Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Brazilian Academy of Sciences
The Brazilian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of Brazil. It is headquartered in the city of Rio de Janeiro and was founded on May 3, 1916, it publishes a large number of scientific publications, among others the Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, which adopted until July 2015 the Creative Commons license attribution-type BY-NC. From August 2015, the license is the attribution-type BY. Source: Brazilian Academy of Sciences 1916-1926 Henrique Charles Morize 1926-1929 Juliano Moreira 1929-1931 Miguel Osório de Almeida 1931-1933 Eusébio Paulo de Oliveira 1933-1935 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1935-1937 Álvaro Alberto da Mota e Silva 1937-1939 Adalberto Menezes de Oliveira 1939-1941 Inácio Manuel Azevedo do Amaral 1941-1943 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1943-1945 Cândido Firmino de Melo Leitão 1945-1947 Mario Paulo de Brito 1947-1949 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1949-1951 Álvaro Alberto da Mota e Silva 1951-1965 Arthur Alexandre Moses 1965–1967 Carlos Chagas Filho 1967–1981 Aristides Pacheco Leão 1981–1991 Maurício Peixoto 1991–1993 Oscar Sala 1993–2007 Eduardo Krieger 2007-2016 Jacob Palis Jr. 2016– Luiz Davidovich ABC has a distinguished array of national and international members, among them: Media related to Academia Brasileira de Ciências at Wikimedia Commons Official website List of publications
Indian National Science Academy
The Indian National Science Academy in New Delhi is the apex body of Indian scientists representing all branches of science and technology. The Indian National Science Academy promotes its use in India, it was established in 1935 and was known as the'National Institute of Sciences of India' until the present name was adopted in 1970. The Government of India recognised it in 1945 as the premier scientific society representing all branches of science in India. In 1968, it was designated as the adhering organisation in India to the International Council for Science on behalf of the Government of India, it is headquartered in New Delhi. The Academy consists of Foundation fellows and Foreign Fellows. Election to the Academy is only by nomination; the objectives of the academy encompass promotion of science in India including its application to national welfare, safeguarding the interests of the scientists, establishing linkages with international bodies to foster collaboration and expressing considered opinion on national issues.
It plays a role in promoting and rewarding excellence in scientific research. With a view to promoting the pursuit of excellence in the field of'Science and Technology', the academy has instituted 59 awards, placed in 4 categories, viz International Awards, General Medal & Lecture Awards, Subjectwise Medals/Lectures and Awards for Young Scientists, it publishes journals, organises scientific discussions and brings out proceedings and monographs. It is a signatory to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in 2004 The list of presidents of the society; the academy publishes three peer-reviewed journals Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Indian Journal of History of ScienceIt publishers a year book, annual reports, INSA News, biographical memoirs, special publications and the proceedings of INSA seminars and symposia. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Academy of Engineering National Academy of Sciences, India Indian National Science Academy INSA Journals
University of Tehran
University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. It is one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The mother university of Iran", it has been ranked as one of the best universities in the Middle East in national and international rankings and among the top universities in the world. It is the premier knowledge producing institute among all OIC countries; the university offers 111 bachelor's degree programs, 177 master's degree programs, 156 Ph. D. programs. Many of the departments were absorbed into the University of Tehran from the Dar al-Funun established in 1851 and the Tehran School of Political Sciences established in 1899; the main campus of the University is located in the central part of the city. However, other campuses are spread across the city as well as in the suburbs such as the Baghe Negarestan Campus at the central eastern part of the city, the Northern Amirabad Campuses at the central western part of the city and the Abureyhan Campus in the suburb of the capital.
The main gate of the University with its specific design and modern architecture is the logo of the University and in a more general sense, a logo of education in Iran. The University is one of the city's attractions, hosting many international and cultural events attracting academia, foreign tourists as well as local residents; the major festive of Friday Prayers of the capital is held at the University’s main campus every Friday. Admission to the university's renowned undergraduate and graduate programs is competitive and is limited to the top one percent of students who pass the national entrance examination administered yearly by the Ministry of Science and Technology. Tehran University makes the number one choice of qualifying applicants among all other universities of Iran; the first official step for the establishment of the present form of University of Tehran occurred on 31 March 1931 when Minister of Court Abdolhossein Teymourtash wrote Isa Sedigh, completing his doctoral dissertation at Columbia University in New York to inquire as to requirements for the establishment of a University in Tehran.
Sadiq considered the letter an invitation to outline a comprehensive scheme for the establishment of a University. In January 1933, during the cabinet meeting, the subject was brought up. Ali Asghar Hekmat, the acting minister of the Ministry of Education stated the following words there: "Of course, there is no doubt on the thriving state and the glory of the capital, but the only obvious deficiency is that this city has no'university', it is a pity that this city lags far behind other great countries of the world." His words had a profound impact on everyone in the meeting, resulting in the acceptance of the proposal. Thus allocating an initial budget of 250,000 Tomans, the Ministry of Education was authorized to find a suitable land for the establishment of the university and take necessary measures to construct the building as soon as possible. Ali Asghar Hekmat in collaboration and consultation with André Godard, a French skillful architect -, serving the Ministry of Education as an engineer, promptly began looking for a suitable location for the University grounds.
By the orders of Rezā Shāh, the compound of Jalaliyeh garden was selected. Jalaliyeh garden was located in the north of the Tehran between Amirabad village and the northern trench of Tehran; this beautiful garden, full of orchards was founded in the early 1900s during the final years of Nasir ad- Din Shah, by the order of Prince Jalal ad-dawlah. The master plan of the campus buildings was drawn up by French architects Roland Dubrulle and Maxime Siroux, Swiss architect Alexandre Moser, as well as Andre Godard, Nicolai Markov and Mohsen Foroughi; the influences of early 20th century modernist architecture are today visible on the main campus grounds of the University. The University of Tehran inaugurated in 1934; the Amir-abad campus was added in 1945 after American troops left the property as World War II was coming to an end. The university admitted women as students for the first time in 1937. In 1935, the males-only university opened its doors to women as part of the country's sweeping universal education policy.
In 1986, the Iranian parliament, known as the Majlis of Iran, stipulated that the university's overcrowded College of Medicine be separated into the independent Tehran University of Medical Sciences, that TUMS be placed under the leadership of the new ministry of health and Medical Education. With over 13,000 current students, TUMS remains the best medical school in Iran. 1. International Campuses: Aras International Campus Kish International Campus2. Colleges College of Aburaihan in Pakdasht College of Agriculture & Natural Resources in Karaj College of Engineering in Kargar St. College of Fine Arts College of Science College of Farabi in Qom College of Alborz in Tehran & Karaj3. Faculties Faculty of World Studies Faculty of Entrepreneurship Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature Faculty of Literature and Human Science Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies Faculty of Law and Political Science Faculty of Management Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies Faculty of Psychology and Education Faculty of Geography Faculty of Economics Faculty of Environment International Desert Research Center Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Institute of GeophysicsAt pre
Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union. For most of its history, the USSR was a centralized state. According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR. Article 81 of the Constitution stated that "the sovereign rights of Union Republics shall be safeguarded by the USSR". In the final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics. All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation, had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party. Outside the territory of the Russian Federation, the republics were constituted in lands that had belonged to the Russian Empire and had been acquired by it between the 1700 Great Northern War and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. In 1944, amendments to the All-Union Constitution allowed for separate branches of the Red Army for each Soviet Republic.
They allowed for Republic-level commissariats for foreign affairs and defense, allowing them to be recognized as de jure independent states in international law. This allowed for two Soviet Republics and Byelorussia, to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945. All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them being loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States. However, most of the international community did not consider the Baltic countries to have legitimately been part of the USSR; the Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation. Their position is supported by the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, the United Nations Human Rights Council and the United States. In contrast, the Russian government and state officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate..
Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation. In accordance with provisions present in the Constitution, each republic retained the right to secede from the USSR. Throughout the Cold War, this right was considered to be meaningless. In practice, the USSR was a centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. Under the constitution adopted in 1936 and modified along the way until October 1977, the political foundation of the Soviet Union was formed by the Soviets of People's Deputies; these existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian Federation. Along with the state administrative hierarchy, there existed a parallel structure of party organizations, which allowed the Politburo to exercise large amounts of control over the republics.
State administrative organs took direction from the parallel party organs, appointments of all party and state officials required approval of the central organs of the party. Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem; every republic of the Soviet Union was awarded with the Order of Lenin. The number of the union republics of the USSR varied from 4 to 16. In majority of years and at the decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics. Rather than listing the republics in alphabetical order, the republics were listed in constitutional order, which by the last decades of the Soviet Union, did not correspond to order either by population or economic power; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, in the winter of 1919 The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in 1919 but fell soon. The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic The Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic The Don Soviet Republic The Kuban Soviet Republic The Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic The Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic The Mughan Soviet Republic The Soviet Republic of Naissaar The Odessa Soviet Republic The North Caucasian Soviet Republic The Stavropol Soviet Republic The Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic The Terek Soviet Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets The Ukrainian Soviet Republic The Black Sea Soviet Republic The Far Eastern Republic existed in 1920-1922 as a formally independent state, was de facto under Soviet control.
The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic, in what is now Iran. The Slovak Soviet Republic The Bavarian Soviet Republic The Bremen Soviet Republic The Hungarian Soviet Republic The Limerick Soviet The Chinese Soviet RepublicThe Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic was proclaimed in 1918 but did not survive to the founding of the USS
Belarus the Republic of Belarus known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested, its major economic sectors are manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian People's Republic, conquered by Soviet Russia; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland, were finalized after World War II. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources; the republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR; the parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the country's first president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy.
Elections under Lukashenko's rule have been criticized as unfair. Belarus is the last country in Europe using the death penalty. Belarus's Democracy Index rating is the lowest in Europe, the country is labelled as "not free" by Freedom House, as "repressed" in the Index of Economic Freedom, is rated as by far the worst country for press freedom in Europe in the 2013–14 Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Belarus 157th out of 180 nations. In 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation. Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Russian; the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The second-most widespread religion, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following.
Belarus is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Commonwealth of Independent States, CSTO, EEU, the Non-Aligned Movement. Belarus has shown no aspirations for joining the European Union but maintains a bilateral relationship with the organisation, participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative; the name Belarus is related with the term Belaya Rus', i.e. White Rus'. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, populated by Slavs, Christianized early, as opposed to Black Ruthenia, predominantly inhabited by pagan Balts. An alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus' lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as "White Rus'"; the name Rus is conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, thus Belarus is referred to as White Russia or White Ruthenia.
The name first appeared in Latin medieval literature. In some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is called "White Russia" to this day; the Latin term "Alba Russia" was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo." The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey, known for his close contacts with the Russian Royal Court. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used "White Rus" to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the term Belorussia first rose in the days of the Russian Empire, the Russian Tsar was styled "the Tsar of All the Russias"
National Research Council (Canada)
The National Research Council is the primary national research and technology organization of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Innovation and Economic Development is responsible for the National Research Council; the transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program. With these services, NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. At one point, NRC had over 30 approved programs; the tenure of John McDougall as President of the NRC was marked by a number of controversies. His presidency was characterised by a dramatic drop in publications and patents, by significant cuts in scientific staff, by a 23-month period during which NRC management was aware that the organization was contaminating the water table in a small Ontario community but did not inform that community's inhabitants.
John McDougall's departure – signalled by a sudden, three-line email to employees in March 2016 announced that he was going on personal leave. During this time Maria Aubrey, Vice President of NRC, filled the role as Acting President. Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC; the details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed. NRC is a Government of Canada organization, its mandate is set out in the National Research Council Act. Under the Act, NRC is responsible for: Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in fields of importance to Canada. In 2011, President John McDougall, began to oversee a change in research focus away from basic research and towards industry-relevant research; this included the development of multiple programs which shifted the research budget out of existing projects and into a number of focused programs. Approved programs are: Advanced photonic components for communications technology Aeronautics for the 21st century Aeronautical product development technologies Air defence systems Algal carbon conversion flagship Arctic Program Bioenergy systems for viable stationary applications Biologics program Building regulations for market access Canadian wheat improvement flagship Civilian unmanned aircraft systems Critical concrete infrastructure Energy storage for grid security and modernization Gallium nitride electronics Health Technologies High efficiency mining High performance buildings Industrial biomaterials Learning and performance support systems Light weighting of ground transportation vehicles Marine Vehicles Mid-rise wood buildings Marine infrastructure and Water Resources Measurement science for emerging technologies Metrology for industry and society Mining materials wear and corrosion Multimedia analytic tools for security National Institute for Nanotechnology Natural health products program Printable electronics flagship Quantum photonic sensing and security Reducing aviation icing risk Scientific support for the national measurement system Security materials technology Therapeutics beyond brain barriers program Vaccines program Working and travelling on aircraft The goal of the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Program was to develop of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions from the oil sands.
It contained plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, in partnership between the NRC ] and Pond Biofuels. In 2008 researchers from five I-CAN organizations were developing a Carbon Algae Recycling System to "feed waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 from industrial exhaust stacks to micro-algae growing in artificial ponds"; the "Algal Carbon Conversion", is related to prior interests of Mr. McDougall, as he headed Innoventures, a company involved in lobbying for the development of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions; the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Project, with plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, is a partnership between the NRC and industry partners, Canadian Natural Resources Limited and Pond Biofuels. The NRC was not involved in this area of research prior to the arrival of Mr. McDougall; the Canadian Wheat Improvement Program is a "strategic collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre and the province of Saskatchewan".
With a budget of $97 million, the Canadian Wheat Alliance will be conducting research on improving the yield of Canadian wheat crops and on the most efficient use of chemical fertilizers. Working with breeders and scientists at the Crop Development Centre and at AAFC, they will be integrating long term research with genetic improvement of wheat; the GaN Electronics program supports partner research and development activities with a goal of ensuring that GaN technology will cre