Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
Miss Lonelyhearts is Nathanael West's second novel. He began writing it early in 1930 and completed the manuscript in November of 1932. Published in 1933, it is an Expressionist black comedy set in New York City during the Great Depression. In the story, Miss Lonelyhearts is an unnamed male newspaper columnist writing an advice column for the lovelorn and lonesome, a duty that the other newspaper staff considers a joke; as Miss Lonelyhearts reads letters from desperate New Yorkers, he feels burdened and falls into a cycle of deep depression, accompanied by heavy drinking and occasional bar fights. He is the victim of the pranks and cynical advice of Shrike, his feature editor at the newspaper. Miss Lonelyhearts tries several approaches to escape the painful letters he has to read: religion, trips to the countryside with his fiancée Betty, affairs with Shrike's wife and Mrs. Doyle, a reader of his column. However, Miss Lonelyheart's efforts do not seem to ameliorate his situation. After his sexual encounter with Mrs. Doyle, he meets a poor crippled man.
The Doyles invite Miss Lonelyhearts to have dinner with them. When he arrives, Mrs. Doyle tries to seduce him again. Mrs. Doyle tells her husband. In the last scene, Mr. Doyle hides a gun inside a rolled newspaper and decides to take revenge on Miss Lonelyhearts. Lonelyhearts, who has just experienced a religious enlightenment after three days of sickness, runs toward Mr. Doyle to embrace him; the gun "explodes", the two men roll down a flight of stairs together. The general tone of the novel is one of extreme disillusionment with Depression-era American society, a consistent theme throughout West's novels. However, the novel is a black comedy, characterized by a dark sense of irony. Justus Neiland, among others, has pointed out the use of Bergsonian laughter, in which “the attitudes and movements of the human body are laughable in exact proportion as that body reminds us of a machine.” The novel can be read through a Marxist lens as a condemnation of alienation and the colonization of social life by commodification, foreshadowing the stance of the Situationists and Guy Debord in particular.
Miss Lonelyhearts is unable to fulfill his role as advice giver in a world in which both people and advice are mass-produced. People are machines for the sole purpose of laboring as far as the rest of society is concerned, any advice for them is as mass-produced as a manual for a machine. Lonelyhearts is unable to find a personal solution to his problems because they have systemic causes. West, who worked in the newspaper business before writing Miss Lonelyhearts, is an advice giver of a sort as a novelist. Miss Lonelyhearts is similar to a détournement; the novel condemns itself by condemning art, derided by Shrike and compared to religion as an opiate of the masses. Many of the problems described in Miss Lonelyhearts describe actual economic conditions in New York City during the Great Depression, although the novel avoids questions of national politics. Moreover, the novel is important due to its existential import; the characters seem to be living in an amoral world. Hence, they resort to heavy drinking and parties.
Miss Lonelyhearts has a "Christ complex", which stands for his belief in religion as a solution to a world devoid of values. In 1933, the novel was loosely adapted as a movie, Advice to the Lovelorn, starring Lee Tracy, produced by 20th Century Pictures—before its merger with Fox Film Corporation—and released by United Artists. Changed from the novel, it became a comedy/drama about a hard-boiled reporter who becomes popular when he adopts a female pseudonym and dispenses fatuous advice, he agrees to use the column to recommend a line of medicines, but finds out they are harmful drugs when his mother dies. He agrees to help the police track down the criminals; the movie ends with the main character married. In 1957, the novel was adapted into a stage play entitled Miss Lonelyhearts by Howard Teichmann, it opened on Broadway at the Music Box Theatre on October 3, 1957 in a production directed by Alan Schneider and designed by Jo Mielziner and Patricia Zipprodt. It starred Pat O'Brien, it ran for only twelve performances.
In 1958 the plot was again filmed as Lonelyhearts, starring Montgomery Clift, Robert Ryan, Myrna Loy, produced by Dore Schary and released by United Artists. Although following the plot of the book more than Advice to the Lovelorn, many changes were made; the movie softens the cynical edge of the original book, the story is once more given a happy ending—the woman's husband is talked out of shooting Miss Lonelyhearts, who finds happiness with his true love, Shrike is kinder at film's end. The film was adapted by Robert E. Bailey and Michael Dinner into a 1983 TV movie, Miss Lonelyhearts, starring Eric Roberts in the lead role. Eric Roberts would coincidentally play the lead role in the unrelated 1991 film Lonely Hearts. In 2006, composer Lowell Liebermann completed a two-act opera; the libretto was written by J. D. McClatchy; the opera, which received its premiere April 26, 28, 30, 2006 at the Juilliard Opera Center, was commissioned by the Juilliard School for its centennial celebration. The opera was co-commissioned by two other schools: USC's Thornton School of Music as well as the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music.
The opera was co-produced by the Thornton School of Music Opera Program at University of Southern California, received its West Coast premier
A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial motion picture, not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more identified films intended for distribution as the less-publicized bottom half of a double feature. Although the U. S. production of movies intended as second features ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in its broader sense to this day. In its post-Golden Age usage, there is ambiguity on both sides of the definition: on the one hand, the primary interest of many inexpensive exploitation films is prurient. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction and horror films became more popular in the 1950s. Early B movies were part of series in which the star played the same character. Always shorter than the top-billed films they were paired with, many had running times of 70 minutes or less; the term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more lavishly budgeted headliners.
Latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures. In its current usage, the term has somewhat contradictory connotations: it may signal an opinion that a certain movie is a genre film with minimal artistic ambitions or a lively, energetic film uninhibited by the constraints imposed on more expensive projects and unburdened by the conventions of putatively "serious" independent film; the term is now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided opportunities both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies, they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black.
Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine, Bruce Campbell and Pam Grier, worked in B movies for most of their careers. The term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work or in B pictures. In 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of an average feature from a major Hollywood studio ranged from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; that average reflected both "specials" that might cost as much as $1 million and films made for around $50,000. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive maximum value from facilities and contracted staff in between a studio's more important productions, while breaking in new personnel. Studios in the minor leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America, focused on those sorts of cheap productions, their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs small-town and urban neighborhood venues, or "nabes".
Smaller production houses, known as Poverty Row studios, made films whose costs might run as low as $3,000, seeking a profit through whatever bookings they could pick up in the gaps left by the larger concerns. With the widespread arrival of sound film in American theaters in 1929, many independent exhibitors began dropping the then-dominant presentation model, which involved live acts and a broad variety of shorts before a single featured film. A new programming scheme developed that would soon become standard practice: a newsreel, a short and/or serial, a cartoon, followed by a double feature; the second feature, which screened before the main event, cost the exhibitor less per minute than the equivalent running time in shorts. The majors' "clearance" rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents' timely access to top-quality films; the additional movie gave the program "balance"—the practice of pairing different sorts of features suggested to potential customers that they could count on something of interest no matter what was on the bill.
The low-budget picture of the 1920s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywood's Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, soon adapted. All established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature market. Block booking became standard practice: to get access to a studio's attractive A pictures, many theaters were obliged to rent the company's entire output for a season. With the B films rented at a flat fee, rates could be set guaranteeing the profitability of every B movie; the parallel practice of blind bidding freed the majors from worrying about their Bs' quality—even when booking in less than seasonal blocks, exhibitors had to buy most pictures sight unseen. The five largest studios—Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Fox Film Corporation, Warner Bros. and RKO Radio Pictures —also belonged to companies with sizable theater chains, further securing the bottom line. Poverty Row studios, from modest outfits like Mascot Pictures, Tiffany Pictures, Sono Art-World Wide Pictures down to shoestring operations, made B movies, ot
Suspicion (1941 film)
Suspicion is a 1941 romantic psychological thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Cary Grant and Joan Fontaine as a married couple. It features Sir Cedric Hardwicke, Nigel Bruce, Dame May Whitty, Isabel Jeans, Heather Angel, Leo G. Carroll. Suspicion is based on Francis Iles's novel Before the Fact. For her role as Lina, Joan Fontaine won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1941; this is the only Oscar-winning performance in a Hitchcock film. In the film, a shy spinster runs off with a charming playboy, who turns out to be penniless, a gambler, dishonest in the extreme, she comes to suspect that he is a murderer, that he is attempting to kill her. In 1938, irresponsible playboy Johnnie Aysgarth meets dowdy Lina McLaidlaw on a train in England and charms her into eloping despite the strong disapproval of her wealthy father, General McLaidlaw. After a lavish honeymoon and returning to an extravagant house, Lina discovers that Johnnie has no job and no income, habitually lives on borrowed money, was intending to try to sponge off her father.
She talks him into getting a job, he goes to work for his cousin, estate agent Captain Melbeck. Lina learns that Johnnie has continued to gamble wildly, despite promising to quit, that to pay a gambling debt, he sold two antique chairs that her father had given her as a wedding present. Beaky, Johnnie's good-natured but naive friend, tries to reassure Lina that her husband is a lot of fun and a entertaining liar, she catches Johnnie in more significant lies, discovering that he was fired weeks before for embezzling from Melbeck, who says he will not prosecute if the money is repaid. Lina writes a letter to Johnnie that she is leaving him, but tears it up. After this, Johnnie shows her a telegram announcing her father's death. Johnnie is disappointed to discover that Lina has inherited no money, only her father's portrait, he convinces Beaky to finance a hugely speculative land development scheme. Lina is afraid this is a confidence trick or worse, futilely tries to talk Beaky out of it. Johnnie overhears and angrily warns his wife to stay out of his affairs, but he calls the whole thing off.
When Beaky leaves for Paris, Johnnie accompanies him partway. News reaches Lina that Beaky died in Paris. Johnnie lies to an investigating police inspector, saying that he stayed in London; this and other details lead Lina to suspect. Lina begins to fear that her husband is plotting to kill her for her life insurance, he has been questioning her friend Isobel Sedbusk, a writer of mystery novels, about untraceable poisons. Johnnie brings Lina a glass of milk before bed. Needing to get away for a while, she says. Johnnie insists on driving her there, he speeds recklessly in a powerful convertible on a dangerous road beside a cliff. Lina's door unexpectedly swings open. Johnnie reaches over; when she shrinks from him, he stops the car. In the subsequent confrontation, it emerges that Johnnie was intending to commit suicide after taking Lina to her mother's. Now, however, he has decided that suicide is the coward's way out, is resolved to face his responsibilities to the point of going to prison for the embezzlement.
He was in Liverpool at the time of Beaky's death, trying to borrow on Lina's life insurance policy to repay Melbeck. Her suspicions allayed, Lina tells him. Cary Grant as Johnnie Aysgarth Joan Fontaine as Lina McLaidlaw Aysgarth Nigel Bruce as Gordon Cochrane'Beaky' Thwaite Sir Cedric Hardwicke as General McLaidlaw Dame May Whitty as Mrs. Martha McLaidlaw Isabel Jeans as Mrs. Helen Newsham, Johnnie's friend Heather Angel as Ethel, Aysgarth's Maid Auriol Lee as Isobel Sedbusk and Aysgarth's friend Reginald Sheffield as Reggie Wetherby, Lina's dancing partner Leo G. Carroll as Captain George Melbeck, Johnnie's employer and cousinUncredited Billy Bevan as Ticket Taker in train Leonard Carey as Burton - McLaidlaws' Butler Clyde Cook as Photographer Alec Craig as Hogarth Club Desk Clerk Vernon Downing as Benson, Inspector's assistant Gavin Gordon as Dr. Bertram Sedbusk, Isobel's brother Lumsden Hare as Inspector Hodgson Aubrey Mather as Executor of General Laidlaw's Will Constance Worth as Mrs. FitzpatrickAlfred Hitchcock's cameo is a signature occurrence in most of his films.
In Suspicion, he can be seen 47 minutes into the film mailing a letter at the village postbox. In November 1939, Nathanael West was hired as a screenwriter by RKO Radio Pictures, where he collaborated with Boris Ingster on a film adaptation of the novel; the two men wrote the screenplay in seven weeks, with West focusing on characterization and dialogue as Ingster worked on the narrative structure. When RKO assigned Before the Fact to Hitchcock, he had his own different, credited to Samson Raphaelson, Joan Harrison, Alma Reville. West and Ingster's screenplay was never produced; the text of this screenplay can be found in the Library of America's edition of West's collected works. In places, the screenplay of Suspicion faithfully follows the plot of the novel. However, a number of major differences exist between its film version. Johnnie Aysgarth's infidelity is not featured in the film: Lina's best friend with whom Johnnie has an affair does not appear at all, Ethel, their maid, does not have an illegitimate son
Nathan West (General Hospital)
Nathan West is a fictional character from General Hospital, an American soap opera on the ABC network, portrayed by Ryan Paevey. Created by head writer Ron Carlivati, Nathan was introduced in late 2013 by Frank Valentini as a love interest for Maxie Jones. In January 2018, Paevey announced. Paevey's casting was well received; the character of Nathan becomes quite popular rather among viewers and critics, becoming known as the show's resident heroic "good guy" as he tries to support his mess of a family. At the same time, Nathan's pairing with Maxie becomes a fan favorite pairing and their "slow burn" romance was praised by critics. Detective Nathan West arrives in Port Charles, meets Maxie Jones when he sublets her apartment. Maxie leaves on a vacation, he starts investigating Dr. Silas Clay in regards to the overdose of Silas' wife, Nina Reeves, suspecting Silas is responsible. It's revealed that Nathan is Nina's brother. Nathan's mother Madeline Reeves claims that Nina has died after Silas has relinquished his rights to Nina's vast estate.
Nathan is shocked when Madeline falls into the trap to catch the killer, confesses that she drugged Nina to kill her unborn child. He arrests Madeline, reveals his identity. Maxie returns with her new manipulative boyfriend Levi Dunkleman, who Nathan clashes with. Nathan meets Britt Westbourne at the same time that it's revealed Nathan is the biological son of Liesl Obrecht, Madeline's sister, Britt is his sister. Madeline confesses to Nathan when he mentions sleeping with Britt. Nathan is shocked. Maxie is trying to regain custody of her daughter Georgie, but is discouraged about going to her hearing. Nathan encourages Maxie to fight for Georgie covers for her, lying that he threw her summons away by mistake; when the judge discovers Nathan lied for Maxie and she loses custody of her daughter, Nathan suspects Levi tipped off the judge, tries to prove it. Meanwhile, Nathan is reunited with Nina. Levi frames Nathan for tipping off immigration about Levi's expired visa, leading to Maxie throwing Nathan out of the apartment.
As Maxie is set to marry Levi, Nathan discovers Levi has stolen a family heirloom from Maxie's mother Felicia Scorpio. With the help of his partner Dante Falconeri, Nathan crashes the wedding, only for Levi to escape with Maxie and Dante's wife, Lulu, at gunpoint. Nathan is kidnapped by Victor Cassadine. Nathan is about to kill Victor until Obrecht says that they are son. Nathan rescues Maxie, the two end up killing Levi and his father, Peter Harrell; as they escape, it was revealed that Victor isn't Nathan's father, Obrecht kills Victor to keep Nathan from finding out. Nathan and Maxie start dating, but when Maxie is threatened with losing custody of Georgie again, they're forced to stay apart. Nathan asks for help from his mother, who arranges for Monica Quartermaine to appeal to the judge on Maxie's behalf. A thrilled Maxie gets visitation rights to Georgie, she and Nathan start a relationship freely. Nathan moves out at Maxie's request, they clash when Maxie helps fugitive Johnny Zacchara skip town.
Georgie returns with her father Damian Spinelli, hoping to reunite with Maxie. Maxie dumps Nathan after she blames him for accepting Spinelli's challenge to box for her affections. Nathan teams up with Spinelli's ex-girlfriend Ellie Trout, pretending to date to make their respective lovers jealous; the plan works, Maxie and Nathan reunite after the Nurses' Ball. Silas is found dead, Nina is accused of murdering him. Wanting to prove Nina innocent, Nathan investigates, starts to suspect Ric Lansing, Nina's new husband whom she randomly married. Nathan figures out that Ric married Nina on Madeline's request, to drive Nina crazy and gain Nina's inheritance. Nathan gets Ric's cooperation, is able to arrest Madeline for Silas' murder, disgusted by her actions; when Nathan is shot in 2016, under the influence of drugs, he refers to Maxie as "Claudette." Maxie asked Nathan who Claudette is, he claims it was his dog. Nathan admits she's his ex-wife, Claudette Beaulieu. Nathan admits that he and Claudette had a green card marriage, but he fell in love with her till he discovered she was cheating on him.
Nathan confesses to Obrecht that he didn't tell Maxie the entire story. After he and Maxie get engaged, Nathan admits that he discovered Claudette's infidelity when he walked in on her and her lover. Drunk and angry, he shot Claudette's lover. Maxie is hesitant to trust Nathan. Maxie convinces Nathan to let Claudette stay to keep an eye on her. Nathan discovers. Furious, he attacks Griffin, Maxie and Claudette have to pull him off. Maxie accuses him of still being in love with Claudette, but he convinces her that this is not true, he loves her. Claudette asks Nathan for help to protect her daughter, Charlotte – who she claims is Nathan's daughter – from Claudette's ex-lover, Valentin Cassadine. Rightfully suspicious, Maxie exposes. Claudette eventuall
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Five Came Back
Five Came Back is a 1939 American black-and-white melodrama from RKO Radio Pictures, produced by Robert Sisk, directed by John Farrow, that stars Chester Morris and Lucille Ball. The film was photographed by cinematographer Nicholas Musuraca, written by Jerry Cady, Dalton Trumbo, Nathanael West. Although considered a B movie, the positive notices received by Ball helped launch her as an A-list actress. Five Came Back is considered a precursor of the disaster film genre. In 1948 Five Came Back was remade as the Mexican film Los que volvieron and again in 1956 by producer-director Farrow as Back from Eternity, starring Robert Ryan and Anita Ekberg. Nine passengers board a commercial flight from Los Angeles to Panama City: wealthy Judson Ellis and Alice Melhorne, eloping because their parents disapprove; the crew comprises pilot Bill, co-pilot Joe Brooks, steward Larry. On their way to Panama, a fierce nighttime storm buffets The Silver Queen. A gas cylinder knocks a door open and little Tommy falls against it.
An engine fails and the pilots are forced to crash-land in jungle terrain. In the morning the professor recognizes plants of the Amazon rainforest: the aircraft has been blown far south of where rescuers will search, but there is water, enough fruit and game for everyone to live on. Weeks go by while Bill and Joe struggle to repair the damaged airliner, while the others clear a runway and lighten the aircraft by removing all unnecessary weight; the experience changes everyone. The Spenglers rediscover their love for each other. Bill warms to an appreciative Peggy. Judson falls apart, staying drunk much of the time, while Alice toughens up and begins to feel attracted to Joe; the biggest change is to Vasquez. Seeing how well most of the group have coped with their situation, he reconsiders his radical beliefs. On the 23rd day, Crimp disappears; when Peggy and Pete go looking for Tommy, he leads them to Crimp's body, which has a poison dart stuck in it. Pete orders Peggy to take Tommy to safety while he covers their retreat, but he is killed by unseen natives.
The remaining survivors board the now-repaired airliner, but as the engines turn over, an oil leak develops. Bill and Joe patch it, but realize that their repair will fail some time after takeoff, leaving only one running engine; as a result, the aircraft can only carry Tommy across the mountains. As everyone tries to decide how to choose who must stay behind, Vasquez grabs a pistol and announces that, since he is doomed no matter what, he is the only one without bias and will make the decision. While the leak repairs are being made, he is approached by Professor Spengler, who says that he and his wife have lived their lives and should stay; when the aircraft is ready, Vasquez announces that both pilots and both of the younger women will go along with Tommy. Judson attacks, Vasquez shoots him dead; the airliner takes off. As the natives approach, Professor Spengler informs Vasquez that they must not be taken alive, as they will be tortured. Vasquez lies to him, he kills the couple with his last two bullets, awaits his grisly fate.
The film was based on an original story by former journalist Richard Carroll. The studio said it would be a "probable vehicle" for Cary Grant; however the movie wound up being made as a "B picture", albeit a higher budgeted one than normal B-movies. In August 1938 it was announced as part of RKO's schedule for the following year. Victor McLaglen and Charles Coburn were announced as cast members. John Carradine was borrowed from 20th Century Fox and Allen Jenkins from Warner Bros. C Aubrey Smith and Joseph Calleia were cast. Lucille Ball, Patric Knowles and Kent Taylor were last-minute replacements for Ann Southern, Alan Marshall and Alan Baxter. Filming started in late March 1939. Although filmed on a back lot, Five Came Back overcame some of the limitations of its low-budget; the fiery director insisted on a realistic jungle environment and had trees imported to flesh out the jungle landscape on the sound stage. Unwanted attention directed toward Lucille Ball by lead actor Chester Morris and clashes between director Farrow, a contract player, Ball made for a tense set.
When two Black Widow spiders dropped out of a tree onto Ball's head, she was upset and left the set, screaming. The transport aircraft used in Five Came Back is the Capelis XC-12, built in 1933 by Capelis Safety Airplane Corporation of California, although an altogether different airplane, a Lockheed Electra, is seen in one takeoff sequence; the aircraft was a low-wing cabin monoplane with two 525 hp Wright Cyclone engines. The Capelis XC-12 featured an unusual construction method with the main wing spar bolted together