Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Grundtvigs Church is located in the Bispebjerg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is an example of expressionist church architecture. Due to its appearance, it is one of the best known churches in the city. The foundation of the new church was laid after World War I, on 8 September 1921. Building took place mainly from 1921 to 1926 when the section was completed. Further work on the interior and on adjacent buildings continued until 1940 and was completed by Klints son Kaare Klint after his fathers death in 1930, the church stands at the centre of a residential development, in yellow brick, designed by Jensen-Klint in harmony with the church. Jensen-Klints design for Grundtvigs Church is a synthesis of architectural styles, in preparation for the project, the architect studied many Danish village churches, particularly those on the island of Zealand with stepped gables. Their traditional building techniques and decoration inspired his design, Klint merged the modern geometric forms of Brick Expressionism with the classical vertical of Gothic architecture.
The most striking feature of the building is its west facade and it includes the 49 m tall bell tower. The imposing facade with its strong verticality guides ones eyes towards the sky, the bottom half of the tower is simple brick while the upper reaches present the appearance of one solid, rippling surface. Klint decorated the nave with a version of the stepped gables common on Danish churches, the nave was designed with generous dimensions, the triple-aisled hall church is 76 m long in total and 35 m wide, the nave has a height of 22 m. The interior, inspired by Gothic architecture and comparable in size to Copenhagen cathedral, some six million yellow bricks, a typical Danish building material, were used for the edifice. In its floor plan, the interior resembles that of a typical Gothic church with a nave, two lateral aisles and a small transept. Its proportions are Gothic, a long, narrow nave, a high ceiling, the columns which rise up to pointed arches. But it is the brick and the lack of ornamentation which contribute to the Gothic verticality while adhering to the minimalist modern aesthetic.
The one on the side of the nave near the chancel was built in 1940 by Marcussen & Søn. It has 14 stops, two manuals and a pedalboard, the much larger Marcussen instrument at the western end of the nave was added in 1965 with a facade designed by Kaare Klints son, Esben Klint. It has 55 stops, four manuals and a pedalboard, the largest of its pipes weighs 425 kg and, with a length of 32 feet, is the longest organ pipe in Scandinavia
St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Pauls Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, colloquially known as Nyboders Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area. It was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877, the church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the citys growing population. Stephens and St. James in Østerbro and St. Mathews in Vesterbro—St, the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The churchs first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist, in 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller. The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads, on the southeast side of the church are some of the socalled Grey Tows of the Nyboder development. They were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood, on the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s.
To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, two of Nyboders Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church
Indre By, known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres, has a population of 26,223, and its boundaries pretty much reflect the entire city’s extent during the reign of King Christian IV. At the time it was a city and its borders were made of defensive walls with moats. To ensure water for the moats there was a series of dams, the gates were dismantled in 1856. The locations are now commemorated with milestones erected on the spot, additionally artificial lakes were constructed as part of Christian IVs large building project. These still exist to this day, and are simply referred to as the lakes. The area beyond the lakes, now heavily populated city districts, was used primarily for grazing. It was prohibited to build beyond these original city limits so that the cannons could have clear shot. The fortification system was sold to Copenhagen municipality in 1869 and largely dismantled the year after, evidence of the walls can be found in the street names outlining the central part of the city.
From Kastellet at the northeast point of the district runs Øster Voldgade to the southwest, the street changes names near Nørreport Train Station and continues as Nørre Voldgade. Vester Voldgade starts at Ørsteds Park and runs southeast until it reaches the water of Copenhagen Harbour, the fortification system continues on the other side of the water in the Christianshavn city district. Copenhagen was founded around year 1000 by Sweyn I Forkbeard and his son Canute the Great and it was only a fishing village until the middle of the 12th century when Havn, as the town was called, assumed increasing importance in the Danish kingdom. Around 1160 King Waldemar the Great gave control of Copenhagen to Absalon, whereas other cities in the Danish realm were under the governance of the king, Havn or Købmannehavn as it comes to be known, was given to the Bishop of Roskilde. Bishop Absalon built his fortified Castle at Havn in 1167 on an island outside the harbour itself. In the years that follow, the town grew tenfold in size, the excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagens growth until it became an important centre of commerce.
Købmannehavns economy blossomed due to the income from an enormous herring fishery trade, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. It was repeatedly attacked by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic League and again the town was besieged and laid waste by the Hanseatic League. In 1369 they tore down the castle, but a new castle—Copenhagen Castle was built in its place, at the same time the Danish king was attempting to take Copenhagen back from the bishop. The crown succeeded in 1416, when King Erik of Pomerania took control of the town, thenceforth Copenhagen belonged to the Danish Crown
Such ceremonies are often attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen. The actual shovel or spade used during the actual groundbreaking is often a special ceremonial shovel meant to be saved for subsequent display, commemorative information may be subsequently engraved on the shovel. In some places, clergy may provide blessings, particularly if the building is being constructed by a church or religious-affiliated organization. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before, builders rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalems Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen, the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew rapidly and funds were raised for a new church which was completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen, the church was known as St. Pauls Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Pauls Church. Marks Church until 1912 when it received its current name, the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently rebuilt by Jens Christian Kofoed and reinaugurated the following year, the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long,16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall, the Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916. It was restored in 1982-84, and is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II.
The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles, Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches, an early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free Romanesque manner was Henry Hobson Richardson, in the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl’s castle at Inverary, started in 1744, and castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Dalquharran and it was at this point that the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817 Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation and it was now realised that ‘round-arch architecture’ was largely Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon.
The start of an archaeologically correct Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper and his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. It was Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, who would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, and particularly the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47 and St Agatha’s Llanymynech,1845, he copies the tower of St. Salvators Cathedral, other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, and the porch to Langedwyn Church. He was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, during the 19th century the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, after about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canadas provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto, University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style. The building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the design began on 4 October 1856. The facade of University College has thick walls, incorporating layers of both stone and brick. The building possesses a number of round arches characteristic of the Roman Revival style, the arches are configured in arcades, most notably on the south side of the building.
There is a deal of ornamentation on both the interior and exterior of University College
Immanuel Church, Copenhagen
Immanuel Church is a church in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It belongs to Københavns Valgmenighed and Vartov Valgmenighed, two Grundtvigian congregations under Church of Denmark, the building was designed by Andreas Clemmesen and completed in 1893. The church was built for the first Grundtvigian concregation in Denmark which had separated from the Vartov congregation, the congregation first assembled at a local folk high school on Cjr. Winters Vej, but soon began construction of the new church which was consecrated on 29 October 1893, the detached clock tower was designed by af R. V. Rue in 1904 and completed in 1905 together with some of the surrounding features, the church is built in large red brick of the type in Denmark known as Munkesten in a Romanesque Revival style inspired by Italian churches in Ravenna and Sienna. It is a building under a barrel vaulted roof with a semi-circular choir to the east. The round-arched entrance is located in the west gable and it has a tympanum with a glass mosaic.
Four additional entrances, two on each side of the building, have glass mosaics in their tympana, the eastern mosaic on the south side was designed by Niels Skovgaard, while the rest are by Joakim Skovgaard. The north and south have double-height windows. There is a blinded, ornamental gallery with 11 arches supported by columns above the entrance on the west gable. The altarpiece is a painting by Niels Skovgaard with a decorated wooden frame carved by Poul S. Christiansen. The front of the table is designed by Niels Skovgaard. The altar carpet, —decorated with lilies and crocuses, was designed by Joakim Skovgaard, the organ was made by A. H. Buch and dates from 1896. Other decorative features include several reliefs of religious subjects by Joakim Skovgaard, Niels Skovgaard and Christian C. Peters
Reformed Church, Copenhagen
Reformed Church in Gothersgade, opposite Rosenborg Castle, is a church building used by the reformed congregations in Copenhagen, Denmark. Consecrated in 1689, the church was instigated by Queen Charlotte Amalie, consort of King Christian V, the church is noted for its fine Baroque interiors which date from 1730 when it was restored after being damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728. In 1685, encouraged by his queen, Christian V licensed the formation of a reformed congregation among German, mainly refuges, many members of the congregation held prominent positions in society, typically as merchants, often with new trades, or military officers. After a few years the split into a German Reformed Church. Charlotte Amelia personally financed the erection of the building on a prominent site in Gothersgade. Charlotte Amalie placed the stone on 20 April 1688. The German and French reformed churches shared the new church, the complex included a rectory, with residences for four priests, a school, an old age assulum, and an orphanage.
The church was damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 but was subsequently rebuilt with new furnishings attributed the sculptor Friederich Ehbisch. In 1886 the architect Ludvig Knudsen built a community house for the congregation, the church is built in red brick and designed in the Dutch Baroque style. It has a floor plan with a slightly progressing median risalit on the facade toward Gothersgade, decorated with Ionic pilasters. Above the entrance there is a cartouche with the monograms of Christian V and Charlotte Amalie, the hipped roof with black tiles is topped by a copper-clad flèche with two lanterns which rises 13.5 metres above the roof. It was added in 1731 in connection with the rebuilding after the fire, the church room is oriented along the short axis of the building and is dominated by beautifully carved wooden features. Typical of reformed but unusual for Danish churches, it has a centrally placed pulpit set dramatically high above the altar table, the organ front was originally from Copenhagen Castle and dates from 1724.
It was transferred to the church in 1730 when the castle was demolished to make room for the first Christiansborg Palace, the current organ was made by the organ manufacturer Köhne and is from 1878. The churchs closed boxes were reserved for families and the wealthy merchants of the congregation. The churchyard next to the church has been decommissioned, other internents include the Danish Court Painter Jacques dAgar who immigrated from France, and C. de Cormaillon, commander of Kastellet. The church is used by the German and French Reformed Churches in Copenhagen. Along with a congregation in Fredericia, they form the Reformed Synod of Denmark which is a member of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments, most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian architecture, tympana usually contain religious imagery, a tympanum over a doorway is very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. These shapes naturally influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum, bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is often supported by a pillar called a trumeau. Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
Frederiks Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the point of the Frederiksstaden district, it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace. Fredericks Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m, the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was probably St. Peters Basilica in Rome, the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31,1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee. The church was incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it. The deal was at the highly controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, tietgen got Ferdinand Meldahl to design the church in its final form and financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the plans for the church to be built almost entirely from marble were discarded.
The church was opened to the public on August 19,1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words, a series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building
St. Peter's Church, Copenhagen
St. Peters Church is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the citys Latin Quarter, built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is notable for its complex of sepulchral chapels. St. Peters Church was in the Middle Ages one out of four Catholic parish churches in Copenhagen and it is first mentioned in 1304 but was most likely founded in the 12th century. The first church burnt down in 1380 but was shortly thereafter. After the Reformation the church building was for a used as a canon. Frederick II presented St. Peters Church to his German-speaking subjects in 1585, the building was renovated by Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder who added a gablet upper floor to the uncompleted tower, which was however replaced by a spire in the 17th century. The church became a centre for Copenhagens political, economic and military elite, the rapidly growing congregation made it necessary to expand the church in several stages.
Christian IV added a transept in 1631 and a southern transept in 1634. Just 60 years later, Christian V extended the north transept with a further three severies, the distinctive sepulchral chapels arose between 1648 and 1740. St. Peters Church was severely damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the interior was lost to the flames but the outer walls were left intact and the church could fairly easily be rebuilt by Johan Cornelius Krieger. The church was first given a lantern spire which was replaced by the current copper-clad spire in 1756-57. The spire survived the British bombardment during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807, as time passed, it became an impossible task for the congregation to maintain the large building complex, and in 1994 the state took over the church back into its care. St. Peters Church was originally built as a church but with Christian IVs addition of the northern and southern transepts. Most of the church, including the nave, the choir, the main entrance is located in the southern transept and is marked by a richly carved Baroque portal from 1731, carved by the sculptor Diderik Gercken.
The complex contains numerous tombs and epitaphs of important German families in Denmark, beneath the tombs contain the sarcofages of the most destinguished family members while other chests are placed in three to four layers in underground crypts. Many of the chapels are made by Johannes Wiedewelt and Andreas Weidenhaupt, amidst the chapels lies the idylic herb garden. The congregation arranges guided tours and other events in the historic building