Stevens Institute of Technology
Stevens Institute of Technology is a private, coeducational research university in Hoboken, New Jersey. Incorporated in 1870, it is one of the oldest technological universities in the United States and was the first college in America dedicated to mechanical engineering; the campus encompasses Castle Point, the highest point in Hoboken, several other buildings around the city. Founded from an 1868 bequest from Edwin Augustus Stevens, enrollment at Stevens includes more than 5,000 undergraduate and graduate students representing 47 states and 60 countries throughout Asia and Latin America; the university is home to two national Centers of Excellence as designated by the U. S. Department of Defense and U. S. Department of Homeland Security. Two members of the Stevens community, as alumni or faculty, have been awarded the Nobel Prize: Frederick Reines, in Physics, Irving Langmuir, in chemistry. Stevens Institute of Technology is named after a family of accomplished inventors and engineers who oversaw the development of Hoboken from an old farm into a thriving city.
In 1784, the land now occupied by Stevens Institute of Technology was purchased by John Stevens, who would reverse engineer the British steam locomotive to American standards for domestic manufacture. This innovation would be employed by ferries to Manhattan. Robert Stevens, one of John's sons, invented the flanged T rail, a form of railroad rail in prevalent use today including from the Lackawanna Terminal of Hoboken whose docks are in a style designed by Robert. Along with his brother Edwin A. Stevens, Robert created America's first commercial railroad presently operating as a large portion of Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor. John Cox Stevens, John Stevens' eldest son, was the first commodore of the New York Yacht Club, he and his brother Edwin built the yacht America and were aboard its 1851 regatta victory in England recognized as the first winner of the America's Cup. The NY Yacht Club would defend its title until the 1983 race. Edwin died in 1868. In his will, he left a bequest for the establishment of an "institution of learning," providing his trustees with land and funds.
Edwin’s will was executed by surviving wife Martha Stevens who would serve as a lifetime Trustee of the Institute. Martha Stevens oversaw much of the family’s philanthropy toward the City of Hoboken including founding of the Church of the Holy Innocents as a free Episcopal church, a foundling hospital and birthing center at St Mary's Hospital. Stevens Institute of Technology opened in 1870 and was dedicated to mechanical engineering; the original course of study was a single, rigorous curriculum based upon the European Polytechnic model of engineering science, rather than the shop schools that were common at that time. "Mechanical Engineer" was the original degree offered, in addition to a Ph. D. in mechanical engineering, chemistry, or physics. Stevens granted several Ph. D.s between 1870 and 1900, making it one of the earliest Ph. D. granting institutions in the United States. The broad-based interdisciplinary philosophy was put into practice by the founders from the first graduating class. Despite the title of the degree and concentration in mechanical engineering, the curriculum included courses in all engineering disciplines of the time.
In 1880, Robert H. Thurston, professor of mechanical engineering, was nominated the first president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the campus began on the edge of the family estate at Castle Point in Hoboken. It occupied a single building now designated the Edwin A. Stevens Building and a Federal historical landmark. Stone designs on the building's facade are believed to be derived from a pattern repeated in the floor mosaic of Hagia Sophia, the great cathedral in Istanbul, which Edwin Stevens is believed to have visited in the late 19th century. In 1906, under the guidance of President Humphreys, created the honor system – moral and ethical code governing the life of Stevens students, preaching equality and honest work; the student-run system still exists to this day in which the accused are tried by their peers with a punishment recommended to the faculty. Stevens was the first technical school to implement such a system. During World War II, Stevens Institute of Applied Science was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
During this time, the institute was honored by the naming of the Victory Ship, SS Stevens Victory, a merchant cargo ship built by the Bethlehem Fairfield Shipyard at Baltimore. Launched on May 29, 1945, the ship was one of 150 named for U. S. colleges and universities. In 1959 the undergraduate engineering degree was changed to the Bachelor of Engineering to reflect the broad-based interdisciplinary engineering curriculum. In 1959, the land occupied by the 40-room Victorian mansion, "Castle Stevens" or "Villa on the Hudson", was re-purposed for the 14-story administration building completed in 1962 renamed the Wesley J. Howe building. During its tenure as a campus building starting in 1911, it served as a dormitory and office space; the unsupported cantilevered staircase with its elega
Dennis Ross (politician)
Dennis Alan Ross is an American businessman and politician who served in the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2019. A Republican from Florida, his district was numbered as Florida's 12th congressional district during his first two years in Congress, it was numbered as the 15th district during his last six years in Congress. In April 2018, Ross announced that he would retire from Congress, not run for re-election in 2018. Starting in 2018, Ross became a distinguished professor of political science at Southeastern University and launched the American Center for Political Leadership in the Jannetides College of Business and Entrepreneurial Leadership. Ross was born October 18, 1959 in Lakeland, the youngest of five children born to Bill and Loyola Ross, he attended Catholic school for nine years before graduating at Lakeland Senior High School in 1977. After high school, he attended the University of Florida before transferring to Auburn University where he graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Organizational Management.
He graduated from Samford University's Cumberland School of Law in 1987. Ross went to work in the newly developed micro-computer industry working for several companies, he went on to serve as an Associate with the law firm of Holland & Knight and was in-house counsel to Walt Disney World. Subsequent to his time at Disney, he opened up his own law firm, Ross Vecchio P. A. representing Business and Industry in Workers Compensation matters for over 20 years. As Ross was elected to Congress, his former firm was required to change its name to Vecchio, Carrier and Johannessen. Ross went on to work for a year as a legislative aide in St. Petersburg to State Senator Dennis Jones in 1982, he was elected Chairman of the Polk County Republican Executive Committee, served until 1995. In 1996, he ran unsuccessfully for the State Senate, losing to incumbent Democratic State Senator Rick Dantzler. In 2000, he ran for the 63rd district of the Florida House of Representatives, vacated by Adam Putnam. 2010 Ross decided to run for Florida's 12th congressional district, vacated for retiring Adam Putnam, who decided to run for Florida Commissioner of Agriculture.
In the Republican primary, Ross defeated John W. Lindsey, Jr. 69%–31%. In the general election, he defeated Democrat Lori Edwards, the Polk County Supervisor of Elections, TEA Party candidate Randy Wilkinson, a Polk County Commissioner, 48%–41%–11%; this was the second time. In 2009 Ross signed a pledge sponsored by Americans for Prosperity promising to vote against any Global Warming legislation that would raise taxes. 2012 After redistricting, Ross decided to run in the newly redrawn Florida's 15th congressional district. Because no other candidate qualified to run against him by the deadline, he won re-election to a second term unopposed. United States House Committee on Financial Services Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government-Sponsored Enterprises Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Congressional Constitution Caucus Republican Study Committee Congressional Western Caucus United States Congressional International Conservation Caucus U. S.-Japan Caucus Ross has a "D" rating from NORML for his voting history regarding cannabis-related causes.
Ross is against veterans having access to medical marijuana if recommended by their Veterans Health Administration doctor and if it is legal for medicinal purposes in their state of residence. Ross has a 13% score from the Humane Society Legislative Fund for his voting history on animal rights issues; as of 2017, Ross has an "A-" rating from the NRA, indicating a voting record, pro-guns. According to OpenSecrets.org, Ross has received $19,375 since 2010 in direct and indirect campaign contributions from the NRA and its affiliate organizations. As a Congressman, Ross has voted in favor of several pieces of legislation to expand gun rights, including a yes vote on H. R. 38, which would enable concealed carry reciprocity among all States if and when it is signed into law. In March 2017, Ross voted in favor of the Veterans Second Amendment Protection Act, which, if signed into law, will allow veterans who are considered "mentally incompetent" to purchase ammunition and firearms unless declared a danger by a judge.
Ross voted in favor of H. J. Res.40, which used the Congressional Review Act to block implementation of an Obama-era Amendment to the NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007, aimed at preventing the mentally-infirm from purchasing firearms. Following the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, Ross signed a letter written to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives urging them to reevaluate the legal status of bump stocks, though no action has been taken as of March 2018. Of bump stocks, Ross said, "I believe in taking the important step to outlaw devices that make a firearm simulate an automatic firearm. I support the Second Amendment and the right to keep and bear arms—this is about consistent enforcement of the automatic weapons ban."After the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, Ross released a statement announcing his support for bipartisan measures, including increasing funding for background checks, as well support for H. R. 4909, the STOP School Violence Act of 2018, which has not been voted on as of March 2018.
Ross said that the Act would "establish and support evidence-based programs to help school personnel, law enforcement, students recognize the warning signs, develop effective threat assessments, operate anonymous reporting programs." Ross voted in favor of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Ross supported President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to impose a temporary ban on entry to the U. S. to citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries, calling the controversi
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States. It is the state's oldest university, the largest in the University of Nebraska system; the state legislature chartered the university in 1869 as a land-grant university under the 1862 Morrill Act, two years after Nebraska's statehood into the United States. Around the turn of the 20th century, the university began to expand hiring professors from eastern schools to teach in the newly organized professional colleges while producing groundbreaking research in agricultural sciences; the "Nebraska method" of ecological study developed here during this time pioneered grassland ecology and laid the foundation for research in theoretical ecology for the rest of the 20th century. The university is organized into eight colleges on two campuses in Lincoln with over 100 classroom buildings and research facilities, its athletic program, called the Cornhuskers, is a member of the Big Ten Conference.
The Nebraska football team has won 46 conference championships since 1970 and five national championships. The women's volleyball team has won five national championships along with nine other appearances in the Final Four; the Husker football team plays its home games at Memorial Stadium, selling out every game since 1962. The stadium's capacity is about 92,000 people, larger than the population of Nebraska's third-largest city; the University of Nebraska was created by an act of the Nebraska state legislature in 1869, two years after the State of Nebraska was admitted into the U. S; the law passed in 1869 creating the university described its aims: "The object of such institution shall be to afford to the inhabitants of the state the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature and the arts." The school received an initial land grant of about 130,000 acres and the campus construction began with the building of University Hall in its first year. By 1873, the University of Nebraska had offered its first two degrees to its first graduating class.
The school remained small and suffered from a lack of funds until about 20 years after its founding, when its high school programs were taken over by a new state education system. From 1890 to 1895 enrollment rose from 384 to about 1,500. A law school and a graduate school were created at about this time period, making it the first school west of the Mississippi to establish a graduate school. By 1897, the school was 15th in the nation in total enrollment. Through the turn of the 20th century, the school struggled to find an identity as both a pragmatic, frontier establishment and an academic, intellectual institution, it developed a competitive spirit in the form of a debate team, a football team, the arrival of fraternities and sororities. In 1913–14, a fierce debate ensued over whether to keep the University in downtown Lincoln or to move it out of town; the issue was not resolved until a statewide referendum sided with the downtown plan. After purchasing property downtown, the school experienced a building boom, both on the new property and on the farming campus.
The school would not experience another boom until the late 1940s, when the sudden arrival of thousands of soldiers returning from the war for an education forced the school to seek further expansion. In 1908, Nebraska was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of research universities. In recent years, Nebraska had been at or near the bottom of the AAU's statistical criteria for members, a ranking attributed in part to the university's extensive agricultural research funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, not included in the AAU's rankings because it is not awarded by peer-reviewed grants. Nebraska retained its AAU membership after a 2000 challenge; this provided Nebraska with an advantage when the Big Ten was looking to expand in 2010, as all of its members at that time were AAU members. Nebraska Chancellor Harvey Perlman said. "I doubt that our application would've been accepted had we not been a member of the." However, in 2011, after an extended campaign to retain its membership and a close, contentious vote, Nebraska became the only institution to be removed from the AAU membership by a vote of the membership In June 2018, the American Association of University Professors voted to censure the university for violations of academic freedom.
In 2017, an adjunct instructor was filmed by a student as the instructor expressed a political opinion about the student's activist activities. State lawmakers demanded that the university hold the instructor accountable and the university subsequently fired her, a move the AAUP contends was a violation of her academic freedom. University of Nebraska is governed by the Board of Regents; the board consists of eight voting members elected by district for six-year terms, four non-voting student Regents, one from each campus, who serve during their tenure as student body president. The board supervises the general operations of the university, the control and direction of all expenditures; the university today has nine colleges which offers more than 150 undergraduate majors, 20 pre-professional programs, 100 graduate programs and 275 programs of study. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources College of Architecture College of Arts and Sciences College of Business College of Education and Human Sciences College of Engineering Hixson-Lied College of Fine and Performing Arts Co
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academies of Sciences and Medicine is the collective scientific national academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations, and as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council. The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS. Now jointly governed by all three academies, it produces some 200 publications annually which are published by the National Academies Press; the US National Academy of Sciences was created by an Act of Incorporation dated March 3, 1863, signed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln The Act stated that "... the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, examine and report upon any subject of science or art.... " With the American civil war raging, the new Academy was presented with few problems to solve, but it did address matters of "... coinage and measures, iron ship hulls, the purity of whiskey..."
All subsequently affiliated organizations have been created under this same overall congressional charter, including the two younger academies, National Academy of Engineering and NAM. Under this same charter, the National Research Council was created in 1916. On June 19 of that year US President Woodrow Wilson requested that the National Academy of Sciences organize a "National Research Council"; the purpose of the Council was in part to foster and encourage "the increased use of scientific research in the development of American industries... the employment of scientific methods in strengthening the national defense... and such other applications of science as will promote the national security and welfare."At the time, the Academy's effort to support national defense readiness, the Committee on Nitric Acid Supply, was approved by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Nitric acid was the substance basic in the making of propellants such as cordite, high explosives, dyes and other products but availability was limited due to World War I.
The NRC, through its committee, recommended importing Chilean saltpeter and the construction of four new ordinance plants. These recommendations were accepted by the War Department in June 1917, although the plants were not completed prior to the end of the war. In 1918, Wilson formalized the NRC's existence under Executive Order 2859. Wilson's order declared the function of the NRC to be in general: "o stimulate research in the mathematical. Physical, biological sciences, and in the application of these sciences to engineering, agriculture. Medicine, and other useful arts. With the object of increasing knowledge, of strengthening the national defense, of contributing in other ways to the public welfare."During World War I, the United States was at war, the NRC operated as the Department of Science and Research of the Council of National Defense as well as the Science and Research Division of the United States Army Signal Corps. When war was first declared, the Council had organized committees on gas warfare.
On June 1, 1917, the council convened a meeting of scientific representatives of the United Kingdom and France with interested parties from the U. S. on the subject of submarine detection. Another meeting with the British and French was held in Paris in October 1918, at which more details of their work was disclosed; as a result of these meetings, the NRC recommended that scientists be brought together to work on the problems associated with submarine detection. Due to the success of council-directed research in producing a sound-based method of detecting submarines, as well as other military innovations, the NRC was retained at the end of the war, though it was decoupled from the military. NRC's Articles of Organization have been changed only three times: in 1956, January 1993, July 2015; the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Medicine are honorary membership organizations, each of which has its own governing Council, each of which elects its own new members.
The membership of the three academies totals more than 6,300 scientists and health professionals. New members for each organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. By the terms of the original 1863 Congressional charter, the three academies serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science and medicine." The program units known as the National Research Council, are collectively the operating arm of the three academies for the purpose of providing objective policy advice. Although separately chartered, it falls under the overall charter of the National Academy of Sciences, whose ultimate fiduciary body is the NAS Council. In actual practice, the NAS Council delegates governing authority to a Governing Board of the National Research Council, chaired jointly by the presidents of the three academies, with additional members chosen by them or specified in the charters of the academies. Under this three-academy umbrella, the program units produce reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, advance the pursuit of science and medicine.
There are seven major divisions: Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Division of E
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Steven Chu is an American physicist and a former government official. He is known for his research at Bell Labs and Stanford University regarding the cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, along with his scientific colleagues Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips. Chu served as the 12th United States Secretary of Energy from 2009 to 2013. At the time of his appointment as Energy Secretary, Chu was a professor of physics and molecular and cellular biology at the University of California and the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where his research was concerned with the study of biological systems at the single molecule level. Chu resigned as energy secretary on April 22, 2013, he returned to Stanford as Professor of Professor of Molecular & Cellular Physiology. Chu is a vocal advocate for more research into renewable energy and nuclear power, arguing that a shift away from fossil fuels is essential to combating climate change.
He has conceived of a global "glucose economy", a form of a low-carbon economy, in which glucose from tropical plants is shipped around like oil is today. Nobel Laureate Steven Chu Assumes Term as American Association for the Advancement of Science President. Chu was born in St. Louis, with ancestry from Liuhe, Taicang, in Jiangnan and graduated from Garden City High School, he received both a B. A. in mathematics and a B. S. in physics in 1970 from the University of Rochester. He went on to earn his Ph. D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley under Eugene D. Commins, in 1976, during which he was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. Chu comes from a family of scholars, his father, Ju-Chin Chu, earned a doctorate in chemical engineering from MIT and taught at Washington University in St. Louis and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, his mother studied economics, his maternal grandfather, Shu-tian Li, earned a Ph. D. from Cornell University, was a professor and president of Tianjin University.
His mother's uncle, Li Shu-hua, a physical scientist, studied physics at the Sorbonne before returning to China. Chu's older brother, Gilbert Chu, is a professor of biochemistry and medicine at Stanford University, his younger brother, Morgan Chu, is a partner and former co-managing partner at the law firm Irell & Manella. According to Chu, his two brothers and four cousins have four Ph. D.s, three M. D.s, a J. D. among them. In 1997, he married Jean Fetter, a British-American Oxford-trained physicist, he has two sons and Michael, from a previous marriage to Lisa Chu-Thielbar. Chu is interested in sports such as baseball and cycling, he taught himself tennis—by reading a book—in the eighth grade, was a second-string substitute for the school team for three years. He taught himself how to pole vault using bamboo poles obtained from the local carpet store. Chu said he never learned to speak Chinese because his parents always spoke to their children in English. After obtaining his doctorate he remained at Berkeley as a postdoctoral researcher for two years before joining Bell Labs, where he and his several co-workers carried out his Nobel Prize-winning laser cooling work.
He left Bell Labs and became a professor of physics at Stanford University in 1987, serving as the chair of its Physics Department from 1990 to 1993 and from 1999 to 2001. At Stanford and three others initiated the Bio-X program, which focuses on interdisciplinary research in biology and medicine, played a key role in securing the funding for the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. In August 2004, Chu was appointed as the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, joined UC Berkeley's Department of Physics and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. Under Chu's leadership, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been a center of research into biofuels and solar energy, he spearheaded the laboratory's Helios project, an initiative to develop methods of harnessing solar power as a source of renewable energy for transportation. Chu's early research focused on atomic physics by developing laser cooling techniques and the magneto-optical trapping of atoms using lasers.
He and his co-workers at Bell Labs developed a way to cool atoms by employing six laser beams opposed in pairs and arranged in three directions at right angles to each other. Trapping atoms with this method allows scientists to study individual atoms with great accuracy. Additionally, the technique can be used to construct an atomic clock with great precision. At Stanford, Chu's research interests expanded into biological physics and polymer physics at the single-molecule level, he studied enzyme activity and protein and RNA folding using techniques like fluorescence resonance energy transfer, atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers. His polymer physics research used individual DNA molecules to study polymer dynamics and their phase transitions, he continued researching atomic physics as well and developed new methods of laser cooling and trapping. Steven Chu is a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997 for the "development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light", shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips.
He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Academia Sinica, is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Science and Engineering, he was awarded the Humboldt Prize by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1995. Chu received an honorary doctorate from Boston Un
United States Secretary of Energy
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act; the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality; the current Secretary of Energy is Rick PerryFormer Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is the only secretary to be dismissed from the post.
Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was the first female and African-American holder. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clinton's second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on January 20, 2001, serving under the administration of George W. Bush. Steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20, 2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama, he is the longest-serving Secretary of Energy and the first individual to join the Cabinet having received a Nobel Prize. Parties Democratic Republican As of April 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan Jr.. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was Samuel Bodman on September 7, 2018. List of living former members of the United States Cabinet United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy