The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey, its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination." National NAACP initiatives include political lobbying, publicity efforts and litigation strategies developed by its legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees and questions of economic development, its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people, referring to those with some African ancestry. The NAACP bestows annual awards to African Americans in two categories: Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind.
Its headquarters is in Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas and California; each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S. the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization. Julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action.
Local chapters are supported by the'Branch and Field Services' department and the'Youth and College' department. The'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education; the Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the Education Department works to improve public education at the local and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education; as of 2007, the NAACP had 425,000 paying and non-paying members. The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964; the records held there comprise five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003. In 2011, the NAACP teamed with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, discrimination in all its aspects.
The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 in Buffalo, New York featured many American innovations and achievements, but included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa," respectively. A local African American women, Mary Talbert of Ohio was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements, she informed W. E. B. DuBois of the situation, a coalition began to form. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing African Americans and possible strategies and solutions, they were concerned by the Southern states' disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states, crippling the Republican Party in most of the South.
Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men, voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures passed segregation and Jim Crow laws; because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist William English Walling, a wealthy socialist. Moskowitz, Jewish, was also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, they met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts. The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organiz
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period; the laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, were upheld in 1896, by the U. S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War; the legal principle of "separate, but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were inferior and underfunded, compared to the facilities for white Americans.
As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic and social disadvantages for African Americans, other people of color living in the south. Legalized racial segregation principally existed in the Southern states, while Northern and Western racial segregation was a matter of fact — enforced in housing with private covenants in leases, bank lending-practices, employment-preference discrimination, including labor-union practices. Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, public transportation, the segregation of restrooms and drinking fountains for whites and blacks; the U. S. military was segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, initiated segregation of federal workplaces in 1913; these Jim Crow laws revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education.
In some states it took many years to implement this decision. The remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination; the phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about Louisiana requiring segregated railroad cars. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies; as a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these statutes became known as Jim Crow laws. In January 1865 an amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery in the United States was proposed by Congress, on December 18, 1865, it was ratified as the Thirteenth Amendment formally abolishing slavery.
During the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U. S. South for freedmen, the African Americans, slaves, the minority of blacks, free before the war. In the 1870s, Democrats regained power in the Southern legislatures, having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League and the Red Shirts, to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, intimidate blacks to suppress their voting. Extensive voter fraud was used. Gubernatorial elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana for years, with increasing violence against blacks during campaigns from 1868 onward. In 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the government's withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained political power in every Southern state; these Southern, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws segregating black people from the white population.
Blacks were still elected to local offices throughout the 1880s, but their voting was suppressed for state and national elections. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease. Between 1890 and 1910, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, starting with Mississippi, passed new constitutions or amendments that disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes and comprehension tests, residency and record-keeping requirements. Grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. In Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0.5% of eligible black men.
"In 27 of the state's 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer. The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that black voters were eliminated from voter rolls during the period fro
Racial segregation is the systemic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination; as a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation". According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature".
Racial segregation is outlawed, but may exist de facto through social norms when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence. A situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. In the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws. Segregation, however allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races.
Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been racial segregation. Only areas with extensive miscegenation, or mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification, seem to be exempt. Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory, described as "quasi-apartheid"; the colonial law of 1865 allowed Arab and Berber Algerians to apply for French citizenship only if they abandoned their Muslim identity. Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that, "n contrast with the Moroccan and Tunisian protectorates", this "colonial apartheid society" was unique to Algeria; this "internal system of apartheid" met with considerable resistance from the Muslims affected by it, is cited as one of the causes of the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war. In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds. According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend."German praise for America's institutional racism found in Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s, radical Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
Race based U. S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws directly inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law. The ban on interracial marriage prohibited sexual relations and marriages between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan." Such relationships were called Rassenschande. At first the laws were aimed at Jews but were extended to "Gypsies and their bastard offspring". Aryans found guilty could face incarceration in a concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty. To preserve the so-called purity of the German blood, after the war began, the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners. Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. In an effort to split Polish identity they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals, based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component."
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, were, along with Romas, discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors were not allowed to treat Aryan patients nor were Jewish professors permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, were able to shop only from 3–5 pm in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht, the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" racial groups in the Holocaust; the Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people; the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000. Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour.
Although Nazi Germany used forced laborers from We
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or the AME Zion Church or AMEZ, is a African-American Christian denomination based in the United States. It was formed in 1821 in New York City, but operated for a number of years before then; the origins of this church can be traced to the John Street Methodist Church of New York City. Following acts of overt discrimination in New York, many black Christians left to form their own churches; the first church founded by the AME Zion Church was named Zion. These early black churches still belonged to the Methodist Episcopal Church denomination, although the congregations were independent. During the Great Awakening, the Methodists and Baptists had welcomed free blacks and slaves to their congregations and as preachers; the fledgling Zion church grew, soon multiple churches developed from the original congregation. These churches were attended by black congregants, but ministered to by white ordained Methodist ministers. In 1820, six of the churches met to ordain James Varick as an elder, in 1821 he was made the first General Superintendent of the AME Zion Church.
A debate raged in the white-dominated Methodist church over accepting black ministers. This debate ended on July 30, 1822, when James Varick was ordained as the first bishop of the AME Zion church, a newly independent denomination; the total membership in 1866 was about 42,000. Two years it claimed 164,000 members, as it sent missionaries to the South after the American Civil War to plant new churches with the newly emancipated freedmen; the A. M. E. Zion Church had been part of the Abolitionist movement and became known as the Freedom Church, because it was associated with the period after emancipation of the slaves. Black churches were integral in helping build communities and develop leadership among the freedmen in the South, they played an powerful role in the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century. AMEZ remained smaller than the AME because some of its ministers lacked the authority to perform marriages, many of its ministers avoided political roles, its finances were weak, in general its leadership was not as strong as that of the AME.
However it was the leader among all Protestant denominations in ordaining women and giving them powerful roles in the church. One influential leader bishop was James Walker Hood of North Carolina, he not only created and fostered his network of AMEZ churches in North Carolina, but he was the grand master for the entire South of the Prince Hall Freemasonry, a secular black fraternal organization that strengthened the political and economic forces inside the black community. Hood Theological Seminary in Salisbury, North Carolina is named in this bishop's honor; the AME Zion Church is not to be confused with the named African Methodist Episcopal Church, formed in 1816 by Richard Allen and Daniel Coker in Philadelphia. The denomination was made up of AME churches in the Philadelphia region, including Delaware and New Jersey; the newly formed AME Zion Church had a separate meeting place and time apart from the Methodist Episcopal Church. Autonomy was key for the newly formed church. A general conference is the supreme administrative body of the church.
Between meetings of the conference, the church is administered by the Board of Bishops. "The Book of Discipline is the instrument for setting forth the laws, plan and process by which the AME Zion Church governs itself."Today the denomination operates Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, two junior colleges. In 1906 the religious studies department of Livingstone College was renamed as Hood Seminary, in honor of the influential bishop. Hood remained a department of the College until 2001. On July 1, 2001, the Seminary began operating independently of the College, in March 2002, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the College’s accrediting agency, acknowledged that the Seminary was a separate institution, sponsored by the A. M. E. Zion Church independently of the College; the AME Zion missionaries are active in North and South America and the Caribbean region. In 1998, the AME Zion Church commissioned the Reverend Dwight B. and BeLinda P. Cannon as the first family missionaries to South Africa in recent memory.
These modern-day missionaries served from 1997 through 2004. Dr. Cannon was Administrative Assistant to the late Bishop Richard K. Thompson, who oversaw the work of South Africa and Swaziland; the AME Zion Church has performed mission work in the countries of Nigeria, Malawi, Angola, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana in Africa. The church grew with the ordination of black ministers, but was confined to the northern United States until the conclusion of the American Civil War. In the first decade after the war, together with the AME Church, it sent missionaries to the South to aid freedmen; the two African-American denominations gained hundreds of thousands of new members in the South, who responded to their missionaries and organizing efforts. Today, the AME Zion church has more than 1.4 million members, with outreach activities in many areas around the world. Greater Centennial AME Zion Church located in Mount Vernon, New York and Simon Temple AME Zion Church located in Fayetteville, North Carolina, are two of the largest churches in the AME Zion Church with both having more than 3,000 member
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important innovations in consumer products; the Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area.
Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low jobless rate. Rochester is a Global city with Sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Maj. Charles Carroll, Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney; the revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed.
Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean; the North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchi
The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, it was named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls, near Fort Erie, was where the first meeting took place in July 1905. The Niagara Movement was a call for opposition to racial segregation and disenfranchisement, it was opposed to policies of accommodation and conciliation promoted by African-American leaders such as Booker T. Washington. During the Reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War, African Americans had an unprecedented level of civil freedom and civic participation in the Southern United States. With the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s this began to change. By the 1890s many of the Southern states introduced laws that restricted the political and civil rights of African Americans. All of them passed laws restricting voting rights, or making them more difficult to exercise, passed laws requiring racially segregated facilities.
These policies became entrenched when the United States Supreme Court in 1896 ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that law requiring "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; the most prominent African-American spokesman during the 1890s was Booker T. Washington, leader of Alabama's Tuskegee Institute. Washington outlined a response to these policies in an 1895 speech in Atlanta, Georgia that became known as the Atlanta Compromise; the basic thrust of his approach was that Southern African-Americans should not agitate for political rights as long as they were provided economic opportunities and basic rights of due process. Washington politically dominated the National Afro-American Council, the first nationwide African-American civil rights organization. By the turn of the 20th century activists within the African-American community began demanding a more active opposition to racist government policies than the type advocated by Washington. Early opponents of Washington's "accommodationist" policies included W. E. B.
Du Bois a professor at Atlanta University, William Monroe Trotter, a Boston activist who in 1901 founded the Boston Guardian newspaper as a platform for radical activism. In 1902 and 1903 groups of activists sought to gain a larger voice in the debate at the conventions of the National Afro-American Council, but were procedurally marginalized because the conventions were dominated by Washington supporters. Trotter in July 1903 orchestrated a confrontation with Washington in Boston, a stronghold of activism, that resulted in a minor melee and the arrest of Trotter and others. In January 1904 Washington, with funding assistance from Andrew Carnegie, organized a meeting in New York to unite African American and civil rights spokesmen. Trotter was not invited. Du Bois was sympathetic to the activist cause and suspicious of Washington's motives, noted that the number of activists invited was small relative to the number of Bookerites; the meeting laid the foundation for a committee that included both Washington and Du Bois, but fractured, dissolved when Du Bois resigned in July 1905.
By this time both Du Bois and Trotter recognized the need for a well-organized anti-Washington activist group. In addition to Du Bois and Trotter, Fredrick McGhee of St. Paul and Charles Edwin Bentley of Chicago had come to recognize the need for a nationwide activist group; these four men organized a conference to be held in the Buffalo, New York area in the summer of 1905, inviting 59 selected anti-Bookerites to attend. In July 1905 28 people met at the Erie Beach Hotel in Fort Erie, opposite Buffalo. Differing explanations exist for why the group not Buffalo. A given reason, which has not been substantiated by primary sources, is that they had planned to meet in Buffalo, but were refused accommodation. Du Bois' writings of the time, show that his original plan was to find a quiet, out of the way location for the event, that the Erie Beach Hotel satisfied his requirements. Researcher Cynthia Van Ness has further located contemporary evidence of Buffalo hotels complying with a statewide anti-discrimination law passed in 1895.
Bookerites had been alerted to the planned conference, but one who traveled to Buffalo to investigate the conference found no activity there. The organization founded at this meeting had Du Bois as its general secretary, Cincinnati lawyer George Jackson as treasurer, a number of committees to oversee progress on the organization's goals. State chapters would advance local agendas and disseminate information about the organization and its goals, its name was chosen to reflect the site of its first meeting and to be representative of a "mighty current" of change its leaders sought to bring about. The attendees of the inaugural meeting drafted a "Declaration of Principles,", the work of Du Bois and Trotter; the philosophies of the group were in direct contrast to more conciliatory philosophies of Booker T. Washington that proposed patience over militancy; the declaration outlined the group's philosophy and its demands. It began by first describing the progress that the "Negro-Americans" had made "particularly the increase of intelligence, the buy-in of property, the checking of crime, the uplift in home life, the advance in literature and art, the demonstration of constructive and executive ability in the conduct of great religious and educational institutions."
It called for blacks to be gr
Timothy Thomas Fortune
Timothy Thomas Fortune was an American orator, civil rights leader, writer and publisher. He was the influential editor of the nation's leading black newspaper The New York Age and was the leading economist in the black community, he was a long-time adviser to Booker T. Washington and the editor of Washington's first autobiography, The Story of My Life and Work. Fortune’s philosophy of militant agitation on behalf of the rights of black people laid one of the foundations of the Civil Rights Movement. Timothy Thomas Fortune was born into slavery in Marianna, Jackson County, Florida, to Emanuel and Sarah Jane Fortune, started his education at Marianna's first school for African Americans after the Civil War, his family moved to Jacksonville, where he attended Edwin M. Stanton School He worked both as a page in the state senate and as apprentice printer at a Jacksonville newspaper during the time that his father, was a Reconstruction politician in Florida. At one time Fortune worked at the Marianna Courier and the Jacksonville Daily-Times Union.
These experiences would be the start of a career in which his work was published in over twenty books and articles and in more than three hundred editorials. In 1874 he was mail route agent and he was promoted to customs inspector for the eastern district of Delaware but only held this position for a few months before resigning in order to attend Howard University. Although he was self-taught prior to his college enrollment in 1875, Fortune was admitted to study law, he changed his major to journalism after two semesters before leaving school altogether to begin work, in 1876, at the People's Advocate, a newspaper in Washington, D. C. About that same time he married Carrie C. Smiley. Fortune moved to New York City in 1879 and began a process whereby over the next two decades he would become known as editor and owner of a newspaper named first the Globe the Freeman, the New York Age. Upon arrival in New York, Fortune began working as a printer, worked at The Weekly Witness. In 1880 he became journalist and editor of The Rumor, run by George Parker and William Walter Sampson.
This journal soon changed its name to The New York Globe. The Globe closed in November 1884 after a dispute with co-editor William B. Derrick, one week on November 22, Fortune published the first issue of his New York Freeman. In the late 1880s, he was considered the greatest black newspaper writer in America; that same year he published a book entitled Black and White: Land and Politics in the South that, along with his 1885 pamphlet, The Negro in Politics challenged Frederick Douglass's dictum that "the Republican Party is the ship, all else the open sea". In 1885, The Freeman took the new name of The New York Age and set out to become "The Afro-American Journal of News and Opinion". In 1890 Fortune was elected chairman of the executive committee of the National Afro-American Press Association at their meeting in Indianapolis. In Chicago on January 25, 1890, Fortune co-founded the militant National Afro-American League to right wrongs against African Americans authorized by law and sanctioned or tolerated by public opinion.
The league fell apart after four years. When it was revived in Rochester, New York, on September 15, 1898, it had the new name of the "National Afro-American Council", with Bishop Alexander Walters as its first President and Fortune as a prominent member. Walters was followed as president by Fortune, who held the position from 1902 to 1904, was succeeded by William Henry Steward. Booker T. Washington played a dominant role on the Council and it included a number of important leaders, including W. E. B. Du Bois, who went on to form the NAACP, anti-lynching activist Ida B. Wells; the League and the Council had a vital role in setting the stage for the Niagara Movement, NAACP, other civil rights organizations to follow. Fortune was the leading advocate of using "Afro-American" to identify his people. Since they are "African in origin and American in birth", it was his argument that it most defined them. With Fortune at the helm as co-owner with Emanuel Fortune, Jr. and Jerome B. Peterson, the New York Age became the most read of all Black newspapers.
It stood at the forefront as a voice agitating against the evils of discrimination, mob violence, disenfranchisement. Its popularity was due in part to Fortune's editorials, which condemned all forms of discrimination and demanded full justice for all African Americans. Ida B. Wells's newspaper Memphis Free Speech and Headlight had its printing press destroyed and building burned as the result of an article published in it on May 25, 1892. Fortune gave her a job and a new platform from which to detail and condemn lynching, his book The Kind of Education the Afro-American Most Needs was published in 1898, Dreams of Life: Miscellaneous Poems in 1905. After a nervous breakdown, Fortune sold the New York Age to Fred R. Moore in 1907, who continued publishing it until 1960. Fortune published another book, The New York Negro in Journalism, in 1915. In the 1900 presidential election he campaigned for William McKinley, he was politically active in the Republican party. However, he was noted for criticizing corruption in both parties and advocating good principles for all.
Fortune went to work as an editor at the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League's house organ, the Negro World, in 1923. Its circulation, at its height, was over 200,000. With distribution throughout the United States, Europe, the Caribbean and Central America, it may have been the most distributed newspaper in the world. Fortune rubbed should