University of California, Santa Barbara
The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system. UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U. S; the university is a comprehensive doctoral university, is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U. S. public universities, 37th among Best Global Universities by U. S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings; the university was ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation.
Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics; the UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's water polo. UCSB traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, founded in 1891, offered training in home economics and industrial arts; the Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School, which became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.
In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system; the State College system sued to stop the takeover. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses. From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name; when the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the growing college, Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings. The regents envisioned a small, several thousand–student liberal arts college, a so-called "Williams College of the West", at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, UCSB is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after Berkeley and UCLA.
The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres of unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949. Only 3000–3500 students were anticipated, but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958, along with a name change from "Santa Barbara College" to "University of California, Santa Barbara," and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor, Samuel B. Gould, was appointed in 1959. All of this change was done in accordance with the California Master Plan for Higher Education. In 1959, UCSB professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university's first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called "The Human Situation".
In the late'60s and early'70s, UCSB became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school's faculty club in 1969 killed Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970, multiple occasions of arson occurred, including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista, during which time one male student, Kevin Moran, was shot and killed by police. UCSB's anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight in Isla Vista during this time. In 1995, UCSB was elected to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities, with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States and two universities in Canada. On May 23, 2014, a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at UCSB; the murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student.
1944–1946: Clarence L. Phelps 1946–1955: J. Harold Williams 1955–1955: Clark G. Kuebler 1956–1956: John C. Snidecor 1956–1959: Elmer Noble 1959–1962: Samuel B. Gould 1962–1977: Vernon Cheadle 1977–1986: Robert Huttenba
Launch Services Program
Launch Services Program is responsible for NASA oversight of launch operations and countdown management, providing added quality and mission assurance in lieu of the requirement for the launch service provider to obtain a commercial launch license. It operates under the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate of NASA. Since 1990, NASA has purchased expendable launch vehicle launch services directly from commercial providers, whenever possible, for its scientific and applications missions. ELVs can accommodate all types of orbit inclinations and altitudes and are ideal vehicles for launching Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions; the Launch Services Program was established at Kennedy Space Center for NASA's acquisition and program management of ELV missions. A NASA/contractor team is in place to meet the mission of the Launch Services Program, which exists to provide leadership and cost-effective services in the commercial arena to satisfy Agency wide space transportation requirements and maximize the opportunity for mission success.
Primary launch sites are Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Other launch locations are NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska. In 2012, the program posted electronic copies of its poster. Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland Jet Propulsion Laboratory, located at the California Institute of Technology NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, in California's Silicon Valley NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia NASA Marshall Space Flight Center at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama Several U. S. Universities, launching small research satellites International partners Other Government Agencies: Missile Defense Agency National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Reconnaissance Office The Launch Services Program is awarding new contracts under the NASA Launch Services II Contract.
Once a year, new launch vehicles can be on ramped onto the contract. The following vehicles are attached to the NLS II Contract. Antares - Orbital Sciences Corporation Athena I - Lockheed Martin Space Systems Athena II - Lockheed Martin Space Systems Atlas V - United Launch Alliance Delta II - United Launch Alliance Falcon 1 - SpaceX Falcon 9 - SpaceX Pegasus XL - Orbital Sciences Corporation Taurus XL - Orbital Sciences Corporation NASA has specific policies governing launch services. LSP Flight Design provides general information regarding the launch vehicle performance available via existing NASA contracts; this information is all available on publicly available websites. NASA uses a certification system for rockets launched by its contractors, for validation purposes it requires the certification process to be "instrumented to provide design verification and flight performance data", with post-flight operations, anomaly resolution process, a flight margin verification process, with 95% predicted design reliability at 80% confidence.
In addition to providing end-to-end launch services, LSP offers Advisory Services. This "is a consulting service to government and commercial organizations, providing mission management, overall systems engineering and/or specific discipline expertise; this non-traditional service allows LSP to "expand its customer base and assist these customers in maximizing their mission success by using NASA LSP's unique expertise." The four general categories of advisory services are: SMART Design and Development Independent Verification and Validation Independent Review Teams LSP works with the Air Force Space Command, via coordination by the LVCs. For launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Vandenberg Air Force Base, the 45th Space Wing and 30th Space Wing commanders are the Launch Decision Authority. For launches from CCAFS, "Airmen, Air Force civilians and contractors from throughout the 45th Space Wing provided vital support, including weather forecasts and range operations, safety and public affairs.
The wing provided its vast network of radar and communications instrumentation to facilitate a safe launch on the Eastern Range." Among work done by AFSPC is Mission Flight Control, which ensures public safety during launch. The weather conditions acceptable for launch vary by rocket and the configurations of the rocket. Prior to liftoff are multiple sets of acceptable weather conditions that depend on the state of the rocket where the rocket is in the fuel loading process; the schedule below includes only Launch Services Program advisory missions. The NASA Launch Schedule has the most up to date public schedule of all NASA launches; the NASA KSC News Releases will have updates on LSP launches and mission accomplishments. The ELaNa Launch Schedule has the upcoming schedule of CubeSat missions, which occur on both NASA and non-NASA launches. A delayed version of the "NASA ELV Payload Safety Missions in work" is released via NASA's Public TechDoc; the engineers at NASA's Launch Services Program are rocket experts.
Below are some examples of jobs within LSP. Flight Design analysts work on trajectory, of the rocket. Telemetry engineers get tracking stations to cover all the mandatory portions of flight. Analysts from many disciplines re
Space policy of the United States
The space policy of the United States includes both the making of space policy through the legislative process, the implementation of that policy in the civilian and military US space programs through regulatory agencies. The early history of United States space policy is linked to the US–Soviet Space Race of the 1960s, which gave way to the Space Shuttle program. There is a current debate on the post-Space Shuttle future of the civilian space program. United States space policy is drafted by the Executive branch at the direction of the President of the United States, submitted for approval and establishment of funding to the legislative process of the United States Congress. Space advocacy organizations may lobby for space goals; these include advocacy groups such as the Space Science Institute, National Space Society, the Space Generation Advisory Council, the last of which among other things runs the annual Yuri's Night event. In drafting space policy, the President consults with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, responsible for civilian and scientific space programs, with the Department of Defense, responsible for military space activities, which include communications, intelligence and missile defense.
The President is responsible for deciding which space activities fall under the civilian and military areas. The President consults with the National Security Council, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Office of Management and Budget; the 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act, which created NASA, created a National Aeronautics and Space Council chaired by the President to help advise him, which included the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, NASA Administrator, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, plus up to one member of the federal government, up to three private individuals "eminent in science, technology, administration, or public affairs" appointed by the President. Before taking office as President, John F. Kennedy persuaded Congress to amend the Act to allow him to set the precedent of delegating chairmanship of this council to his Vice President; the Council was discontinued in 1973 during the presidency of Richard M. Nixon. In 1989, President George H. W. Bush re-established a differently constituted National Space Council by executive order, discontinued in 1993 by President Bill Clinton.
President Donald Trump reestablished the Council by executive order in 2017. International aspects of US space policy may involve diplomatic negotiation with other countries, such as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. In these cases, the President negotiates and signs the treaty on behalf of the United States according to his constitutional authority presents it to the Congress for ratification. Once a request is submitted, the Congress exercises due diligence to approve the policy and authorize a budgetary expenditure for its implementation. In support of this, civilian policies are reviewed by the House Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics and the Senate Subcommittee on Science and Space; these committees may exercise oversight of NASA's implementation of established space policies, monitoring progress of large space programs such as the Apollo program, in special cases such as serious space accidents like the Apollo 1 fire, where Congress oversees NASA's investigation of the accident. Military policies are reviewed and overseen by the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, as well as the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.
The Senate Foreign Relations Committee conducts hearings on proposed space treaties, the various appropriations committees have power over the budgets for space-related agencies. Space policy efforts are supported by Congressional agencies such as the Congressional Research Service and, until it was disbanded in 1995, the Office of Technology Assessment, as well as the Congressional Budget Office and Government Accountability Office. Congress' final space policy product is, in the case of domestic policy a bill explicitly stating the policy objectives and the budget appropriation for their implementation to be submitted to the President for signature into law, or else a ratified treaty with other nations. Civilian space activities have traditionally been implemented by NASA, but the nation is transitioning into a model where more activities are implemented by private companies under NASA's advisement and launch site support. In addition, the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operates various services with space components, such as the Landsat program.
Military space activities are implemented by the Air Force Space Command, Naval Space Command, Army Space and Missile Defense Command. Any activities "which are intended to conduct in the United States a launch of a launch vehicle, operation of a launch or re-entry site, re-entry of a re-entry vehicle" needs a license to operate in outer space; this license needs to by applied for by "any citizen of or entity organized under the laws of the United States, as well as other entities, as defined by space-related regulations, which are intended to conduct in the United States… should obtain a license form the Secretary of Transportation" compliance is monitored by the FAA, FCC and the Secretary of Commerce. Funding for space programs occurs through the federal budget process, where it is considered to be part of the nation's science policy. In the Obama administration's budget request fo
Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry
The Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry was formed jointly by United States President George W. Bush and the United States Congress in 2001, its first public meeting was held on November 27, 2001, its final report was given on November 18, 2002. An excerpt from the introduction of the Interim Report #2 of the commission: The Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry was established by Section 1092 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2001, Public Law 106-398, it was formed to study the future of the U. S. aerospace industry in the global economy in relationship to U. S. national security. The Commission consisted of 12 members, six of whom were appointed by the President, six appointed by Congress. Buzz Aldrin - former Astronaut Ed Bolen - President of General Aviation Manufacturers Association John W. Douglass - former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Neil deGrasse Tyson - astrophysicist Robert Smith Walker - former U.
S. Representative from Pennsylvania Heidi Wood - Managing Director, Morgan StanleyExecutive Director - Charles H. Huettner John Hamre William Schneider, Jr. Robert J. Stevens - Chairman, CEO of Lockheed Martin Tom Buffenbarger - President of the International Association of Machinists F. Whitten Peters Tillie K. Fowler The commission produced three interim reports and a final report. Interim report #1 - December 18, 2001 Interim report #2 - March 20, 2002 Interim report #3 - June 26, 2002 Final report - November 18, 2002 The commission held six public meetings to hear testimonies and gain different perspectives; the first meeting was held on November 27, 2001, where the commission heard testimonies from the Administration and the Executive Branch. The second meeting was held on February 12, 2002, which consisted of Air Transportation Capacity / Infrastructure discussions, well as Export Control discussions; the third meeting was held on May 14, 2002, included discussions on Space, including a testimony from Sean O'Keefe.
The three other public meetings were held on August 22, 2002, September 17, 2002, October 23, 2002. President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy
Vehicle Assembly Building
The Vehicle Assembly Building, or VAB, is the large building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, designed to assemble the large pre-manufactured space vehicle components, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle. The future Space Launch System will be assembled there. At 3,664,883 cubic meters it is one of the largest buildings in the world by volume; the building is at Launch Complex 39 at KSC, halfway between Jacksonville and Miami, due east of Orlando on Merritt Island on the Atlantic coast of Florida. The VAB is the largest single-story building in the world, was the tallest building in Florida until 1974, is still the tallest building in the United States outside an urban area; the VAB, completed in 1966, was built to allow for the vertical assembly of the Saturn V rocket for the Apollo program and referred to as the Vertical Assembly Building. In anticipation of post-Saturn projects such as the Space Shuttle program, it was renamed the Vehicle Assembly Building in 1965, was used for the shuttle's external fuel tanks and flight hardware, to mate the Space Shuttle orbiters to their solid rocket boosters and external fuel tanks.
Once assembled, the complete Space Shuttle was moved on the Mobile Launcher Platform and Crawler-Transporter to LC-39 Pad A or B. In 1963, NASA contracted the Morrison-Knudsen company to design and build the VAB. Construction began with driving the first steel foundation piles on Aug. 2, 1963. It was part of NASA's massive effort to send astronauts to the Moon for the Apollo Program. Altogether, 4,225 pilings were driven down 164 feet to bedrock with a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete. Construction of the VAB required 98,590 tons of steel; the building was completed in 1966. The VAB is 716 feet long and 518 feet wide, it covers 8 acres, encloses 129,428,000 cubic feet of space. Located on Florida's Atlantic coast, the building was constructed to withstand hurricanes and tropical storms with a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete and 4,225 steel rods driven 160 feet into limestone bedrock. Despite this, it has received damage from several hurricanes. There are four entries to the bays located inside the building, which are the four largest doors in the world.
Each door is 456 feet high, has 7 vertical panels and 4 horizontal panels, takes 45 minutes to open or close. The north entry that leads to the transfer aisle was widened by 40 feet to allow entry of the shuttle orbiter. A central slot at the north entry allowed for passage of the orbiter's vertical stabilizer. To lift the components of the Space Transportation System, the VAB housed five overhead bridge cranes, including two capable of lifting 325 tons, 136 other lifting devices; the building has at least 10,000 tons of air conditioning equipment, including 125 ventilators on the roof supported by four large air handlers to keep moisture under control. Air in the building can be replaced every hour; the interior volume of the building is so vast that it has its own weather, including "rain clouds form below the ceiling on humid days", which the moisture reduction systems are designed to minimize. The American flag painted on the building was the largest in the world when added in 1976 as part of United States Bicentennial celebrations, along with the star logo of the anniversary replaced by the NASA insignia in 1998.
It is 209 feet high, 110 feet wide. Each of the stars on the flag is 6 feet across, the blue field is the size of a regulation basketball court, each of the stripes is 9 feet wide. Work began in early 2007 to restore the exterior paint on the immense facility. Special attention was paid to NASA "meatball" insignia; the work repaired visible damage from years of storms and weathering. The flag and logo had been repainted in 1998 for NASA's 40th anniversary; the most extensive exterior damage occurred during the storm season of 2004, when Hurricane Frances blew off 850 14 × 6 foot aluminum panels from the building, resulting in about 40,000 square feet of new openings in the sides. Twenty five additional panels were blown off the east side by the winds from Hurricane Jeanne just three weeks later. Earlier in the season, Hurricane Charley caused significant but less serious damage, estimated to cost $700,000. Damage caused by these hurricanes was still visible in 2007; some of these panels are "punch-outs", designed to detach from the VAB when a large pressure differential is created on the outside vs. the inside.
This allows for equalization, helps protect the structural integrity of the building during rapid changes in pressure such as in tropical cyclones. The building has been used as a backdrop in several Hollywood movies including Marooned, SpaceCamp, Apollo 13, others; the Space Shuttle was retired in 2011 after which NASA temporarily offered public tours of the VAB. These tours were temporarily discontinued in February 2014 to allow for renovations to take place; the NASA FY2013 budget included US$143.7 million for Construction of Facilities requirements in support of Exploration programs including Space Launch System and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. NASA began modifying Launch Complex 39 at KSC to support the new SLS in 2014, beginning with major repairs, code upgrades and safety improvements to the Launch Control Center, Vehicle Assembly Building and the VAB Utility Annex; this i
Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy Space Center is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASA's primary launch center of human spaceflight. Launch operations for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station; the management of the two entities work closely together, share resources, own facilities on each other's property. Though the first Apollo flights, all Project Mercury and Project Gemini flights took off from CCAFS, the launches were managed by KSC and its previous organization, the Launch Operations Directorate. Starting with the fourth Gemini mission, the NASA launch control center in Florida began handing off control of the vehicle to the Mission Control Center shortly after liftoff. Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial crew missions and researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off-Earth exploration.
Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships adding a new launch pad in 2015. There are buildings grouped across the center's 144,000 acres. Among the unique facilities at KSC are the 525 ft tall Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking NASA's largest rockets, the Launch Control Center, which conducts space launches at KSC, the Operations and Checkout Building, which houses the astronauts dormitories and suit-up area, a Space Station factory, a 3-mile-long Shuttle Landing Facility. There is a Visitor Complex open to the public on site; the military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel and the Missile Firing Laboratory to NASA to become the Launch Operations Directorate under NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. President John F. Kennedy's 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing by 1970 required an expansion of launch operations.
On July 1, 1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center. Cape Canaveral was inadequate to host the new launch facility design required for the mammoth 363-foot tall, 7,500,000-pound-force thrust Saturn V rocket, which would be assembled vertically in a large hangar and transported on a mobile platform to one of several launch pads. Therefore, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles and negotiating with the state of Florida for an additional 87 square miles; the major buildings in KSC's Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman. Construction began in November 1962, Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, again just a week before his assassination on November 22, 1963. On November 29, 1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129. Johnson's order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station under the designation "John F. Kennedy Space Center", spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind.
NASA Administrator James E. Webb clarified this by issuing a directive stating the Kennedy Space Center name applied only to the LOC, while the Air Force issued a general order renaming the military launch site Cape Kennedy Air Force Station. Located on Merritt Island, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean, midway between Miami and Jacksonville on Florida's Space Coast, due east of Orlando, it is 34 miles long and six miles wide, covering 219 square miles. KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is one hour's drive from the Orlando area; the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Because much of the installation is a restricted area and only nine percent of the land is developed, the site serves as an important wildlife sanctuary. Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther and Florida manatees.
From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, including the ten remaining Apollo missions after Apollo 7. The first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 on November 9, 1967, was the first rocket launch from KSC; the Saturn V's first manned launch on December 21, 1968 was Apollo 8's lunar orbiting mission. The next two missions tested the Lunar Module: Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16, 1969, made the first Moon landing on July 20. Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17. On May 14, 1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39A. By this time, the Cape Kennedy pads 34 and 37 used for the Saturn IB were decommissioned, so Pad 39B was modified to accommodate the Saturn IB, used to launch three manned missions to Skylab that year, as well as the final Apollo spacecraft for the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project in 1975; as the Space
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
The Partial Test Ban Treaty is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, though the latter may refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties. Negotiations focused on a comprehensive ban, but this was abandoned due to technical questions surrounding the detection of underground tests and Soviet concerns over the intrusiveness of proposed verification methods; the impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests tests of new thermonuclear weapons, the resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was seen as a means of slowing nuclear proliferation and the nuclear arms race. Though the PTBT did not halt proliferation or the arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere.
The PTBT was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States in Moscow on 5 August 1963 before being opened for signature by other countries. The treaty formally went into effect on 10 October 1963. Since 123 other states have become party to the treaty. Ten states have signed but not ratified the treaty. Much of the stimulus for the treaty was increasing public unease about radioactive fallout as a result of above-ground or underwater nuclear testing given the increasing power of nuclear devices, as well as concern about the general environmental damage caused by testing. In 1952–53, the US and Soviet Union detonated their first thermonuclear weapons, far more powerful than the atomic bombs tested and deployed since 1945. In 1954, the US Castle Bravo test at Bikini Atoll had a yield of 15 megatons of TNT, more than doubling the expected yield; the Castle Bravo test resulted in the worst radiological event in US history as radioactive particles spread over more than 11,000 square kilometers, affected inhabited areas, sickened Japanese fishermen aboard the Lucky Dragon upon whom "ashes of death" had rained.
In the same year, a Soviet test sent radioactive particles over Japan. Around the same time, victims of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima visited the US for medical care, which attracted significant public attention. In 1961, the Soviet Union tested the Tsar Bomba, which had a yield of 50 megatons and remains the most powerful man-made explosion in history, though due to a efficient detonation fallout was limited. Between 1951 and 1958, the US conducted 166 atmospheric tests, the Soviet Union conducted 82, Britain conducted 21. In 1945, Britain and Canada made an early call for an international discussion on controlling atomic power. At the time, the US had yet to formulate a cohesive strategy on nuclear weapons. Taking advantage of this was Vannevar Bush, who had initiated and administered the Manhattan Project, but had a long-term policy goal of banning on nuclear weapons production; as a first step in this direction, Bush proposed an international agency dedicated to nuclear control. Bush unsuccessfully argued in 1952 that the US pursue a test ban agreement with the Soviet Union before testing its first thermonuclear weapon, but his interest in international controls was echoed in the 1946 Acheson–Lilienthal Report, commissioned by President Harry S. Truman to help construct US nuclear weapons policy.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, who had led Los Alamos National Laboratory during the Manhattan Project, exerted significant influence over the report in its recommendation of an international body that would control production of and research on the world's supply of uranium and thorium. A version of the Acheson-Lilienthal plan was presented to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission as the Baruch Plan in June 1946; the Baruch Plan proposed that an International Atomic Development Authority would control all research on and material and equipment involved in the production of atomic energy. Though Dwight D. Eisenhower the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, was not a significant figure in the Truman administration on nuclear questions, he did support Truman's nuclear control policy, including the Baruch Plan's provision for an international control agency, provided that the control system was accompanied by "a system of free and complete inspection." The Soviet Union dismissed the Baruch Plan as a US attempt to secure its nuclear dominance, called for the US to halt weapons production and release technical information on its program.
The Acheson–Lilienthal paper and Baruch Plan would serve as the basis for US policy into the 1950s. Between 1947 and 1954, the US and Soviet Union discussed their demands within the United Nations Commission for Conventional Disarmament. A series of events in 1954, including the Castle Bravo test and spread of fallout from a Soviet test over Japan, redirected the international discussion on nuclear policy. Additionally, by 1954, both US and Soviet Union had assembled large nuclear stockpiles, reducing hopes of complete disarmament. In the early years of the Cold War, the US approach to nuclear control reflected a strain between an interest in controlling nuclear weapons and a belief that dominance in the nuclear arena given the size of Soviet conventional forces, was critical to US security. Interest in nuclear control and efforts to stall proliferation of we