University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia. It was founded in 1819 by Declaration of former President Thomas Jefferson. UVA is a World Heritage site of the United States, it is known for its historic foundations, student-run honor code, secret societies. The original governing Board of Visitors included Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation and earlier Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVA's first two rectors. Jefferson designed the original courses of study and Academical Village; as the first elected member to the research-driven Association of American Universities in the American South, since 1904, it remains the only AAU member in Virginia. The university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, its recent research efforts have been recognized by such scientific media as the journal Science, which credited UVA faculty with two of the top ten global breakthroughs of 2015.
UVA faculty and alumni have founded a large number of companies, such as Reddit. UVA offers 121 majors across three professional schools; the historic 1,682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and has been ranked as one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, at Morven Farm; the university manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia. Virginia student athletes compete in 27 collegiate sports and the Cavaliers lead the Atlantic Coast Conference in men's team NCAA championships with 18, additionally placing second in women's national titles with seven. UVA was awarded the men's Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall men's athletics program in the nation. In 1802, while serving as President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson wrote to artist Charles Willson Peale that his concept of the new university would be "on the most extensive and liberal scale that our circumstances would call for and our faculties meet," and that it might attract talented students from "other states to come, drink of the cup of knowledge".
Virginia was home to the College of William and Mary, but Jefferson lost all confidence in his alma mater because of its religious nature – it required all its students to recite a catechism – and its stifling of the sciences. Jefferson had flourished under William and Mary professors William Small and George Wythe decades earlier, but the college was in a period of great decline and his concern became so dire by 1800 that he expressed to British chemist Joseph Priestley, "we have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it." These words would ring true some seventy years when William and Mary fell bankrupt after the Civil War and the Williamsburg college was shuttered in 1881 being revived in a limited capacity as a small college for teachers until well into the twentieth century. In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap.
After some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College; the school laid its first building's cornerstone late in that same year, the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25, 1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jefferson's dream to establish the university. Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. Like many of its peers, the university owned slaves, they served students and professors. The university's first classes met on March 7, 1825. In contrast to other universities of the day, at which one could study in either medicine, law, or divinity, the first students at the University of Virginia could study in one or several of eight independent schools – medicine, mathematics, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, moral philosophy.
Another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. UVA had no divinity school, was established independently of any religious sect, the Grounds were planned and centered upon a library, the Rotunda, rather than a church, distinguishing it from peer universities still functioning as seminaries for one particular strain of Protestantism or another. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution", never has there been one. There were two degrees awarded by the university: Graduate, to a student who had completed the courses of one school. Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. So taken with the import of what he viewed the university's foundations and potential to be, counting it amongst his greatest accomplishments, Jefferson insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Fre
Henry St. George Tucker Sr.
Henry St. George Tucker Sr. was a Virginia jurist, law professor, U. S. Congressman. Tucker was born in Chesterfield County, Virginia on December 29, 1780 to St. George Tucker and Frances Bland, the daughter of Theodorick Bland of Cawsons, he was thus the half-brother through his mother of U. S. Representative and Senator John Randolph of Roanoke; as a young man, he pursued classical studies at the College of Mary. Tucker stayed in Williamsburg, Virginia to study law at William and Mary as well as under his father, an established Virginia lawyer, he excelled in the study of law, obtaining his law degree in 1801. After being admitted to the Virginia bar, Tucker commenced a legal practice in Virginia. Notably, Tucker was appointed to the law faculty at the College of William & Mary and was captain of Cavalry in the War of 1812, he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U. S. House of Representatives and served for two terms, from 1815 to 1819. During his tenure, Tucker was a supporter of the American System, including the establishment of the Second Bank of the United States and the passage of the Tariff of 1816.
In 1823 he had John Randolph Tucker. From 1824 to 1831 he operated the Winchester Law School, he went on to be judge and president of the Court of Appeals of Virginia and became a professor of law at the University of Virginia. As a law professor, Tucker authored Commentaries on the Law of Virginia as well as several treatises on natural law and on the formation of the Constitution of the United States, he is known for adding a mandatory pledge to the student honor code while a professor at the University of Virginia. On July 4, 1842, St. George Tucker offered the following resolution as a gesture of confidence in students: "...resolved, that in all future examinations... each candidate shall attach to the written answers... a certificate of the following words: I, A. B. do hereby certify on my honor that I have derived no assistance during the time of this examination from any source whatsoever." Tucker's pledge was adopted and soon became the following: "I do hereby certify on honor that I have derived no assistance during the time of this examination from any source whatever, whether oral, written or in print."
This basic pledge has, in another, been adopted at many American universities. Tucker resigned in 1845 due to ill health, he died in Winchester, Virginia in 1848. 1815. S. House of Representatives with 71.5% of the vote, defeating Federalist Griffin Taylor and Independent Robert Bailey. 1817. The papers of the Tucker-Coleman family, including the papers of Henry St. George Tucker, are held by the Special Collections Research Center at the College of William & Mary, his home near Leetown, West Virginia, known as Woodbury, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Commentaries on the Law of Virginia Lectures on Constitutional Law Lectures on Natural Law and Government Tucker County, West Virginia, named for Tucker United States Congress. "Henry St. George Tucker Sr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Wilson, J. G.. "Tucker, Thomas Tudor". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Henry St. George Tucker Sr. at Find a Grave Finding aid for the Tucker-Coleman Papers
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
John Randolph Tucker (politician)
John Randolph Tucker was an American lawyer and politician from Virginia. From a distinguished slaveholding family, he was elected Virginia's attorney general in 1857 and after re-election served during the American Civil War. After a pardon and Congressional Reconstruction, Tucker was elected as U. S. Congressman, served as the first dean of the Washington and Lee University Law School. Tucker was born in Winchester, Virginia on Christmas Eve in 1823, the son of Anna Evalina Hunter Tucker and her husband Judge Henry St. George Tucker. A grandson of St. George Tucker, J. R. Tucker would become proud of his heritage among the First Families of Virginia, his father and many relatives owned enslaved persons. Nonetheless, several of his siblings never reached adulthood, his brothers Dr. Alfred Bland Tucker and Lt. Col. St. George Hunter Tucker would die of consumption while in the Confederate States Army, his brother Nathaniel Beverley Tucker would become a Confederate diplomat and a journalist. John Randolph Tucker attended a private school near his Winchester home entered the Richmond Academy.
He finished his studies at the University of Virginia, graduating with a legal degree in 1844. He married Laura Powell in 1848, they had one son who survived to adulthood, Henry St. George Tucker, III, their daughters who married well and survived their parents included: Anne Holmes Tucker McGuire, Gertrude Tucker Logan, Laura Randolph Tucker Pendleton. John Randolph Tucker was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1845, began a private legal practice in Winchester. In 1854 he delivered a major speech to the literary societies at College of William and Mary which argued that slavery was consistent with republicanism, he became active in politics and was a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1852 and 1856. Voters elected Tucker Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1857, he served during the American Civil War, until the Commonwealth surrendered to Union forces in 1865, his siblings actively supported the Confederate cause, two as Confederate doctors, Nathaniel Beverley Tucker as a Confederate diplomat, his lawyer brother St. George Hunter Tucker recruited the Ashland Grays and served at Lt. Col. winning plaudits for his conduct at the Battle of Malvern Hill before resigning his commission and dying of consumption in Charlottesville in 1863.
J. Randolph Tucker resumed his private legal practice. Elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1875, he served until 1887, he was chairman of the House Committee on Ways and Means in the 46th Congress and chairman of the House Committee on the Judiciary in the 48th and 49th Congresses. He took an active part in the debates in opposition to the protective policy, his speeches on other questions include those on the Electoral Commission bill, the constitutional doctrine as to the presidential count, the Hawaiian treaty in 1876, the use of the army at the polls, in 1879, Chinese emigration, in 1883. He introduced legislation broadening the power of the federal Court of Claims to hear Constitutional claims in 1886, which became known as the Tucker Act, he declined to be renominated to the House in 1886. He was co-sponsor of the 1887 Edmunds–Tucker Act. Tucker was an exemplar of the racist views of his day. Speaking on the House floor, he asserted that “We did not ordain and establish this Constitution for the Chinaman and for all the other races of the earth....
I hold that this Constitution was ordained and established by our fathers for their posterity of the Caucasian people of America.” Not he was not supportive of the post-Civil War push to grant rights to African Americans, declaring that “... There is not a philosophical statesman in this land who to-day does not say either that the citizenship and the voting power of the African race in the South is a failure--either that or that it is an unsolved problem of our future. We have that one disease in the body-politic, which God grant we may recover from.” 1874. S. House of Representatives with 65.23% of the vote, defeating Republican J. Foote Johnson. 1876. 1878. 1880. 1882. 1884. Elected professor of Constitutional law at Washington and Lee University in 1888, Tucker was Dean of the School of Law from 1893 to 1897. Tucker served as president of The Virginia Bar Association in 1891-1892, president of the American Bar Association in 1894. John Randolph Tucker died in 1897 in Lexington, Virginia and is buried in the family plot at Mt. Hebron cemetery in Winchester.
His widow would join him in 1916. One of his sons, Henry St. George Tucker, III, would follow in his
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D. C. Shot in the head as he watched the play, Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 am, in the Petersen House opposite the theater, he was the first U. S. president to be assassinated, Lincoln's funeral and burial marked an extended period of national mourning. Occurring near the end of the American Civil War, the assassination was part of a larger conspiracy intended by Booth to revive the Confederate cause by eliminating the three most important officials of the United States government. Conspirators Lewis Powell and David Herold were assigned to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward, George Atzerodt was tasked with killing Vice President Andrew Johnson. Beyond Lincoln's death the plot failed: Seward was only wounded and Johnson's would-be attacker lost his nerve. After a dramatic initial escape, Booth was killed at the climax of a 12-day manhunt.
Powell, Herold and Mary Surratt were hanged for their roles in the conspiracy. John Wilkes Booth, born in Maryland into a family of prominent stage actors, had by the time of the assassination become a famous actor and national celebrity in his own right, he was an outspoken Confederate sympathizer. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union armies, suspended the exchange of prisoners of war with the Confederate Army to increase pressure on the manpower-starved South. Booth conceived a plan to kidnap Lincoln in order to blackmail the North into resuming prisoner exchanges,:130–4 and recruited Samuel Arnold, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Michael O'Laughlen, Lewis Powell, John Surratt to help him. Surratt's mother, Mary Surratt, left her tavern in Surrattsville and moved to a house in Washington, D. C. where Booth became a frequent visitor. While Booth and Lincoln were not acquainted, Lincoln had seen Booth at Ford's in 1863.:419 After the assassination, actor Frank Mordaunt wrote that Lincoln admired Booth, whom Lincoln had invited to visit the White House.
Booth attended Lincoln's second inauguration on March 4, writing in his diary afterwards: "What an excellent chance I had, if I wished, to kill the President on Inauguration day!":174,437n.41On March 17, Booth and the other conspirators planned to abduct Lincoln as he returned from a play at Campbell Military Hospital. But Lincoln did not go instead attending a ceremony at the National Hotel. On April 3, Virginia, the Confederate capital, fell to the Union Army. On April 9 the General-in-Chief of the Confederate States Army Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Commanding General of the United States Army Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Potomac after the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate President Jefferson Davis and other Confederate officials had fled, but Booth continued to believe in the Confederate cause and sought a way to salvage it.:728 There are various theories about Booth's motivations. In a letter to his mother, he wrote of his desire to avenge the South.
Doris Kearns Goodwin has endorsed the idea that another factor was Booth's rivalry with his well-known older brother, actor Edwin Booth, a loyal Unionist. David S. Reynolds believes Booth admired the abolitionist John Brown. On April 11, Booth attended Lincoln's speech at the White House in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks; that is the last speech he will give." He urged Lewis Powell to shoot Lincoln on the spot, when Powell refused for fear of the crowd, said to David Herold, "By God, I'll put him through.":91 According to Ward Hill Lamon, three days before his death Lincoln related a dream in which he wandered the White House searching for the source of mournful sounds: I kept on until I arrived at the East Room, which I entered. There I met with a sickening surprise. Before me was a catafalque, on which rested a corpse wrapped in funeral vestments. Around it were stationed soldiers who were acting as guards. "Who is dead in the White House?" I demanded of one of the soldiers, "The President," was his answer.
For months Lincoln had looked pale and haggard, but on the morning of the assassination he told people how happy he was. First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln felt such talk could bring bad luck.:346 Lincoln told his cabinet that he had dreamed of being on a "singular and indescribable vessel, moving with great rapidity toward a dark and indefinite shore", that he'd had the same dream before "nearly every great and important event of the War" such as the victories at Antietam, Murfreesboro and Vicksburg. On April 14, Booth's morning started at midnight, he wrote his mother that all was well, but that he was "in haste". In his diary, he wrote that "Our cause being lost, something decisive and great must be done".:728:346While visiting Ford's Theatre around noon to pick up his mail, Booth learned that Lincoln and Grant were to see Our American Cousin there that night. This provided him with an good
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos