Union for the Mediterranean
The Union for the Mediterranean is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe. It was founded on 13 July 2008 at the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean, with an aim of reinforcing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, set up in 1995 as the Barcelona Process, its general secretariat is located in Spain. The organization aims to promote integration across the Mediterranean region; the UfM is a forum for discussing regional strategic issues and building on the principles of co-ownership, co-decision making and shared co-responsibility between the two shores of the Mediterranean. Its main objective is to increase North-South and South-South integration in the Mediterranean region in order to support the socio-economic development of the countries and to ensure stability in the region. Through its actions, UfM focuses on two fundamental pillars: fostering human development and promoting sustainable development.
The UfM identifies projects of regional interest and participates in them based on the consensus decision of all 43 member states. These projects and initiatives focus on six business sectors mandated by the UfM member state: Business Development and Employment, Higher Education and Research and Social Affairs and Climate Action and Urban Development and Water and Blue Economy; the Union has the aim of promoting integration throughout the Mediterranean region. It is a forum for discussing regional strategic issues, based on the principles of shared ownership, shared decision-making and shared responsibility between the two shores of the Mediterranean, its main goal is to increase both North-South and South-South integration in the Mediterranean region, in order to support the countries' socioeconomic development and ensure stability in the region. The institution, through its course of actions, focuses on two main pillars: fostering human development and promoting sustainable development. To this end, it identifies and supports regional projects and initiatives of different sizes, to which it gives its label, following a consensual decision among the forty-three countries.
These projects and initiatives focus on 6 sectors of activity, as mandated by the UfM Member States: Business Development & Employment Higher Education & Research Social & Civil Affairs Energy & Climate Action Transport & Urban Development Water, Environment & Blue Economy The members of the Union of the Mediterranean are the following: From the European Union side: The 28 European Union member states: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom. The European Commission. From the side of the Mediterranean Partner countries: 15 member states: Albania, Algeria and Herzegovina, Israel, Lebanon, Monaco, Morocco, State of Palestine, Syria and Turkey. Additionally, Libya is an observer state; the UfM has expressed a desire to grant Libya full membership, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Libya's Foreign Minister, has stated that his country is "open" to joining. The Arab League participates in UfM meetings.
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership known as the Barcelona Process, was created in 1995 as a result of the Conference of Euro-Mediterranean Ministers of Foreign Affairs held in Barcelona on 27 and 28 November under the Spanish presidency of the EU. The founding act of the Partnership in 1995 and Final Declaration of the Barcelona Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Conference is called the Barcelona Declaration, used to refer to the Process itself; the Partnership culminated in a series of attempts by European countries to articulate their relations with their North African and Middle Eastern neighbours: the global Mediterranean policy and the renovated Mediterranean policy. Javier Solana opened the conference by saying that they were brought together to straighten out the "clash of civilizations" and misunderstandings that there had been between them, that it "was auspicious" that they had convened on the 900th anniversary of the First Crusade, he described the conference as a process to foster cultural and economic unity in the Mediterranean region.
The Barcelona Treaty was drawn up by the 27 countries in attendance, Solana, who represented Spain as its foreign minister during the country's turn at the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, was credited with the diplomatic accomplishment. According to the 1995 Barcelona Declaration, the aim of the initiative was summed up as: "turning the Mediterranean basin into an area of dialogue and cooperation guaranteeing peace and prosperity." The Declaration established the three main objectives of the Partnership, called "baskets": Definition of a common area of peace and stability through the reinforcement of political and security dialogue. Construction of a zone of shared prosperity through an economic and financial partnership and the gradual establishment of a free-trade area. Rapprochement between peoples through a social and human partnership aimed at encouraging understanding between cultures and exchanges between civil societies; the European Union s
Alain Marie Juppé is a French politician, a member of The Republicans. He was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997 under President Jacques Chirac, during which period he faced major strikes that paralyzed the country, became unpopular, he left office after the victory of the left in the snap 1997 elections. He had served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1993 to 1995, as Minister of the Budget and Spokesman for the Government from 1986 to 1988, he was President of the political party Union for a Popular Movement from 2002 to 2004 and mayor of Bordeaux from 1995 to 2004. After the ghost jobs affair in December 2004, Juppé suspended his political career until he was re-elected as mayor of Bordeaux in October 2006, he served as Minister of State for Ecology and Sustainable Development in 2007, but resigned in June 2007 after failing in his bid to be re-elected in the 2007 legislative election. He was Minister of Defence and Veterans Affairs from 2010 to 2011 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2011 to 2012.
He announced in 2015 his intention to contest his party's primary election ahead of the 2017 presidential election. He came in second place in the first open primary of the right and centre, in the run-off, he lost to François Fillon. At the beginning of 2019, he accepted a nomination to become a member of the French Constitutional Council and subsequently announced that he would be resigning as mayor of Bordeaux. Juppé was born Alain Marie Juppé on 15 August 1945, in Aquitaine, his father was Robert Juppé, a Gaullist resistant at the end of World War II coming from a railwaymen family who became a farmer, his mother was Marie Darroze, the devoted Catholic daughter of a judge. His secondary studies have taken place at the Victor-Duruy high school. At 17, he graduated with a baccalauréat, he came to Paris for a literary preparatory classe at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1964 to get a Classics agrégation in 1967. He completed his degrees at the National School of Administration.
From 1969 to 1970, he executed his compulsory military service. Alain Juppé's profession, outside politics, is Inspector of Finances, a position from which he was on leave to hold his various elected and appointed offices, he retired from the Inspection of Finances on 1 January 2003. As a senior civil servant, he met Jacques Chirac at the end of the 1970s and became his adviser in the city council of Paris. In 1981, he was selected to be one of the first Young Leaders of the French-American Foundation. A member of the RPR since its foundation in 1976, he lost his first attempts to be elected during the 1978 legislative elections and the 1979 cantonal elections, he moved to Paris to work with Chirac as one of the closest advisors to the mayor. In 1979, he was elected at the national board of the party. Two years he became the second manager of Chirac's campaign for the presidential election. Chirac ended third with 18% of the vote. With Michel Aurillac, he led the club 89 a think tank, indeed a sort of counter-government to prepare the 1986 legislative elections.
The victory of the RPR-UDF alliance in this ballot made Socialist President Mitterrand appointing Chirac as his Prime Minister. He was minister of budget and spokesperson of Jacques Chirac's government from 1986 to 1988, he contributed to the free-market policy of Edouard Balladur, minister of Finances, during these years. During the 1988 presidential election, he combined these positions with those of spokesman of Chirac's campaign and head of his support committee, he was secretary general of the Rally for the Republic political party from 1988 to 1995. His role was to maintain Chirac's leadership on the party against the rise of the younger generation of "renovators" and of sovereignist Gaullists such as Philippe Séguin and Charles Pasqua. Pasqua humorously wrote in his Memoirs: "The RPR was now ruled like the North-Korean Communist Party... without the enlightened leadership of Kim Il-sung". He led the RPR-UDF alliance with former President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing for the 1989 European elections but resigned from the European Parliament some months because he was only needed to be a kind of electoral locomotive.
In 1992, Chirac and Juppé supported the treaty of Maastricht against the majority of the RPR's members. The Gaullist fringe considered him as a traitor. In 1993, he was made Édouard Balladur's Foreign Minister. Along with President Mitterrand, he advocated a French expedition in Rwanda to save the most possible of threaten lives, while Prime minister Balladur and Defense minister François Léotard were fearing a slip toward a colonial intervention. Juppé defended the Turquoise Operation at the United Nations; some controversies have emerged on this subject. From a general point of view, he has been considered to be one of the best Foreign ministers in France's recent history. Although he held the position of president of the RPR, he participated in the debate and endorsed Jacques Chirac instead of Balladur in the 1995 presidential election; because he supported Jacques Chirac against Edouard Balladur during the 1995 presidential campaign, he succeeded him as Prime Minister becoming president of the RPR. Jacques Chirac claimed Alain Juppé was "the best among us".
However, in November/December 1995, his plan for Welfare State reform caused the biggest social conflict since May 68 and, under duress, abandoned it. He became the most unpopular Prime Minister
2019 European Parliament election
The next elections to the European Parliament are expected to be held between 23 and 26 May 2019. A total of 751 Members of the European Parliament represent more than 512 million people from 28 member states, or 27 in case of early Brexit. In February 2018, the European Parliament voted to decrease the number of MEPs from 751 to 705 if the United Kingdom were to withdraw from the European Union on 29 March 2019; however after an extension of the Article 50 process, the United Kingdom is now due to participate alongside other EU member states. According to the European Council, the Council agreed at ambassador level to improve the EU electoral law and to reform old laws from the 1976 Electoral Act; the purpose of the reform would be to improve participation in elections, raise understanding of their European character and prevent irregular voting while at the same time respecting the constitutional and electoral traditions of the member states. A proposed draft would forbid "double voting" and voting in third countries, thus improving the visibility of European political parties.
To avoid double voting, contact authorities would be established to exchange data on voters. This process would have to start at least six weeks before the EP elections; the Spitzenkandidat process involves the nomination by European political parties of candidates for the role of Commission President, the party winning the most seats in Parliament receiving the first opportunity to attempt to form a majority in Parliament to back their candidate. This process was opposed by some in the Council; the future of the process is uncertain, but the Parliament has attempted to codify the process and the parties are certain to select the candidates again. On 23 January 2018, the Constitutional Affairs Committee adopted a text stating that the Spitzenkandidat process could not be overturned, that Parliament "will be ready to reject any candidate in the investiture procedure of the commission president, not appointed as a Spitzenkandidat in the run-up to the European elections". In May 2018, a Eurobarometer poll suggested that 49% of the 27,601 individuals from all 28 EU countries surveyed think that the Spitzenkandidats process will help them vote in the next European elections while 70% think that the process requires a "real debate" on European issues.
Incumbent Jean-Claude Juncker has stated. Two candidates sought the nomination of the EPP: Alexander Stubb, the Vice-President of the European Investment Bank, former prime minister, foreign minister and finance minister of Finland. Manfred Weber, current group leader for the European People's Party in the European Parliament and member of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria has been backed by Angela Merkel as Spitzenkandidat for the partyAt their 2018 Congress in Helsinki, the EPP elected Manfred Weber as their Spitzenkandidat for President of the European Commission. Previous candidate Martin Schulz left the European Parliament in 2017 to head the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but has stepped down from the latter position in 2018. Two candidates were nominated by PES member parties and organizations: Maroš Šefčovič announced in September bid to head Commission. Frans Timmermans announced in October bid to head Commission.Šefčovič announced his withdrawal in November and supported Frans Timmermans as the Common Candidate.
The party will convene an extraordinary Congress in Lisbon to ratify the election of the candidate and to vote upon the manifesto. Jan Zahradil, an MEP for the Czech Civic Democratic Party, is the Spitzenkandidat of the European Conservatives and Reformists. Like in 2014, the Greens adopted the principle to have two leading candidates for the European Elections 2019. Unlike in 2014 where the candidates were chosen through an open online primary elections, the two leading candidates will be elected by the Council of the Party in Berlin in November 2018. Four people, two of them being MEPs, have declared their candidacy: Petra De Sutter Ska Keller. Bas Eickhout Atanas Schmidt At their 2018 Congress in Berlin, the party elected Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout as their Spitzenkandidat for the President of the European Commission. Guy Verhofstadt Sylvie Goulard. Margrethe Vestager. Cecilia Malmström. Hans van Baalen. Emma Bonino Violeta Bulc The designated candidates are Violeta Tomič from Slovenia and Belgian trade-unionist Nico Cué.
The year 2019 will see the debut of new parties such as Kukiz'15 and Spring of Poland, Czech Pirate Party of Czech Republic and Liberal Initiative of Portugal, USR and PLUS of Romania, LMŠ of Slovenia, Human Shield and Workers' Front of Croatia, L'SNS and Sme Rodina of Slovakia. For the liberals, the biggest hop
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Halbe Zijlstra is a retired Dutch politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 26 October 2017 to 13 February 2018 in the Third Rutte cabinet. He is a member of the People's Party for Democracy. Zijlstra, a management consultant by occupation, was elected as a member of the House of Representatives after general election of 2006 serving from 30 November 2006 until 14 October 2010 when he was appointed as State Secretary for Education and Science in the First Rutte cabinet, serving until 5 November 2012. Following the election of 2012, he returned to the House of Representatives, serving from 20 September 2012 until 26 October 2017, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 26 October 2017 to 13 February 2018. Halbe Zijlstra was born on 21 January 1969 in Oosterwolde in the Netherlands, his father was a police detective. He attended secondary education at vwo level and studied sociology at the University of Groningen, after which he worked for several companies. Zijlstra has been a member of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy since 1 February 1994.
He served as a member of the municipal council of Utrecht from 1998 to 2001, again from 2003 to 2006. Zijlstra was elected to the House of Representatives in the 2006 general election, taking his seat on 30 November. In the House, he was his party's spokesman on care, sports, higher education and sciences and biotechnology. Shortly after the election, he introduced a bill with measures to tackle football hooligans together with Labour Party MP Hans Spekman, in 2007 the bill was adopted by Guusje ter Horst, who had become Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations in that year. On 14 October 2010, Zijlstra was appointed as State secretary for Education and Science in the newly installed First Rutte cabinet. In this position, he was responsible for a broad portfolio of policy areas within the Ministry of Education and Science, including higher education and knowledge, the training and labour conditions of teachers and cultural heritage. In his two-year term, Zijlstra initiated several changes in higher education policy, including the introduction of scholarships more favourable for long-term students and the creation of the possibility to prolong one's study in exceptional cases in 2011, placing base scholarships for Master students under the loan system in 2012.
Additionally, Zijlstra initiated budget cuts in the culture sector, sharpening the conditions necessary to be eligible for government subsidies, merging several cultural funds. These measures saved a total of 200 million euros. After Rutte's first cabinet lost a motion of no confidence in 2012 and new elections were held, Zijlstra returned to the House of Representatives as chairman of his party's parliamentary group. In 2016, he announced he would not be available for a second term as parliamentary leader after the 2017 general election, but that he aspired to enter the cabinet as a minister. On 26 October 2017, Zijlstra became Minister of Foreign Affairs in the third government of Prime Minister Mark Rutte. In response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U. S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, Zijlstra said that Turkey had the right to defend itself and its border, but at the same time pleaded with Turkey to show restraint. In February 2018 he admitted that he lied about meeting with Russian president Vladimir Putin in 2006, during his earlier career.
While speaking at a VVD conference in 2016, Zijlstra said that he heard Putin speaking about'Great Russia' in 2006, suggesting imperialistic ambitions. He said to a newspaper that he visited Putin in his home in 2006. Putin spoke about'Great Russia', when asked what he meant with that term, he responded: "Russia, Belarus and the Baltic States, and oh yes, Kazakhstan was'nice to have'," Zijlstra said. In 2018 he corrected that statement. "The geopolitical meaning of those words is great. I therefore thought; the source that told me about Putin's quotation confirmed the events to the Volkskrant, appreciates the fact that I guarantee anonymity." Former Shell CEO Jeroen van der Veer, who attended several talks with Putin, is the source of the story. Van der Veer told the events to Zijlstra in 2014 but clarified in an e-mail to de Volkskrant that Putin's 2006 remarks were "meant historically" and "not by himself" interpreted in the sense of "aggression". On 13 February 2018, Zijlstra announced his resignation as Minister of Foreign Affairs in an address to the House of Representatives.
In 2015, Zijlstra authored an op-ed for the NRC Handelsblad daily in which he criticized the Iran nuclear deal framework as "a historical error," a view that echoed Israel’s. Following the United Kingdom's referendum on European Union membership referendum in 2016, Zijlstra noted that Britain was the biggest country in a free-market, antifederalist camp that includes the Netherlands and Sweden, he commented: "If the British leave, we’ll have lost an important partner and protectionist spirits will get a louder voice." Zijlstra resides in a town just north of The Hague. He has been an active member of a carrier pigeon club. Official Drs. H. Zijlstra Parlement & Politiek
Rabat is the capital city of Morocco and the country's seventh largest city with an urban population of 580,000 and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million. It is the capital city of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra administrative region. Once a reputed corsair haven, Rabat served as one of the many ports in North Africa for the Barbary pirates, who were active from the 16th through the 18th centuries; the city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, the city's main commuter town. Rabat and Salé form a conurbation of over 1.8 million people. Silt-related problems have diminished Rabat's role as a port. In addition and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat one of the most important cities in the country; the Moroccan capital was ranked at second place by CNN in its "Top Travel Destinations of 2013". It is one of four Imperial cities of Morocco, the medina of Rabat is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Rabat is accessible by train through the ONCF system and by plane through the nearby Rabat–Salé Airport. Rabat has a modern history compared to the nearby ancient city of Salé. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat into a full-scale fortress to use as a launching point for attacks on Iberia. In 1170, due to its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stronghold of victory," from which it derives its current name. Yaqub al-Mansur, another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat, he built Rabat's city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the world's largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped; the ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today. Yaqub's death initiated a period of decline; the Almohad empire lost control of its possessions in Spain and much of its African territory leading to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabat's economic power shifted to Fez.
In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 inhabited houses remained. An influx of Moriscos, expelled from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabat's growth. Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627; the republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for launching attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to contend with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666; the latter failed. European and Muslim authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years, but the Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818. After the republic's collapse, pirates continued to use the port of Rabat, which led to the shelling of the city by Austria in 1829 after an Austrian ship had been lost to a pirate attack; the French established a protectorate. The French administrator of Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey, decided to relocate the country's capital from Fez to Rabat.
Among other factors, rebellious citizens had made Fez an unstable place. Sultan Moulay Youssef moved his residence to Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost; when Morocco achieved independence in 1955, Mohammed V, the King of Morocco, chose to have the capital remain at Rabat. Following World War II, the United States established a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base was a U. S. Air Force installation hosting the 17th Air Force and the 5th Air Division, which oversaw forward basing for Strategic Air Command B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the country. With the destabilization of French government in Morocco, Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the U. S. Air Force to pull out of the SAC bases in Morocco, insisting on such action after American intervention in Lebanon in 1958; the United States agreed to leave as of December 1959, was out of Morocco by 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases were much less critical with the long range capability of the B-52 Stratofortresses that were replacing the B-47s and with the completion of the USAF installations in Spain in 1959.
With the USAF withdrawal from Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Royal Moroccan Air Force known as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues to hold. Rabat is an administrative city, it does have residential neighbourhoods. The geographically spread out neighbourhoods are as follows: The heart of the city consists of three parts: the Medina. To the west, along the waterfront, there is a succession of neighbourhoods. First, around the ramparts, there is the old neighbourhoods, Quartier l'Océan and Quartier les Orangers. Beyond that, a succession of working-class districts: Diour Jamaa, Yacoub El Mansour and Hay el Fath are the main parts of this axis. Hay el Fath, which ends this sequence, evolves into a middle-class neighbourhood. To the east, along the Bouregreg, the Youssoufia region: Mabella. Between the two axes, from north to south, there are three main neighbourhoods
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni