Church of the Brethren
The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren, organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany, as a melding of the Radical Pietist and Anabaptist movements. The denomination holds the New Testament as its only creed; the church has taken a strong stance for nonresistance or pacifism—it is one of the three historic peace churches, alongside the Mennonites and Quakers. Distinctive practices include believers baptism by trine immersion; the first Brethren congregation was established in the United States in 1723. These church bodies became known as "Dunkards" or "Dunkers", more formally as German Baptist Brethren; the Church of the Brethren represents the largest denomination descending from the Schwarzenau Brethren, adopted this name in 1908. The denomination had 122,810 members as of June 2010 and 1,047 congregations in the United States and Puerto Rico as of August 2010; the history of the Brethren began in 1708 when a group of eight Christians organized themselves under the leadership of Alexander Mack into a church and baptized one another in Schwarzenau, now part of Bad Berleburg in North Rhine-Westphalia.
Five men and three women gathered at the Eder, a small river that flows through Schwarzenau, to perform baptism as an outward symbol of their new faith. One of the members of the group first baptized Mack, who in turn, baptized the other seven, they believed that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the "true" Christianity revealed in the New Testament, so they rejected established liturgy, including infant baptism and existing Eucharistic practices. The founding Brethren were broadly influenced by Radical Pietist understandings of an invisible, nondenominational church of awakened Christians who would fellowship together in purity and love, awaiting Christ's return; these eight Christians referred to themselves as the New Baptists. The name alluded to the use of the name Täufer by the Mennonites; the denomination reorganized in America and founded its first American congregation on Christmas Day 1723 in Germantown, Pennsylvania a village outside Philadelphia. They became known as German Baptists.
In 1871, the denomination adopted the name, "The German Baptist Brethren Church". Until the early 20th century, Brethren were colloquially called Dunkers. In 1728, Conrad Beissel, a Brethren minister at Conestoga renounced his association with the Brethren and formed his own group in Ephrata, Pennsylvania, they came to be known as the Ephrata Cloister. Beissel practiced a mystical form of Christianity, he encouraged a vegetarian diet. After the Beissel split, the Brethren split several times because of doctrinal differences; the most conservative members emphasized consistency and the order of the Brethren. They opposed the use of musical instruments, Sunday schools, worldly amusements, they promoted plain dress, simple living, church discipline. The progressives in the church focused on acceptance, they promoted higher education, salaried ministers, Sunday schools, revivalism. The majority of Brethren held a position between the two extremes. In 1869 and 1880, a group of Brethren in the Miami Valley of Ohio submitted a petition to Annual Conference to stop liberalization and return to traditional Brethren values.
On both occasions, a more moderate petition was submitted to the delegates. Both times, the Miami Valley group found the rewording unacceptable. In 1881, they resubmitted their petition to Annual Conference, it was rejected for violating technical procedure. In November 1881, conservative Brethren led by the Miami Valley group met and formally split from the Church of the Brethren to form the Old German Baptist Brethren, they held their first annual meeting in 1882. At the same time, Henry Holsinger, a leader of the progressives in the church, published writings that some Brethren considered slanderous and schismatic; as a result, he was disfellowshipped from the 1882 annual meeting of the Brethren. He met with other progressives on June 6 and 7, 1883, together they formed the Brethren Church; the remaining middle group—called "conservatives"—retained the name German Baptist Brethren. At the Annual Conference of 1908 at Des Moines, the name was changed to the Church of the Brethren; the Annual Conference justified the name change by citing the predominant use of English in the church, the fact that the name "German Baptist" frustrated mission work, that it would disassociate the denomination from the Old German Baptist Brethren.
During the early 20th century, the Church of the Brethren invested in foreign missions in India and other nations. They embraced the American temperance movement, which they had once dismissed as a manifestation of "popular Christianity". Discipline for violating church teachings subsided as the earlier emphasis upon unity of practice gave way during the 1920s and 1930s to an emphasis upon individual moral autonomy. Martin Grove Brumbaugh—a Brethren minister and historian who became Governor of Pennsylvania in 1915—played a leading role in disseminating a more progressive vision of Brethren history, his claim that "no force in religion" had been a Brethren teaching since their founding reinforced his calls to relax church discipline. During
John William Warner KBE is an American attorney and former politician who served as the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1972 to 1974 and a five-term Republican U. S. Senator from Virginia from 1979 to 2009, he works for the law firm of Hogan Lovells, where he had worked before joining the United States Department of Defense as the Under Secretary of the Navy during the presidency of Richard Nixon in 1969. Warner was the sixth husband of actress Elizabeth Taylor, whom he married before being elected to the Senate, he is a veteran of the Second World War and Korean War, was one of five World War II veterans serving in the Senate at the time of his retirement. He did not seek reelection in 2008. John William Warner was born on February 18, 1927, in Washington, D. C. to John W. and Martha Budd Warner. He grew up in Washington, where he attended the elite St. Albans School before graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in February 1945, he enlisted in the United States Navy during World War II in January 1945, shortly before his 18th birthday.
He served until the following year. He went to college at Washington and Lee University, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi, graduating in 1949, he joined the U. S. Marine Corps in October 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, served in Korea as a ground aircraft maintenance officer with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, he continued in the Marine Corps Reserves after the war reaching the rank of captain. He resumed his studies, taking courses at the George Washington University, before receiving his law degree from UVA in 1953; that year, he became a law clerk to Chief Judge E. Barrett Prettyman of the United States Court of Appeals. In 1956, he became an assistant U. S. attorney. In 1957, Warner married banking heiress Catherine Conover Mellon, the daughter of art collector Paul Mellon and his first wife, Mary Conover, the granddaughter of Andrew Mellon. By his marriage, Warner accrued substantial capital for investing and expanding his political contacts; the Warners, who divorced in 1973, have three children: Virginia, John Jr, Mary.
His former wife now uses the name Catherine Conover. John Warner married actress Elizabeth Taylor on December 4, 1976 at the Second Presbyterian Church in Richmond, Virginia, they divorced on November 7, 1982. On December 15, 2003, Warner married Jeanne Vander Myde, a real estate agent who specializes in Northern Virginia properties, she is the widow of White House official Paul Vander Myde. After giving substantial campaign funds and time to the Nixon Presidential election, on February 1969, Warner was appointed Under Secretary of the Navy under the Nixon Administration. On May 4, 1972, he succeeded John H. Chafee as Secretary of the Navy. Thereafter Warner, was appointed by President Gerald Ford to be a participant in the Law of the Sea talks, negotiated the U. S.-Soviet Incidents at Sea agreement which became a cause célèbre of pro-Détente doves in Soviet-American relations. He was subsequently appointed by Gerald Ford to the post of Director of the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration.
Following Ford's defeat, Warner began to consider political office for himself. He entered politics in the 1978 Virginia election for U. S. Senate. Despite the publicity of being Elizabeth Taylor's husband and the large amounts of money Warner used in his campaign for the nomination, he finished second at the state Republican Party convention to the far more conservative politician Richard D. Obenshain. Much of this loss was due to his perceived liberal political stances his soft approach to Soviet relations. In contrast Obenshain was a noted anti-Soviet, a hardline anti-communist, an opponent of other liberal policies including the Great Society and much of the Civil Rights Movement. However, when Obenshain died two months in a plane crash, Warner was chosen to replace him and narrowly won the general election over Democrat Andrew P. Miller, former Attorney General of Virginia, he was in the Senate until January 3, 2009. Despite his less conservative policy stances, Warner managed to be the second longest-serving senator in Virginia's history, behind only Harry F. Byrd Sr. and by far the longest-serving Republican Senator from the state.
On August 31, 2007, Warner announced that he would not seek re-election in 2008. His committee memberships included the Environment and Public Works Committee, the Senate Committee on Health, Education and Pensions, the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; as the chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, he protected and increased the flow of billions of dollars into the Virginia economy each year via the state's military installations and shipbuilding firms which served his reelection efforts in every cycle. Warner was quite moderate in comparison to most Republican Senators from the South, he was among the minority of Republicans to support gun control laws. He voted for the Brady Bill and, in 1999, was one of only five Republicans to vote to close the so-called gun show loophole. In 2004 Warner was one of three Republicans to sponsor an amendment by Senator Dianne Feinstein that sought to provide for a 10-year extension of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. Warner supported the Roe v. Wade decision establishing abortion rights and supported embryonic stem cell research, although he received high ratings from pro-life groups because he voted in favor of many abortion restrictions.
On June 15, 2004, Warner was among the minority of his party to vote to expand hate crime laws to include sexual orientation as a protected category. He supports a
Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
The Lieutenant Governor is a constitutional officer of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Lieutenant Governor is elected every four years along with the Attorney General; the office is held by Democrat Justin Fairfax. The governor and lieutenant governor are elected separately and thus may be of different political parties; the lieutenant governor's office is located in the Oliver Hill Building on Capitol Square in Richmond, Virginia. The lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Senate of Virginia and is first in the line of succession to the governor. Unlike the governor, the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia can serve consecutive terms. Since the late 1920s, the lieutenant governor has been one of only three positions that competes in a statewide election in Virginia. Since the governor cannot serve consecutive terms, whoever is elected lieutenant governor is always considered a leading candidate for governor; this is the case if the lieutenant governor and the attorney general come from different parties.
For example, after Democrat Tim Kaine was elected lieutenant governor and Republican Jerry Kilgore was elected attorney general in 2001, it was taken for granted that they would face each other in the 2005 election. The office of Lieutenant Governor is of colonial origin and can be traced to the Virginia Council of London; the Council was appointed by the King, in turn, the Council appointed the Lieutenant Governor or deputy. When the English crown forbade colonial governors' absence from the colonies without leave in 1680, it became the Council’s duty to designate or send a deputy who could exercise all the powers of the Governor under the written instructions of both the crown and the Governor. Virginia’s first Constitution, adopted in 1776, provided a Council of State from which a President was annually selected from its members; the President acted as Lieutenant Governor in the case of the death, inability, or necessary absence of the Governor from the government. The Virginia Constitution of 1851 abolished the Governor’s Council of State and provided for the popular election of the Lieutenant Governor.
Shelton Farrar Leake, from Albemarle County, was the first elected Lieutenant Governor, serving from 1852 to 1856. Constitutionally, the Lieutenant Governor is president of the Senate of Virginia, as is the case with many other lieutenant governors in the United States. Unlike many of his counterparts, the Lieutenant Governor presides over Senate sessions rather than delegating this role to the president pro tempore or majority leader. Parties No party/Conservative Democratic Whig Republican As of January 2018, seven former lieutenant governors of Virginia were alive, the oldest being Douglas Wilder; the most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Virginia was that of Richard J. Davis, Jr. on March 4, 1999. He is the most serving lieutenant governor of Virginia to die. Lieutenant Governor of Virginia's website List of past Lieutenant Governors
University of Richmond
The University of Richmond is a private liberal arts university in Richmond, Virginia. The university is a undergraduate, residential university with 4,350 undergraduate and graduate students in five schools: the School of Arts and Sciences, the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies, the University of Richmond School of Law and the School of Professional & Continuing Studies. Founded by Virginia Baptists in 1830 as a manual labor institute for men wishing to become ministers, with instruction begun by the Rev. Edward Baptist, an 1813 graduate of Hampden–Sydney College, the school was incorporated ten years as Richmond College. After 1834, the Columbia House was the main academic building of Richmond College. During the American Civil War, the entire student body formed a regiment and joined the Confederate army. Richmond College's buildings were used as a hospital for Confederate troops and as a barracks for Union soldiers; the college invested all of its funds in Confederate war bonds, the outcome of the war left it bankrupt.
In 1866, James Thomas donated $5,000 to reopen the college. The T. C. Williams School of Law opened in 1870. In 1894, the college elected Dr. Frederic W. Boatwright president. President Boatwright would serve for 51 years, he is most remembered for raising the funds needed to move the college in 1914 from its original downtown location to a new 350-acre campus in what is now Westhampton area of Richmond, in doing so created Westhampton College for women. The university's main library, Boatwright Memorial Library, is named in Boatwright's honor. Symbolically, the library and its soaring academic gothic tower occupy the highest spot on the grounds, its grounds were landscaped in 1913, by Warren H. Manning under the supervision of Charles Gillette; the institution was renamed University of Richmond in 1920 with the men's college renamed Richmond College. The distinction of colleges was phased out in the late 20th century, but the respective parts of the campus continue to be referred to as the Westhampton and the Richmond "sides".
In 1949, the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business opened, followed by the School of Continuing Studies in 1962. In 1969, when financial issues threatened closing the university or turning it over to the Commonwealth of Virginia, E. Claiborne Robins Sr. a trustee and alumnus, donated $50 million to the university, the largest gift made to an institution of higher education at the time. In constant dollars, it remains among the largest. Robins' goal was to make Richmond one of the best private universities in the country. In partnership with the university's president E. Bruce Heilman and development director H. Gerald Quigg the $10 million matching grant component of the gift raised over an additional $60 million, making the university's total endowment at the time one of the highest in the country. During World War II, Richmond was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1987, a donation of $20 million by Robert S. Jepson, Jr. facilitated the opening of the Jepson School of Leadership Studies.
The school, which opened in 1992, was the first of its kind in the U. S. In 1990, the academic missions of Richmond and Westhampton Colleges were combined to form the School of Arts and Sciences. On October 15, 1992, candidates George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Ross Perot came to campus for the first-ever "town hall" televised presidential debate, viewed by 200 million people worldwide. Addressing a crowd of nearly 9,000, President Obama visited the University of Richmond to present the American Jobs Act on September 11, 2011. Dr. Ronald A. Crutcher is the current president of the University of Richmond, becoming the 10th president on July 1, 2015, he is a former member of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. He is recognized to be the first cellist to receive the doctor of musical arts degree from Yale, where he earned his master's degree. On, February 23, 2015, the University of Richmond announced to the student body via email that the board of trustees elected Ronald Crutcher as the 10th president of the university.
He took office 1 July 2015, his inauguration ceremony was held at the Robins Center on 30 October 2015. The Henry Mansfield Cannon Memorial Chapel, North Court, Ryland Hall were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. All Richmond undergraduate students begin their course work in the School of Arts & Sciences, which offers 38 majors and 10 concentrations in the arts, social sciences, humanities. After one full year of study, students may decide to pursue majors in the other undergraduate schools, though 70 percent of students choose to remain in A&S. Opportunities abound in the School of Art & Sciences, as students have the chance to study abroad and pursue internships or research while gaining an education that will prepare them for a variety of careers or graduate programs; the Robins School of Business was established in 1949 and offers undergraduate and executive education programs. It is named after alumnus E. Claiborne Robins. Ranked 12th nationally overall and tied for first in academic quality by BusinessWeek, the Robins School is the only accredited, top-ranked undergraduate business school, part of a top-ranked liberal arts university.
In the 2009 BusinessWeek review of part-time MBA programs, the Robins school ranked 3rd in the mid-Atlantic region and 17th nationwide. Admission into the Robins School of Business is granted to students who have completed basic Accounting and Math courses at the end of three semester while maintaining a Grade Point Average of 2.7 or higher. The Jepson School of Leadership Studies w
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 95,535, it is part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a historic and active U. S. Navy facility, located in Portsmouth rather than Norfolk; the shipyard upgrades and repairs ships of the US Navy and is one of the few facilities in the world with the capability to dry dock an aircraft carrier. Directly opposite Norfolk, the city of Portsmouth has miles of waterfront land on the Elizabeth River as part of the harbor of Hampton Roads. There is a ferry boat that takes riders back and forth across the water between downtown Norfolk and the Portsmouth Olde Towne Historic District. Portsmouth is located on the western side of the Elizabeth River directly across from the City of Norfolk. In 1620, the future site of Portsmouth was recognized as suitable shipbuilding location by John Wood, a shipbuilder, who petitioned King James I of England for a land grant.
The surrounding area was soon settled as a plantation community. Portsmouth was founded by a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, it was established as a town in 1752 by an act of the Virginia General Assembly and was named for Portsmouth, England. In 1767, Andrew Sprowle, a shipbuilder, founded the Gosport Shipyard adjacent to Portsmouth; the Gosport Shipyard at Portsmouth was owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia after the American Revolutionary War and was sold to the new United States federal government. In 1855, the Portsmouth and Norfolk area suffered an epidemic of yellow fever which killed 1 of every three citizens, it became an independent city from Norfolk County in 1858. During the American Civil War, in 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the shipyard at Portsmouth, the shipyard commander ordered the burning of the shipyard; the Confederate forces did in fact take over the shipyard, did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builder William Mahone.
The Union forces withdrew to Fort Monroe across Hampton Roads, the only land in the area which remained under Union control. In early 1862, the Confederate ironclad warship CSS Virginia was rebuilt using the burned-out hulk of USS Merrimack. Virginia engaged the Union ironclad USS Monitor in the famous Battle of Hampton Roads during the Union blockade of Hampton Roads; the Confederates burned the shipyard again when they left in May 1862. Following the recapture of Norfolk and Portsmouth by the Union forces, the name of the shipyard was changed to Norfolk Naval Shipyard; the name of the shipyard was derived from its location in Norfolk County. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard today is located within the city limits of Portsmouth, Virginia; the Norfolk Naval Shipyard name has been retained to minimize any confusion with the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, which itself is located in Kittery, across the Piscataqua River from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Portsmouth was the county seat of Norfolk County until 1963 when the new city of Chesapeake was formed in a political consolidation with the city of South Norfolk.
Portsmouth's other county neighbor, the former Nansemond County consolidated with a smaller city, forming the new city of Suffolk in 1974. One of the older cities of Hampton Roads, in the early 21st century, Portsmouth was undergoing moderate urban renewal in the downtown; the APM "MAERSK" marine terminal for container ships opened in 2007 in the West Norfolk section. The Olde Towne Historic District features one of the largest collections of significant homes between Alexandria and Charleston, South Carolina; the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church was built by slaves and free men and is the second-oldest building in Portsmouth and the city's oldest black church. The city contains a number of other historic buildings, as well, including the Pass House, built in 1841 by Judge James Murdaugh and occupied by Union troops from 1862 to 1865. Federal forces required Portsmouth residents to obtain a written pass to travel across the Elizabeth River and beyond; these passes were issued from the English basement and thus.
The Naval Hospital Portsmouth, the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth is a United States Navy medical center adjacent to the Olde Towne Historic District and Park View Historic District. Founded in 1827, it is the oldest continuously running hospital in the Navy medical system with the motto "First and Finest." Located at 1 High Street in the Olde Towne Historic District, the Seaboard Coastline Building is a historic train station and former headquarters of the Seaboard Air Line railroad company. A four-story 1825 English basement home furnished with original family belongings, it is evident from the furnishings that the Hill family were avid collectors and lived graciously over a period of 150 years. The house remains with limited renovation through the years. Established in 1832, Cedar Grove Cemetery is the oldest city-owned cemetery in Portsmouth. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Portsmouth, the cemetery is noted for its funerary art and the civic, maritime and military leaders who are buried there.
Historical markers placed throughout the cemetery allow for self-guided tours. The cemetery is located between Fort Lane in Olde Towne Portsmouth. Entrance is through the south gate to the cemetery, located on London
University of Richmond School of Law
The T. C. Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond is a school of the University of Richmond, located in Richmond, Virginia. Richmond Law is a "highly selective" US News & World Report tier 1 law school, considered top tier by Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, among the top five law schools by the National Jurist, one of the Princeton Review's Best Law Schools of 2018. One of the three highest ranked small private law schools—alongside Brigham Young University's J. Reuben Clark Law School and W&L Law—with 150 J. D. candidates per class year, the University of Richmond School of Law has full accreditation by all recognized standardizing agencies in the United States on the American Bar Association registry. Richmond Law's Dean, Wendy Perdue, is president of the Association of American Law Schools. Richmond Law is regionally accredited by the Virginia State Board of Bar Examiners, is the #1 alma mater of judges in the state. Above the Mason–Dixon line, U of R Law's Juris Doctor degree is accredited by the Regents of the University of the State of New York.
Located near the border of America's cultural demarcation line, the University of Richmond campus can be found on 350 acres located about six miles west of the center of the city of Richmond, 52 miles south of the Virginia Railway Express to Union Station. The school was founded in 1870 as a college within the University of Richmond. In 1890, the family of the late T. C. Williams, a university trustee, donated $25,000 as the nucleus of an endowment for the law school. In recognition of this gift, the school was named The T. C. Williams School of Law in 1920. In recent years, the school has adopted the name "University of Richmond School of Law" in order to promote a unified identity for the university. In 1914, Richmond College, including its law department, moved from its location downtown to the present campus. Returning servicemen from World War I created space problems for the college and the law department had to be relocated to the old Columbia Building at Grace and Lombardy streets. In 1920, the law department was reorganized as a separate School of Law within what was now the University of Richmond.
The current Law School building, constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style, was opened in 1954, it was enlarged in 1972 and 1981. In 1991, the building was expanded and refurbished; the Law School building now provides modern and technologically equipped classrooms, seminar rooms, a law library, a moot courtroom and administrative offices and student lounges, offices for most student organizations. The Richmond School of Law was ranked 50th in the 2018 ranking of law schools by U. S. News and World Report. According to US News, the school has 440 students with a student-to-faculty ratio of 7.7:1. The total cost of attendance at Richmond Law for the 2014-2015 academic year is $55,440; the Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years, based on data from the 2013-2014 academic year, is $208,801. In 2013, 55% of entering students received scholarships; the average scholarship award was $23,356. According to Richmond School of Law's official 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 58% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
Richmond's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 19.7%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation. Richmond Law's 2013 employment grade by the National Jurist is B+. Comparatively, nearby Georgetown Law is graded below with a "B," while Cornell Law is just above with an "A-". Richmond Law has launched several new initiatives focusing on expanding areas of the law such as intellectual property, wrongful convictions and family law; the school is making a strong push to become a center for intellectual property law, as evidenced by the recent founding of the Intellectual Property Institute and the offering of a joint degree program with Virginia Tech that will enable students to earn both a Bachelor of Science degree and a law degree in as little as six years’ time. Through the IPI, Richmond law students are able to obtain a certificate of concentration in Intellectual Property Law.
The Institute for Actual Innocence, founded in 2005, works to identify and exonerate wrongfully convicted individuals in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Institute is an academic program that partners students with local attorneys and community leaders to seek post-conviction relief for wrongfully convicted prisoners in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Three days before leaving office, President Obama commuted Dujuan Farrow's life sentence after the Institute for Actual Innocence submitted his case for clemency review. Furthermore, the school is working to establish the National Center for Family Law, which will serve the best interests of families and children through academic and service programs dedicated to enhancement of the quality of the American legal system in relation to family law; the Richmond Public Interest Law Review is a law review published by the University of Richmond School of Law. The Journal known as the Richmond Journal of Law and the Public Interest, vol. 1 - vol. 19, is the scholarly voice for issues pertaining to social welfare, public policy, a broad spectrum of jurisprudence.
PILR strives to produce a variety of articles addressing contempora
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ