The Troy Trojans are the sports teams of Troy University. They began playing in the NCAA's Division I-A in 2001, became a football only member of the Sun Belt Conference in 2004, joined that conference for all other sports in 2005. Troy University's athletics nickname was the Red Wave until the early 1970s when the student body voted to change the name to Trojans. Prior to becoming a member of NCAA Division One athletics in 1993, Troy University was a member of the Gulf South Conference of the NCAA Division II ranks. At the time, Troy's primary rivals were Jacksonville State University, Livingston University, the University of North Alabama; the rivalry between Troy and Jacksonville State was arguably the fiercest of those. However, since Troy University moved to Division I-A participation in football and because Troy and JSU no longer share the same conference affiliation, this once heated rivalry has cooled significantly. Troy has Sun Belt rivalries with all East Division schools; the Trojans' most prominent rival in all sports is their main Sun Belt rival, South Alabama.
A member of the Sun Belt Conference, Troy sponsors teams in eight men's and nine women's NCAA sanctioned sports. Troy University has fielded a football team continuously since 1946. Troy has won national championships at the NAIA level in 1968 and at the NCAA Division II level in 1984 and 1987. Troy University football began playing in the NCAA's Division I-A in 2001, became a football only member of the Sun Belt Conference in 2004, joined that conference for all other sports in 2005. In 2001, Troy defeated Mississippi State University in Starkville, Mississippi to notch the Trojans' first victory over a BCS level program. On September 9, 2004, the Trojans garnered the program's first win over a ranked opponent when they defeated #17 ranked Missouri, 24-14, upsetting former Heisman-hopeful Brad Smith's Heisman Trophy chances. Three years in 2007, the Trojans routed Oklahoma State at home by a score of 41-23; the Trojan football team made its first bowl game appearance in the Silicon Valley Football Classic against Northern Illinois University on December 30, 2004, but lost.
The Trojans won their first bowl game on December 20, 2006 at the New Orleans Bowl against Rice University by a score of 41-17. The football program won five straight Sun Belt titles from 2006 to 2010, finishing their run in 2010 with a New Orleans Bowl win over Ohio by a score of 48-21. At the end of the 2014 season, longtime head coach Larry Blakeney retired from coaching, he finished his career at Troy with a 178-113-1 record, 8 conference championships, 5 bowl appearances. He was inducted into the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame in 2009. Current head coach Neal Brown was hired following Blakeney's retirement. After starting his first season as a head coach in 2015, going 4-8, he led a monumental turnaround for the football program in the 2016 season, as the Trojan finished 10-3, including a 28-23 win over Ohio in the Dollar General Bowl. During that season, Troy cracked the AP Top 25 for the first time since the program joined the FBS in 2001. Troy was the first football program in the Sun Belt Conference to receive a Top 25 ranking.
The Trojans football team has won three national titles: 1968, 1984, 1987. The Troy University men's basketball team is under the direction of head coach Phil Cunningham. Don Maestri is the winningest coach in Troy University history; the Trojans' last NCAA Tournament appearance was in the 2003 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament as a 14 seed after winning the 2003 Atlantic Sun Conference tournament. The Trojans' faced 3-seed Xavier in the first round, but the Trojans lost 71–59, they finished the 2003 season with a 26-6 overall record. In their most recent post-season appearance in 2010, the Trojans won the Sun Belt Conference regular-season title but lost in the conference tournament final; because of this, Troy made its way back to the NIT for the second time since 2004, falling to Ole Miss in the first round. The Trojan basketball team is recognized in recent Division I Basketball history for leading the nation in three-pointers from 2004 to 2006, making 1068 three-pointers over the course of 89 games during those three seasons.
Troy's most famous claim to fame, however, is their game against DeVry Institute of Atlanta on January 12, 1992 when the Trojans came out victorious by the NCAA-record score of 258–141. This is the highest scoring game in NCAA basketball history; the Troy University baseball team won two Division II national championships in 1986 and 1987 under the leadership of baseball coach, Chase Riddle. One of Troy's most significant victories in baseball came in April 1998 when the Trojans knocked off the #3 nationally ranked Alabama Crimson Tide by a score of 8-4 at Riddle-Pace Field on the Troy campus. In 2006, Sun Belt Conference Coach of the Year Bobby Pierce led the Trojans to a regular season conference title, conference tournament title, an NCAA Regional appearance with an overall record of 47–16; the Men of Troy were the 2-seed in the Tuscaloosa Regional in 2006, defeating the Southern Miss Golden Eagles twice, but were eliminated by the Alabama Crimson Tide in the championship game. Following the season, Jared Keel, Mike Felix, Tom King were selected in the MLB draft.
Troy's highest rank of the season was #29 by the NCBWA. In 2007 the Trojans went 34–27, finishing in a tie for second in the Sun Belt Conference, were selected as a number three seed in the Oxford Regional hosted by Ole Miss; the Trojans were defeated by Southern Miss and Sam Houston State in consecutive games and eliminated from the regional. In 2011
Lynda Lee Mead
Lynda Lee Shea is an American businesswoman and beauty pageant titleholder, Miss Mississippi 1959 and Miss America 1960. Shea attended Natchez High School and the University of Mississippi, where she was a member of Chi Omega sorority, her immediate predecessor as Miss America, Mary Ann Mobley, was Mead's sorority sister at Chi Omega. Mead married Dr. John J. Shea, Jr. in 1964. Shea is President of Shea Design & French Country Imports in Memphis, Tennessee
Louisiana House of Representatives
The Louisiana House of Representatives is the lower house in the Louisiana State Legislature, the state legislature of the US state of Louisiana. The House is composed of 105 representatives, each of whom represents 42,500 people. Members serve four-year terms with a term limit of three terms; the House is one of the five state legislative lower houses that has a four-year term, as opposed to the near-universal two-year term. The House convenes at the State Capitol in Baton Rouge; the Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is customarily recommended by the governor elected by the full House. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leadership position, controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments; the House of Representatives elects a Speaker pro tempore to preside in the absence of the Speaker. The current Speaker is Republican Chuck Kleckley of the 36th District, elected to that position in 2012 succeeding Jim Tucker.
His deputy is the Speaker pro tempore Democrat Walt Leger, III of the 91st District. The Speaker pro tempore presides; the chairman of the Republican delegation is Lance Harris of the 25th District. The Louisiana House of Representatives comprises 105 representatives elected from across the state from single-member districts by registered voters in the district. Representatives must be electors, be at least eighteen years old, be domiciled in the district they represent at least one year, have resided in the state two years; the House is the judge of its members' elections. All candidates for state representative in a district compete in a nonpartisan blanket primary. Elections occur representatives are limited to three four-year terms. If a seat is vacant, it will be filled in a special election. House sessions occur along with the Louisiana State Senate, every year, for sixty legislative days in even-numbered years and forty-five legislative days in odd-numbered years in which only monetary bills can be considered.
The House is the lower legislative chamber of the Louisiana State Legislature. The Louisiana House has sole authority to introduce appropriation bills; the Louisiana House of Representatives was established, along with its functions and authority, in Article III, Section 3 of the Louisiana Constitution. The committees of the Louisiana House review proposed bills and either kill them or recommend their passage to the full House; each committee has a specialized area. Committees can call upon state officials to testify at committee meetings. Committee memberships, including chairmanships and vice chairmanships, are assigned by the Speaker. List of Speakers of the Louisiana House of Representatives Louisiana State Capitol Louisiana State Legislature Louisiana Senate American Legislative Exchange Council members Louisiana House of Representatives House district maps Membership in the Louisiana House of Representatives, 1812–2016 2012–2016 House Orientation Guide In The Loop Official Blog of the Louisiana House of Representatives
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Natchez is the county seat and only city of Adams County, United States. Natchez has a total population of 15,792. Located on the Mississippi River across from Vidalia in Concordia Parish, Natchez was a prominent city in the antebellum years, a center of cotton planters and Mississippi River trade. Natchez is some 90 miles southwest of Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, located near the center of the state, it is 85 miles north of Baton Rouge, located on the lower Mississippi River. Natchez is the 25th-largest city in the state; the city was named for the Natchez tribe of Native Americans, who with their ancestors, inhabited much of the area from the 8th century AD through the French colonial period. Established by French colonists in 1716, Natchez is one of the oldest and most important European settlements in the lower Mississippi River Valley. After the French lost the French and Indian War, they ceded Natchez and near territory to Spain in the Treaty of Paris of 1763.. After the United States acquired this area from the British after the American Revolutionary War, the city served as the capital of the American Mississippi Territory and of the state of Mississippi.
It predates Jackson by more than a century. The strategic location of Natchez, on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River, ensured that it would be a pivotal center of trade and the interchange of ethnic Native American and African cultures in the region. In U. S. history, Natchez is recognized for its role in the development of the Old Southwest during the first half of the nineteenth century. It was the southern terminus of the historic Natchez Trace, with the northern terminus being Nashville, Tennessee. After unloading their cargoes in Natchez or New Orleans, many pilots and crew of flatboats and keelboats traveled by the Trace overland to their homes in the Ohio River Valley; the Natchez Trace played an important role during the War of 1812. Today the modern Natchez Trace Parkway, which commemorates this route, still has its southern terminus in Natchez. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the city attracted wealthy Southern planters as residents, who built mansions to fit their ambitions.
Their plantations were vast tracts of land in the surrounding lowlands along the river fronts of Mississippi and Louisiana, where they grew large commodity crops of cotton and sugarcane using slave labor. Natchez became the principal port from which these crops were exported, both upriver to Northern cities and downriver to New Orleans, where much of the cargo was exported to Europe. Many of the mansions built by planters before 1860 survive and form a major part of the city's architecture and identity. Agriculture remained the primary economic base for the region until well into the twentieth century. During the American Civil War Natchez was surrendered by Confederate forces without a fight in September, 1862. Following the Union victory at the Battle of Vicksburg in July, 1863, many refugees, including former slaves, freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, began moving into Natchez and the surrounding countryside; the Union Army officers claimed to be unable to provide for the refugees. The Army planned to address the situation with a mixture of paid labor for freed slaves on government leased plantations, the enlistment of able bodied males who were willing to fight in the Union Army and the establishment of refugee camps where former slaves could be provided with education.
However, as the war continued, the plan was never implemented and the leased plantations were poorly managed and raided by Confederate troops who controlled the surrounding territory. Hundreds of people living in Natchez, including many former slaves and refugees, died of hunger, disease or were killed in the fighting during this period. After the American Civil War, the city's economy revived due to Natchez having been spared the destruction visited upon many other parts of the South; the vitality of the city and region was captured most in the 80 years or so following the war by the photographers Henry C. Norman and his son Earl; the output of the Norman Studio between 1870 and 1950 documents this period in Natchez's development vividly. During the twentieth century, the city's economy experienced a downturn, first due to the replacement of steamboat traffic on the Mississippi River by railroads in the early 1900s, some of which bypassed the river cities and drew away their commerce. In the 20th century, many local industries closed in a restructuring that reduced the number of jobs in the area.
Despite its status as a popular destination for heritage tourism because of well-preserved antebellum architecture, Natchez has had a general decline in population since 1960. It remains the principal city of the MS -- LA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Natchez is located at 31°33'16" latitude, 91°23'15" longitude. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.9 square miles, of which 13.2 square
Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students graduate at age 18; some countries have a thirteenth grade. Twelfth grade is the last year of high school. In Australia, the twelfth grade is referred to as Year 12. In New South Wales, students are 16 or 17 years old when they enter Year 12 and 17–18 years during graduation. A majority of students in Year 12 work towards getting an ATAR or OP, which will allow them access to courses at university. In South Australia, this is achieved by completing the SACE. In New South Wales, when completing the, students are required to satisfactorily complete at least 10 units of study in ATAR courses which must include: eight units from Category A courses two units of English three Board Developed courses of two units or greater four subjectsSome Year 12s may receive a Year 12 Jersey. Schools choose the design and writing which are printed or stitched onto the jersey.
Sometimes the last two digits of the year they are graduating are printed on the back along with a personalised nickname. The front may show the school emblem and the student's name, stitched in. Many schools conduct end of year "formals", they are held from any time between graduation in September to November. Australian private schools conduct Year 12 balls in January or February of Year 12 instead of an end of year formal. In Belgium, the 12th grade is called 6de middelbaar or laatste jaar in Dutch, rétho or 6e année in French. In the General Education, this year guides and prepares students for their first year in University by recalling everything learned during the past six years of secondary school. In the Skills Education, this year prepares the students for the professional life with an Intership in the chosen domain. In Brazil, the 12th grade is called terceiro ano do ensino médio informally called terceiro colegial, meaning third grade of high school, it is attended by 17–18 years old students.
During this grade, most students apply to what is called Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio, the Brazilian equivalent of the SATs in the US, vestibular, the individual entrance examination particular to each university. As in many countries, Grade 12 students attend Graduation, which involves a formal official ceremony, a party where students and friends are invited and another party just for the students. In Bulgaria the twelfth grade is the last year of high-school. Twelfth-grade students tend to be 18–19 years old. Students are preparing to take the Matriculation exam in the end of their 2nd semester. In Canada, the twelfth grade is referred to as Grade 12. Students enter their Grade 12 year when they are 16 or 17 years old. If they are 16 years old, they will be turning 17 by December 31 of that year. In many Canadian high schools, student during their year, hold a series of fundraisers, grade-class trips, other social events. Grade 12 Canadian students attend Graduation which involves an official ceremony and a dinner dance.
Ontario had Grade 13, renamed Ontario Academic Credit, before being phased out, leaving Grade 12 as the final year. Grades 12 and 13 were similar to sixth form in England. Quebec is the lone province that does not have Grade 12. Thus, when a student is in Grade 12 in Ontario, for instance, the student in Quebec is in his first year of college. Newfoundland and Labrador did not introduce Grade 12 until 1983. In Denmark, the twelfth grade is the 3rd G, the final year of secondary school. G is equivalent to gymnasium; this is not compulsory. Students are 18-19 or older when they finish secondary school; the age of graduation is caused by the fact that Danish children first start school at 6. The reason that many students will be at the age of 20 when they graduate is because some people choose to have one-year gap between the 9th grade and gymnasium's 1st G, where students go to special art- or sport-oriented boarding schools or become exchange students all over the world; this is optional though. The twelfth grade is the third and last year of High School or secondary school The students graduate from High School the year they turn 19.
The twelfth grade is shorter than the previous ones because the twelfth graders lessons end in February and they go on to take their final exams shortly afterwards. Compulsory education ends after the ninth grade, so the upper grades are optional; the equivalent grade in this country is Terminale, it is the third and last year of lycée, equivalent to High-School, upon completion of which students sit for a test, the Baccalauréat. French-language schools that teach the French government curriculum use the same system of grades as their counterparts in France; this is not compulsory, as education is only