An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word'image' is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube.
A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines; the subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. There are Two Types of Images a. Still Image b. Moving Image A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one.
In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery is a "mental picture", it can both be literal. Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition Photograph Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
World Justice Project
The World Justice Project is an international civil society organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world". The WJP works through three programs — Research and Scholarship, the WJP Rule of Law Index, Engagement. WJP seeks to increase public awareness about the foundational importance of the rule of law, stimulate government reforms, develop practical programs at the community level, it was founded by William H. Neukom in 2006 as a presidential initiative of the American Bar Association and with the support of 21 partners; the World Justice Project became an independent 501 non-profit organization in 2009. Its offices are located in Washington, D. C. and Seattle, Washington. The World Justice Project defines the rule of law system as one in which the following four universal principles are upheld: The government and its officials and agents are accountable under the law; the laws are clear, publicized and fair, protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and property.
The process by which the laws are enacted and enforced is accessible and fair. Justice is delivered by competent and independent representatives and neutrals who are of sufficient number, have adequate resources, reflect the makeup of the communities they serve; the World Justice Project supports research that examines the contributions of the rule of law to aspects of economic and social development. The scholarship program is pursuing a research agenda studying the effectiveness of the rule of law in domains of social life, the inter-dependencies among the institutional components of the rule of law, the causal mechanisms by which the rule of law affects economic and political life; the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index is an quantitative assessment tool designed to offer a detailed and comprehensive picture of the extent to which countries adhere to the rule of law in practice. The Index provides data on eight dimensions of the rule of law: limited government powers; these factors are further disaggregated into forty-four indicators.
Together, they provide a comprehensive picture of rule of law compliance. The index is published annually; the Index rankings and scores are built from over 400 variables drawn from two new data sources: a general population poll, designed by the WJP and conducted by leading local polling companies using a probability sample of 1,000 respondents in the three largest cities of each country. To date, over 97,000 people and 2,500 experts have been interviewed in 99 countries and jurisdictions. Adherence to the rule of law is assessed using 47 indicators organized around eight themes: constraints on government powers, absence of corruption, open government, fundamental rights and security, regulatory enforcement, civil justice, criminal justice. In addition to country scores and rankings, the Index includes key global findings as well as an analysis of regional strengths, rule of law challenges and worst performers, trends to watch; the list below shows the top 30 countries/territories and the full rankings are available for download on the WJP website.
Since its founding in 2006, the WJP has helped give people in countries around the world greater understanding of the rule of law and with it, greater opportunities in nearly every part of their lives – from education, to health care, to property rights to fair and peaceful resolution of disputes. The WJP's Engagement initiatives strive to make rule of law advancement as fundamental to the thinking and work of other professionals as it is to lawyers and judges; the World Justice Challenge is an open competition designed to incubate practical, on-the-ground programs that advance the rule of law. Selected programs will be supported by: Modest seed grants — the typical size of a seed grant is $15,000 to $25,000 Connections to others in the WJP's global network Increased visibility through media and communications support The World Justice Forum is the world's largest global multidisciplinary platform dedicated to advancing the rule of law, it is a global gathering at which prominent leaders from all parts of the world and a variety of disciplines come together to articulate how the rule of law affects their disciplines and regions and to develop collaborative actions to strengthen the rule of law.
Since 2007, the WJP has held four World Justice Forums. The inaugural World Justice Forum was held in Vienna, Austria, on July 2–5, 2008; the World Justice Forum II took place on November 11–14, 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The World Justice Forum III was held on June 20 -- 2011, in Barcelona, Spain; the World Justice Forum IV took place on July 8 -- 2013, in The Hague, Netherlands. The World Justice Project convened a small taskforce of Tunisian leaders from business and civil society in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 28, 2012, to assess rule of law opportunities and challenges facing Tunisia during the ongoing reform process; the WJP worked with the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, the Arab Center for the Rule of Law and Integrity, the Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law in the planning and execution of the Tunisia workshop. It produced a detailed report on the rule of law situation in Tunisia based on data from its Rule of Law Index; the WJP is considering organizing additional workshops in the future for countries undergoing transition.
The WJP supports multidisciplinary workshops aim
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
The GfK SE is Germany's largest market research institute, the fourth largest market research organisation in the world, after Nielsen Company, Kantar Group and Ipsos. It was founded among them Ludwig Erhard. In April 2005 it acquired NOP World, based in the United Kingdom, the United States and Italy, rated the ninth largest market research business in the world. In May 2008 it acquired an equity stake in Deep-Packet Inspection company Qosmos in order to track and monitor Internet usage for marketing research. In December 2011, GfK acquired Knowledge Networks, based in Palo Alto, California the United States, which does online research for consumer products and services, retail and public policy. KN's Dimestore platform offers unique platform for measuring the effectiveness of digital ad campaign with simple surveys of streaming video ads, that allows real-time reporting. In 2010, the company was the fourth-largest market research company by revenue. In December 2016 the capital firm KKR announced an offer to take over the majority of GfK SE's shares.
Global Enabling Trade Report
The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum. The 2008 report covers emerging economies. At the core of the report is the Enabling Trade Index which ranks the countries using data from different sources; the Enabling Trade Index measures the factors and services that facilitate the trade in goods across borders and to destination. It is made up of four sub-indexes: Market access Border administration Transport and communications infrastructure Business environmentEach of these sub-indexes contains two to three pillars that assess different aspects of a country's trade environment. Global Enabling Trade Report 2016 Global Enabling Trade Report 2014 Global Enabling Trade Report 2010 Professor Robert Z. Lawrence, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, World Economic Forum, Editors. "Global Enabling Trade Report 2008". World Economic Forum, Switzerland. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG