Edinburgh Comedy Awards
The Edinburgh Comedy Awards or Eddies are presented to the comedy shows deemed to have been the best at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Scotland. Established in 1981, they are the most prestigious comedy prize in the United Kingdom; the awards have been directed and produced by Nica Burns since 1984. The main prize, for many years the only prize, is now known as the Best Comedy Show, is awarded "for the funniest, most outstanding, up-and-coming comic / comedy show / act" at the Fringe; the winner receives a cash prize of £10,000 and an invitation to perform at the Montreal and Chicago Just for Laughs Comedy Festivals. The Best Newcomer Award category was introduced in 1992, is given to the best "performer or act, performing their first full-length show"; the prize is £5,000. Newcomers are eligible for the Best Comedy Show Award, but no act is allowed to appear on both shortlists in the same year. A further prize, the Panel Prize, was inaugurated in 2006. All shows are eligible, the award may not be awarded at all, if the panel so choose.
This happened in 2017. In 2008, it had been awarded to "every comedian on the Fringe". Like Best Newcomer, the Panel Prize winner receives a cash prize of £5,000; the original award was created by Perrier in 1981 as a way of supporting young talent. Prior to this, there had been no award recognition for comedy shows on the Fringe; the Scotsman had introduced Fringe Firsts in 1973 for theatre. However, revues the dominant type of comedy at the Fringe, were excluded; the first Perrier in fact advertised itself as for the "most outstanding revue", thus overlooking stand-up, beginning to emerge as a force due to the influence of the alternative comedy scene. The inaugural award and £1,000 prize was presented to the Cambridge Footlights, a cast that included Stephen Fry, Emma Thompson, Hugh Laurie and Tony Slattery, their show, entitled The Cellar Tapes played at St Mary Street Hall and was promoted in the programme with the line, "one of the strongest casts for several years, has toured in southern England with great success."
The award was presented by Rowan Atkinson, who had performed with the Oxford Revue in 1976. The success of these initial winners would boost the profile of the awards. However, former Oxbridge revue members had always been able to find success in light entertainment, so the effect of the award on their careers may be exaggerated. Nonetheless, the 1981 Award retains symbolic power for new comedians wanting to find fame at the Fringe. Many other award winners and nominees have gone on to forge successful careers in comedy and the media industry including Lee Evans, Milton Jones, Garth Marenghi's Darkplace creators Richard Ayoade and Matt Holness, double act Alexander Armstrong and Ben Miller, QI panellist Alan Davies and Mock the Week panellist Chris Addison. Australian Comedian Brendon Burns has said that he is "arguably the least successful winner" of the award. A stand-up first won the award in 1987. A Best Newcomer Award was added in 1992, in 2006, the inaugural Panel Prize was given out; the panel prize was awarded to'all performers' in 2008, the £4,000 prize money was put behind their bar at the end of August party.
2013 was the first year that all three awards went to shows in Independent venues outside the so-called'big four. John Kearns won Best Newcomer, Bridget Christie won Best Show and Adrienne Truscott won the panel prize. In 2014, John Kearns became the first comedian to win Best Newcomer and Best Comedy Show in consecutive years. In 2017, for the first time, two awards were given for Best Show. No panel prize was awarded in 2017. From their inception in 1981 until 2005 the awards were sponsored by mineral water brand Perrier, during which time they were known as the Perrier Comedy Awards. Sponsorship passed to the Scottish-based bank Intelligent Finance and for 2006, the first year of their involvement, the awards were known as the if.comeddies, changing to the if.comedy awards for 2007 and 2008. In March 2009 Intelligent Finance announced; the 2009 awards were known as the Edinburgh Comedy Award, sponsored by AbsoluteRadio.co.uk. From 2010 until 2015 the awards were sponsored by Foster's Lager. Since 2016 the awards have been sponsored by lastminute.com.
In order to avoid confusion due to the frequency of name changes, past winners are now said to have won "the Eddie", a popular colloquial term for the award, rather than referring to a specific year's sponsor. In 1995, Perrier was bought by Nestlé, the subject of a long-running boycott based on alleged violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, leading to calls to boycott or to eliminate the awards taken up by some Fringe venues and performers, including former winners Emma Thompson, Steve Coogan, Stewart Lee and Rob Newman, led a campaign of protest against the award, beginning in 2001, called Baby Milk Action; the Nestlé boycott led to the alternative Tap Water Awards which ran from 2001 to 2006, aimed to promote access to safe supplies of drinking water and sanitation in developing countries. Multiple winners were chosen each year, including established comedians like Stewart Lee and Robert Newman, and, in the award's final year, promoter Peter Buckley Hill for his Free Fringe initiative.
The 2002 awards were criticised because no female acts were shortlisted, the second consecutive year in which, the case. In 2009, they were again criticised for all the n
Wimbledon is a district and town of south-west London, England, 7.1 miles south-west of the centre of London at Charing Cross, in the London Borough of Merton, south of Wandsworth, north-east of New Malden, north-west of Mitcham, west of Streatham and north of Sutton. Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Hillside, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park, it is home to the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and New Wimbledon Theatre, contains Wimbledon Common, one of the largest areas of common land in London along with a Wimbledon Tennis Club. The residential and retail area is split into two sections known as the "village" and the "town", with the High Street being the rebuilding of the original medieval village, the "town" having first developed after the building of the railway station in 1838. Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common is thought to have been constructed. In 1087 when the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake.
The ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed between various wealthy families many times during its history, the area attracted other wealthy families who built large houses such as Eagle House, Wimbledon Manor House and Warren House. The village developed with a stable rural population coexisting with nobility and wealthy merchants from the city. In the 18th century the Dog and Fox public house became a stop on the stagecoach run from London to Portsmouth in 1838 the London and South Western Railway opened a station to the south-east of the village at the bottom of Wimbledon Hill; the location of the station shifted the focus of the town's subsequent growth away from the original village centre. Wimbledon had its own borough larger than its historic boundaries while still in the county of Surrey. Since 2005, the north and west of the borough have been represented in Westminster by Stephen Hammond, a Conservative MP; the east and south of the Borough are represented by Siobhain McDonagh, a Labour MP.
Wimbledon has established minority groups. Wimbledon, a small farming locality in New Zealand, was named after this district in the 1880s after a local resident shot a bullock from a considerable distance away; the shot was considered by onlookers to be worthy of the rifle-shooting championships held in Wimbledon at the time. Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common, the second-largest in London, is thought to have been constructed; the original nucleus of Wimbledon was at the top of the hill close to the common – the area now known locally as "the village". The village is referred to as "Wimbedounyng" in a charter signed by King Edgar the Peaceful in 967; the name Wimbledon means "Wynnman's hill", with the final element of the name being the Celtic "dun". The name is shown on J. Cary's 1786 map of the London area as "Wimbleton", the current spelling appears to have been settled on recently in the early 19th century, the last in a long line of variations.
At the time the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, so was not recorded. The ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed hands many times during its history; the manor was held by the church until 1398 when Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury fell out of favour with Richard II and was exiled. The manor became crown property; the manor remained crown property until the reign of Henry VIII when it was granted to Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, until Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the land was again confiscated. The manor was next held by Henry VIII's last wife and widow Catherine Parr until her death in 1548 when it again reverted to the monarch. In the 1550s, Henry's daughter, Mary I, granted the manor to Cardinal Reginald Pole who held it until his death in 1558 when it once again become royal property. Mary's sister, Elizabeth I held the property until 1574, when she gave the manor house to Christopher Hatton, who sold it in the same year to Sir Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter.
The lands of the manor were given to the Cecil family in 1588 and a new manor house, Wimbledon Palace, was constructed and gardens laid out in the formal Elizabethan style. Wimbledon's proximity to the capital was beginning to attract other wealthy families. In 1613 Robert Bell, Master of the Worshipful Company of Girdlers and a director of the British East India Company built Eagle House as a home at an easy distance from London; the Cecil family retained the manor for fifty years, before it was bought by Charles I in 1638 for his Queen, Henrietta Maria. Following the King's execution in 1649, the manor passed among various parliamentarian owners, including the Leeds MP Adam Baynes and the civil war general John Lambert, but after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, it was returned to Henrietta Maria; the Dowager Queen sold the manor in 1661 to George Digby, Earl of Bristol, who employed John Evelyn to improve and update the landscape in accordance with the latest fashions, including grottos and fountains.
On his death in 1677, the manor was sold again to the Lord High Treasurer, Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby. The Osborne family sold the manor to Sir Theodore Janssen in 1712. Janssen, a director of the South Sea Company, began a new house to replace the one built by the Cecils, but the spectacular collapse of the company meant it was never finished; the next owner was Sarah Church
BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Launched on 9 February 2003 as a replacement for BBC Choice, the service's remit was to provide "innovative programming" to a target audience of viewers between 16 and 34 years old, leveraging technology as well as new talent. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Three's output originated from the United Kingdom. 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, current affairs, drama. BBC Three had a unique 60 Seconds format for its news bulletins, adopted so that operation of the channel could be automated, without the complication of dealing with variable-length live news broadcasts; the former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, at which point BBC Three commissioner Sam Bickley became acting controller. Until February 2016, the network broadcast on Freeview, digital cable, IPTV and Satellite television platforms, was on-air from 7 pm to around 4 am each night to share terrestrial television bandwidth with CBBC.
In March 2014, as a result of a planned £100 million budget cut across the BBC, it was proposed that BBC Three be discontinued as an'open' television service, be converted to an over-the-top Internet television service with a smaller programming budget and a focus on short-form productions. Despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year; the TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016. In late 2001, the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two, their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three. However, questions were raised over the proposed format of the new BBC Three, as some thought the new format would be too similar to the BBC's commercial rivals, namely ITV2 and E4, would be unnecessary competition.
The channel was given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, launched on 9 February 2003. The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who ran BBC Choice, before that UK Play, the now-discontinued UKTV music and comedy channel. At 33, Murphy was still the youngest channel controller in the country, a title he had held since launching UK Play at the age of 26. On 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229, it was moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, to free up space for new channels. It was moved to 115. For the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9:00 am to 4:00 am for the duration of the games. On 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014; the channel launched on 10 December 2013.
In February 2014, BBC Director-General Tony Hall announced that cuts of £100 million would have to be made at the corporation. On 5 March 2014, Hall announced a proposal to convert BBC Three to an online-only service, with an 50% cut in its programming budget, a larger emphasis on short form content due to the cut in funding; these changes formed part of a package of proposals from the BBC, including extending CBBC's hours, respending £30m on BBC One audiences for drama, launching a one-hour timeshift channel of BBC One. There was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change.org has gathered over 300,000 signatures. However, there was some support from media commentators, those who backed a "slimmer" BBC; when the BBC revealed the full detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers but said there was support for the wider package of proposals.
They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits "a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels". The'Save BBC Three' campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three; the BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it ended with a protest outside Broadcasting House. As part of the consultation a letter of 750 names against the move from the creative industry was sent to the BBC Trust, this had the backing of a number of celebrities including Daniel Radcliffe, Aidan Turner, Olivia Colman and Lena Headey; the polling company ICM concluded a "large majority" of those that replied to the consultation were against the move with respondents concerned about those who cannot stream programming online, the effect of the content budget cuts, the BBC's own admission the audience numbers would drop. The Save BBC Three campaign has argued the transition period is too short and that programmes like Family Guy and Don't Tell the Bride have not performed as well on BBC One and BBC Two with the 16-34 year old audience, in comparison to BBC Three.
It did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. Nonetheless, the BBC Trust issued its final decision to approve the transition in November 2015, citing the fact th
A radio producer oversees the making of a radio show. The job title covers several different job descriptions: Content producers or executive producers oversee and orchestrate a radio show or feature; the content producer might organize music choices and callers for a talk radio show, or competitions and overall show content. Creative producers, imaging specialists, or imaging producers produce audio content for the show, such as sound clips used on the show and "promo clips"; the board operator or technical operator operates the technical controls—such as sound volume levels, recording software, switchboard. The producer used to be in a separate control room separated from the radio studio by a window, which allowed visual contact while blocking noise. With quieter switches and better directional microphones, the producer and the controls may be at the same table as the on-air talent without adding unwanted sound to the product. Many radio stations and radio networks have a production director who oversees the above responsibilities.
This individual, or a production staff, may do the production work for many stations. Radio Producer
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is an English professional football club based in Selhurst, South London, that competes in the Premier League, the highest level of English football. They were founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building and played their home games at the FA Cup Final stadium situated inside the historic Palace grounds; the club were forced to leave the Palace in 1915 due to the outbreak of the First World War, played at Herne Hill Velodrome and the Nest until 1924, when they moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have had several periods competing in the top level of English football, they enjoyed a successful period in the late 1980s and early 1990s, during which the club achieved its highest league finish of third place in the top division in 1990–91, were only denied a place in Europe because of the partial UEFA ban on English clubs at that time following the Heysel Stadium disaster. The club were one of the original founding members of the Premier League.
Palace have reached two FA Cup finals, finishing runners-up to Manchester United on both occasions in 1990 and 2016. The club's traditional kit colours were claret and blue, but in 1973 they decided to change to the red and blue vertical stripes now worn today. Palace have a fierce rivalry with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby and share rivalries with fellow South London clubs Millwall and Charlton Athletic. In 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building; some years the owners, who were reliant on tourist activity for their income, sought fresh attractions for the venue, decided to form their own football team to play at the Palace stadium. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, but they had disappeared from historical records around 1876; the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area.
Although the Football Association disliked the idea of the owners of the Cup Final venue possessing their own football team and rejected their proposal, a separate company was established to form and own the club. Crystal Palace Football Club nicknamed "The Glaziers", were founded on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman; the club applied to enter the Football League alongside another newly formed London club Chelsea. For Palace, it was Chelsea that were accepted and the club found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season; the club was successful in its inaugural season and were promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace played in the mid-week United Counties League, finishing runners-up to Watford, it was in this competition that the club played their first match, winning 3–0 away to New Brompton. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup.
The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace and its grounds, which meant the club was forced to leave and they moved to the home of West Norwood F. C. at Herne Hill Velodrome. Three years they moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C.. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions and gaining promotion to the Second Division. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club still plays at today; the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South. Before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions. During the war years, the Football League was suspended, the club won two Wartime Leagues, the South Regional League and the South'D' League.
After the war, the club were less successful in the league, their highest position being seventh, conversely on three occasions the club had to apply for re-election. The club remained in Division Three South until 1957–58. A league reorganisation would see clubs in the bottom half of the table merge with those in the bottom half of Division Three North to form a new Fourth Division. Palace finished fourteenth – just below the cut – and found itself in the basement of English football, their stay proved brief. New chairman Arthur Wait appointed Arthur Rowe as manager, the 1960–61 season saw Palace gain promotion. Palace achieved distinction in 1962 when they played the great Real Madrid team of that era in a friendly match; this was the first time. Although Rowe stepped down for health reasons towards the end of 1962, the promotion proved a turning point in the club's history. Dick Graham and Bert Head guided the club to successive promotions in 1963–64 and 1968–69, taking the club through the Second Division and into the heights of the First Division.
Palace stayed in the top flight from 1969 until 1973, but experienced great disappointment. Under the management of Malcolm Allison the club was relegated in consecutive seasons, finding itself back in Division Three for the 1974–75 season, it was under Allison that the club became nicknamed "The Eagles" and they enjoyed a run to the semi-final of the 1975-76 FA Cup, beating Leeds and Chelsea along the way. Allison was sacked at the end of the 1975–76 campaign, it was under Terry Venables' management that Palace were promoted in 1976–77 and again in 1978–79, th
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
HMV is a UK based music and film retailer. The first HMV-branded store was opened by the Gramophone Company on Oxford Street in 1921, the HMV name was used for television and radio sets manufactured from the 1930s onwards; the retail side of the business began to expand in the 1960s, in 1998 was divested from EMI, the successor to the Gramophone Company, to form what would become HMV Group. HMV stands for His Master's Voice, the title of a painting by Francis Barraud of the dog Nipper listening to a cylinder phonograph, bought by the Gramophone Company in 1899. For advertising purposes this was changed to a wind-up gramophone, used as a silhouette. HMV owned the Waterstone's bookshop chain from 1998 until 2011, has owned the music retailer Fopp since August 2007, it purchased a number of former Zavvi stores in February 2009, branched into live music venue management that year by purchasing MAMA Group. It sold the group in December 2012. On 15 January 2013, HMV Group plc entered administration.
Deloitte were appointed to deal with the administration of the company. On 16 January 2013, HMV Ireland declared receivership, all Irish stores were closed. A week on 22 January 2013, it was reported that Hilco UK would buy the debt of HMV, a step towards taking control of the company; the sale of HMV's Hong Kong and Singapore business to private equity firm Aid Partners was completed on 28 February 2013. On 5 April 2013, HMV was bought out of administration by Hilco UK for an estimated £50 million to form the current company. HMV Group plc, listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE Fledgling Index, was liquidated in July 2014. HMV Canada is a former subsidiary, sold to Hilco by the HMV Group in 2011. HMV Canada went into receivership in 2017 after being sued by Huk 10 Ltd. a shell company owned by Hilco. Sunrise Records announced that it had negotiated to purchase the leases for 70 of HMV's locations from landlords to convert them to Sunrise stores as well as plans to retain as many former HMV staff as possible.
After announcing its intent to enter administration again in December 2018, the company was bought from Hilco by Sunrise Records on 5 February 2019. The antecedents of HMV began in the 1890s at the dawn of the disc gramophone. By 1902 it had become the beginnings of the Gramophone Company. In February 1907 they commenced the building of a new dedicated record factory at Middlesex. Disc records were sold in independent retailers at this time. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first dedicated HMV shop in Oxford Street, London, in a former men's clothing shop. In March 1931 the Gramophone Company merged with Columbia Graphophone Company to form Electric and Musical Industries Ltd. From the 1930s onwards, HMV manufactured radio and television sets and radiograms under the HMV and Marconiphone brand names in their factory in Hayes, Middlesex. In 1966 HMV began expanding its retail operations in London. Throughout the 1970s, the company continued to expand, doubling in size, in six years became the country's leading specialist music retailers.
It faced new competition, from Virgin Megastores, established in 1976, Our Price, established in 1972. Subsequently, HMV overtook Our Price in popularity and threatened their existence, having established a chain of newer, larger stores; the company opened its flagship store at a new location on Oxford Street in 1986, announcing it was the largest record store in the world at the time, the official opening was attended by Bob Geldof and Michael Hutchence. Growth continued for a third decade into the 1990s, with the company reaching over 320 stores including in 1990 their first store in the U. S. located at 86th and Lexington in New York City, the largest music retailer in North America. HMV celebrated its 75-year anniversary in 1996. In February 1998, EMI entered into a joint venture with Advent International to form HMV Media Group led by Alan Giles, which acquired HMV's stores and Dillons, leaving EMI with a holding of around 45%; the new joint venture bought the Waterstone's chain of bookshops to merge with Dillons.
By 2002, EMI's holding in HMV Media was 43%, with Advent International owning 40% and management the remainder. The company floated on the London Stock Exchange in the year as HMV Group plc, leaving EMI with only a token holding; the group became susceptible to a takeover following a poor period of trading up to Christmas 2005. Private equity firm Permira made a £762 million conditional bid for the group on 7 February 2006, rejected by HMV as an insufficient valuation of the company. Permira made a second offer which increased the value, although HMV declined it on 13 March 2006, subsequently issuing a statement that the offer undervalued the medium and long term prospects for the company, resulting in Permira withdrawing from bidding. In 2006 the HMV Group merged it into Waterstone's; the merger tied into HMV's strategy for growth, as many of the Ottakar's branches were in smaller towns and outposts. The Competition Commission provisionally cleared HMV Group, through Waterstone's, for takeover of the Ottakar's group on 30 March 2006, stating that the takeover would "not result in a substantial lessening of competition".
Waterstone's announced that it had negotiated a takeover of Ottakar's on 31 May 2006. All 130 Ottakar's stores were rebranded as Waterstone's prior to Christmas 2006. In March 2007, new Group CEO Simon Fox announced a 10% reduction over three years in the enlarged Waterstone's total store space, compr