Tahmasp I, on the east side of Saaheb Aabaad square in Tabriz; however the building was destroyed by the Ottoman ruler Murad IV after invading Tabriz in 1638. Once Persian troops re-affirmed control over the city, the mosque was rebuilt but suffered great damage from an earthquake that struck the city soon after; the entire square along with the mosque was reconstructed and this task was carried out by Goli Khan Danbali. In favour of the people, the mosque was dubbed Sāheb ol Amr, a title of the last Twelver Shī‘ah Imām, Muhammad al-Mahdi. In 1850, Mirza Ali Akbar Khan, the Russian Consulate interpreter, rebuilt some other parts of dome, added mirrors to the corridor. A school was built in the front part of the dome.
The school yard was destroyed during the expansion of Daraiee Street by the city of Tabriz and only a part of school is now serrained. List of Mosques in Iran Blue Mosque, Tabriz Shohada Mosque Madrasah Akbarieh Haidarzadeh house House of Seghat ol Islam http://www.eachto.ir Virtual Museum of Historical Buildings of Tabriz. Tabriz Islamic Art University, Iran. Picture gallery, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Iran. Iranian Student's Tourism & Traveling Agency, ISTTA. Tabriz virtual gallery