Nation

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The word nation stems from the Latin natio, meaning "people, tribe, kin, genus, class, flock." Black's Law Dictionary defines a nation as:

A people, or aggregation of men, existing in the form of an organized jural society, usually inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity, and distinguished from other like groups by their racial origin and characteristics, and generally, but not necessarily, living under the same government and sovereignty.[1]

A nation is distinct from a "people"[1], and is more abstract, and overtly political than an ethnic group,[2] it is a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and particular interests.[3]

Ernest Renan's What is a Nation? (1882) declares that "race is confused with nation and a sovereignty analogous to that of really existing peoples is attributed to ethnographic or, rather linguistic groups", and "The truth is that there is no pure race and that to make politics depend upon ethnographic analysis is to surrender it to a chimera", echoing a sentiment of civic nationalism. He also claims that a nation is not formed on the basis of dynasty, language, religion, geography, or shared interests. Rather, "A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present-day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form", emphasizing the democratic and historical aspects of what constitutes a nation, although, "Forgetting, I would even go so far as to say historical error, is a crucial factor in the creation of a nation". "A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity", which he said is reaffirmed in a "daily plebiscite".[4]

The nation has been described by Benedict Anderson as an "imagined community"[5] and by Paul James as an "abstract community".[6] It is an imagined community in the sense that the material conditions exist for imagining extended and shared connections, it is an abstract community in the sense that it is objectively impersonal, even if each individual in the nation experiences him or herself as subjectively part of an embodied unity with others. For the most part, members of a nation remain strangers to each other and will never likely meet.[7] Hence the phrase, "a nation of strangers" used by such writers as Vance Packard.

Etymology and terminology[edit]

The word nation came to English from the Old French word nacion – meaning "birth" (naissance), "place of origin" -, which in turn originates from the Latin word natio (nātĭō) literally meaning "birth".[8]

The word "nation" is sometimes used as synonym for:

  • State (polity) or sovereign state: a government which controls a specific territory, which may or may not be associated with any particular ethnic group
  • Country: a geographic territory, which may or may not have an affiliation with a government or ethnic group

Thus the phrase "nations of the world" could be referring to the top-level governments (as in the name for the United Nations), various large geographical territories, or various large ethnic groups of the planet.

Depending on the meaning of "nation" used, the term "nation state" could be used to distinguish larger states from small city states, or could be used to distinguish multinational states from those with a single ethnic group.

Medieval nations[edit]

In her book Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900–1300, Susan Reynolds argues that many European medieval kingdoms were nations in the modern sense except that political participation in nationalism was available only to a limited prosperous and literate class.[9] In his book The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism, Adrian Hastings argues that England's Anglo Saxon kings mobilized mass nationalism in their struggle to repel Norse invasions. Hastings argues that Alfred the Great, in particular, drew on biblical nationalism, using biblical language in his law code and that during his reign selected books of the Bible were translated into Old English to inspire Englishmen to fight to turn back the Norse invaders. Hastings argues for a strong renewal of English nationalism (following a hiatus after the Norman conquest) beginning with the translation of the complete bible into English by the Wycliffe circle in the 1380s, arguing that English nationalism and the English nation have been continuous since that time.[10]

Another prudent example of Medieval nationalism is the Declaration of Arbroath, a document produced by Scottish nobles and clergy during the Scottish Wars of Independence, the purpose of the document was to demonstrate to the Pope that Scotland was indeed a nation of its own, with its own unique culture, history and language and that it was indeed an older nation than England. The document went on to justify the actions of Robert the Bruce and his forces in resisting the occupation and to chastise the English for having violated Scottish sovereignty without justification, the propaganda campaign supplemented a military campaign on the part of the Bruce, which after the Battle of Bannockburn was successful and eventually resulted in the end of England's occupation and recognition of Scottish independence on the part of the English crown. The document is widely seen as an early example of both Scottish nationalism and popular sovereignty.

Anthony Kaldellis affirms in Hellenism in Byzantium (2008) that what is called the Byzantine Empire was the Roman Empire transformed into a nation-state in Middle Ages.

Azar Gat is among the scholars who argue that China, Korea and Japan were nations by the time of the European Middle Ages.[11]

Use of term nationes by medieval universities and other medieval institutions[edit]

A significant early use of the term nation, as natio, occurred at Medieval universities[12] to describe the colleagues in a college or students, above all at the University of Paris, who were all born within a pays, spoke the same language and expected to be ruled by their own familiar law. In 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris, Jean Gerson was elected twice as a procurator for the French natio, the University of Prague adopted the division of students into nationes: from its opening in 1349 the studium generale which consisted of Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon and Silesian nations.

In a similar way, the nationes were segregated by the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, who maintained at Rhodes the hostels from which they took their name "where foreigners eat and have their places of meeting, each nation apart from the others, and a Knight has charge of each one of these hostels, and provides for the necessities of the inmates according to their religion", as the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur noted in 1436.[13]

Early modern nations[edit]

In his article, "The Mosaic Moment: An Early Modernist Critique of the Modernist Theory of Nationalism", Philip S. Gorski argues that the first modern nation was the Dutch Republic, created by a fully modern political nationalism rooted in the model of biblical nationalism.[14] In a 2013 article "Biblical nationalism and the sixteenth-century states", Diana Muir Appelbaum expands Gorski's argument to apply to a series of new, Protestant, sixteenth-century nation states.[15] A similar, albeit broader, argument was made by Anthony D. Smith in his books, Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity and Myths and Memories of the Nation.[16]

In her book Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity, Liah Greenfeld argued that nationalism was invented in England by 1600. According to Greenfeld, England was “the first nation in the world".[17][18]

Social science[edit]

In the late 20th century, many social scientists argued that there were two types of nations, the civic nation of which France was the principal example and the ethnic nation exemplified by the German peoples, the German tradition was conceptualized as originating with early 19th-century philosophers, like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and referred to people sharing a common language, religion, culture, history, and ethnic origins, that differentiate them from people of other nations.[19] On the other hand, the civic nation was traced to the French Revolution and ideas deriving from 18th-century French philosophers, it was understood as being centered in a willingness to "live together", this producing a nation that results from an act of affirmation.[20] This is the vision, among others, of Ernest Renan.[19]

Present day analysis tend to be based in socio-historical studies about the building of national identity sentiments, trying to identify the individual and collective mechanisms, either conscient or non-conscient, intended or un-intended. According to some of these studies, it seems that the State often plays a significant role, and communications, particularly of economic content, also have a high significance.[19]

Black nationalism[edit]

The 18th century brought an alteration to the meaning of the term "nation", which became more narrowly referred to as a group with a recognizable and sovereign government with physical borders, this new definition aligns more with the concept of a nation-state.[21] The nation began to emerge in the late 18th century as the leading form of government and social organization;[22] in the Americas, the catalyst that brought about this change in meaning was the influence of the African diaspora and its people in other states.[citation needed] National identity brought rights to vote, to hold office, and independence for a growing number of black territories held under colonial rule.[23]

This change occurred in the New World as Africans were brought as enslaved peoples.[citation needed] The white population of the New World considered these aliens to be in one category of nation that was based entirely on color and continent of origin, the identity of the enslaved at the time was then shaped by their skin color rather than what nation or tribe they truly originated from. Prior to the 18th and 19th centuries, the term mainly referred to a group of people unified by language, region and cultural background; what is now considered to be one's ethnicity. It was through the process of emancipation and the end of the slave trade that the concept of nation began to change, as the previously enslaved began to fight for rights they had to discover what kind of rights they were searching for. It was in this process of emancipation that nationality began to take on a different meaning. Language and cultural background were no longer the only requirements of nation. Instead, now the idea of an established government and physical boundaries also shaped what it meant to be a nation.[24]

However, within the diaspora, particularly among groups that have been politicized, the term nation has been used to describe a more abstract national experience, one that transcends physical borders and language differences, this description of nation is pinned to the shared experience of being radicalized and termed as Black. The expansion of Black nationalism demonstrates that although some expanded the view that nation requires definable boundaries, those who shared the experience of the diaspora also found a nationality among themselves.

Debate about a potential evolution or end of nations[edit]

There is an ongoing debate about the future of nations − about whether this framework will persist as is and whether there are viable or developing alternatives.[25]

Postnationalism is the process or trend by which nation states and national identities lose their importance relative to supranational and global entities. Several factors contribute to its aspects including economic globalization, a rise in importance of multinational corporations, the internationalization of financial markets, the transfer of socio-political power from national authorities to supernational entities, such as multinational corporations, the United Nations and the European Union and the advent of new information and culture technologies such as the Internet. However attachment to citizenship and national identities often remains important.[26][27][28]

Transnational communities are social groups that emerge from mutual interaction and shared culture across national boundaries, oriented around a common project − such as the solving of a global issue − or 'imagined' identity.[29]

Humans like being around people like themselves.[25] Other types of local communities − such as cities − might gain identity, influence and relevance as well as see increased sociocultural identification.

Jan Zielonka of the University of Oxford states that "the future structure and exercise of political power will resemble the medieval model more than the Westphalian one" with the latter being about "concentration of power, sovereignty and clear-cut identity" and neo-medievalism meaining "overlapping authorities, divided sovereignty, multiple identities and governing institutions, and fuzzy borders".[25]

In the view of Ian Goldin, head of the Oxford Martin School, which analyses global problems, such networks must emerge, he quotes Slaughter, saying "Networked problems require a networked response" and states that existing institutions such as the World Bank and UN agencies are structurally unable to deal with problems emerging from global interconnectivity, such as economic instability, pandemics, climate change and cybersecurity.[25]

For a society to survive, its collective behaviour must be as complex as the challenges it faces and national agendas seem to repeatedly trump the global good in such vital matters.[25]
As both city or regional administrations[25] and cooperation on the international level often prove to be more effective in solving critical issues than traditional models and as identities of transnational or nation-separate cultures develop the framework of nations might change, be extended or even be somewhat abolished.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed
  2. ^ James, Paul (1996). Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage Publications. 
  3. ^ Anthony D. Smith (8 January 1991). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Wiley. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-631-16169-1. 
  4. ^ Renan, Ernest. "What is a Nation?". web.archive.org. Internet Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  5. ^ Anderson, Benedict (1983). Imagined Communities. London: Verso Publications. 
  6. ^ James, Paul (1996). Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage Publications. p. 34 'A nation is at once an objectively abstract society of strangers, usually connected by a state, and a subjectively embodied community whose members experience themselves as an integrated group of compatriots.'. ISBN 0-7619-5072-9. 
  7. ^ James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 
  8. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Nation". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 June 2011. .
  9. ^ Susan Reynolds, Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900–1300, Oxford, 1997.
  10. ^ Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
  11. ^ Azar Gat, Nations: The Long History and Deep Roots of Political Ethnicity and Nationalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2013, China, p. 93 Korea, p. 104 and Japan p., 105.
  12. ^ see: nation (university)
  13. ^ Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes.
  14. ^ Philip S. Gorski, "The Mosaic Moment: An Early Modernist Critique of the Modernist Theory of Nationalism", American Journal of Sociology 105:5 (2000), pp. 1428–68.[1]
  15. ^ Diana Muir Appelbaum, Biblical nationalism and the sixteenth-century states, National Identities, 2013, [2]
  16. ^ Anthony D. Smith, Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity (Oxford University Press, 2003) and Myths and Memories of the Nation (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  17. ^ Steven Guilbert, The Making of English National Identity, http://www.cercles.com/review/R12/kumar7.htm
  18. ^ Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity, Harvard University Press, 1992.
  19. ^ a b c Noiriel, Gérard (1992). Population, immigration et identité national en France:XIX-XX Siècle. Hachette. ISBN 2010166779. 
  20. ^ Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany, Harvard University Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-674-13178-1
  21. ^ Bauböck, Rainer, and Thomas Faist. Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2010. Print.
  22. ^ Manning, Patrick (2013). The African Diaspora: A History through Culture. Columbia studies in international and global history. Columbia University Press. p. np. ISBN 9780231513555. Retrieved 2014-01-02. The nation began to emerge, in the late eighteenth century, as the leading form of government and social organization. 
  23. ^ Manning, Patrick (2013). The African Diaspora: A History through Culture. Columbia studies in international and global history. Columbia University Press. p. np. ISBN 9780231513555. Retrieved 2014-01-02. Haiti and Liberia stand out as early black nations; the United States and Brazil stand out as early, multicultural nations with large black populations. Nationhood came gradually to all black people. National identity brought rights to vote, to hold office, and independence for a growing number of black territories held under colonial rule. 
  24. ^ Manning, Patrick. The African Diaspora: A History through Culture. New York: Columbia UP, 2009. Print.
  25. ^ a b c d e f "End of nations: Is there an alternative to countries?". New Scientist. Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  26. ^ R. Koopmans and P. Statham; "Challenging the liberal nation-state? Postnationalism, multiculturalism, and the collective claims making of migrants and ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany"; American Journal of Sociology 105:652–96 (1999)
  27. ^ R.A. Hackenberg and R.R. Alvarez; "Close-ups of postnationalism: Reports from the US-Mexico borderlands"; Human Organization 60:97–104 (2001)
  28. ^ I. Bloemraad; "Who claims dual citizenship? The limits of postnationalism, the possibilities of transnationalism, and the persistence of traditional citizenship"; International Migration Review 38:389–426 (2004)
  29. ^ "Transnational Communities". Retrieved 10 May 2017. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]