United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stock pile or store grain. In grain trade it could mean a tower containing an elevator or a pneumatic conveyor. In most cases, the grain elevator covers the entire elevator complex, including receiving and testing offices, weighbridges. It may mean organizations that operate or control several individual elevators, in Australia the term grain elevator refers to the lifting mechanism only. Prior to the advent of the elevator, grain was usually handled in bags rather than in bulk. However, Darts Elevator was a major innovation and it was invented by a merchant named Joseph Dart and an engineer named Robert Dunbar during 1842–43, in Buffalo, New York. Using the steam-powered flour mills of Oliver Evans as their model, they invented the marine leg, early grain elevators and bins were often constructed of framed or cribbed wood, and were prone to fire. Grain elevator bins and silos are now constructed of steel or reinforced concrete. Bucket elevators are used to lift grain to a distributor or consignor, from where it falls through spouts and/or conveyors and into one of a number of bins, when desired, silos and tanks are emptied by gravity flow, sweep augers and conveyors.
Large-scale grain receival and logistics operations are known in Australia as bulk handling, specifically there are several types of grain elevators under Canadian law, defined in the Canadian Grain Act, Section 2. Primary elevators receive grain directly from producers for storage, or forwarding, process elevators receive and store grain for direct manufacture or processing into other products. Terminal elevators receive grain on or after official inspection and weighing and clean, transfer elevators transfer grain that has been officially inspected and weighed at another elevator. In the Eastern Division, transfer elevators receive, clean and it was both necessity and the prospect of making a lot of money that gave birth to the steam-powered grain elevator in Buffalo, New York, in 1843. Due to the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, Buffalo enjoyed a position in American geography. All through the 1830s, Buffalo benefited tremendously from its position, in particular, it was the recipient of most of the increasing quantities of grain that was being grown on farms in Ohio and Indiana, and shipped on Lake Erie for transshipment to the Erie Canal.
If Buffalo hadnt been there, or when things got backed up there, by 1842, it was clear that Buffalos port facilities were antiquated. It would take days, sometimes even a week, to service a single grain-laden boat. Grain shipments were going down the Mississippi River, not over the Great Lakes/Erie Canal system, a merchant named Joseph Dart, Jr
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most often applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Canada, people who own or operate a ranch are called ranchers, cattlemen, or stockgrowers. Ranching is a used to raise less common livestock such as elk, American bison or even ostrich, emu. Ranches generally consist of areas, but may be of nearly any size. In the western United States, many ranches are a combination of owned land supplemented by grazing leases on land under the control of the federal Bureau of Land Management. If the ranch includes arable or irrigated land, the ranch may engage in an amount of farming, raising crops for feeding the animals, such as hay. Ranches that cater exclusively to tourists are called guest ranches or, most working ranches do not cater to guests, though they may allow private hunters or outfitters onto their property to hunt native wildlife.
Ranching is part of the iconography of the Wild West as seen in Western movies, the person who owns and manages the operation of a ranch is usually called a rancher, but the terms cattleman, stockgrower, or stockman are sometimes used. If this individual in charge of management is an employee of the actual owner. A rancher who primarily raises young stock sometimes is called an operator or a cow-calf man. This person is usually the owner, though in cases, particularly where there is absentee ownership. The people who are employees of the rancher and involved in handling livestock are called a number of terms, including cowhand, ranch hand, people exclusively involved with handling horses are sometimes called wranglers. Ranching and the tradition originated in Spain, out of the necessity to handle large herds of grazing animals on dry land from horseback. During the Reconquista, members of the Spanish nobility and various military orders received large land grants that the Kingdom of Castile had conquered from the Moors and these landowners were to defend the lands put into their control and could use them for earning revenue.
When the Conquistadors came to the Americas in the 16th century, followed by settlers, they brought their cattle, huge land grants by the Spanish government, part of the hacienda system, allowed large numbers of animals to roam freely over vast areas. A number of different traditions developed, often related to the location in Spain from which a settlement originated. For example, many of the traditions of the Jalisco charros in central Mexico come from the Salamanca charros of Castile, there were cattle on the eastern seaboard. Deep Hollow Ranch,110 miles east of New York City in Montauk, New York, claims to be the first ranch in the United States, the prairie and desert lands of what today is Mexico and the western United States were well-suited to open range grazing
Foreign Agricultural Service
In 2003, FAS began to return to a long-abandoned role in national security. The FAS mission statement reads, Linking U. S. agriculture to the world to enhance export opportunities and global food security, USDA posted its first employee abroad in 1882, with assignment of Edmund Moffat to London. In 1894, USDA created a Section of Foreign Markets in its Division of Statistics and it was succeeded over the next few decades by increasingly larger units. Moffat went out as an agent of USDAs Division of Statistics. Subsequent USDA officials assigned overseas, did not enjoy diplomatic or consular status and this impeded their work, which at that point consisted mainly of collecting and transmitting to Washington time-sensitive market information on agricultural commodities. S. Consuls abroad, and data collected by the Rome-based International Institute of Agriculture, in 1924, USDA officials Nils Olsen and Louis Guy Michael and Congressman John Ketcham began drafting legislation to create an agricultural attaché service with diplomatic status.
The legislation passed the House multiple times, but it did not pass the Senate until 1930, however, eventually supported the legislation in order to garner support of the farm bloc during his presidential campaign. Accordingly, the Foreign Agricultural Service was created by the Foreign Agricultural Service Act of 1930, the law stipulated that the FAS consist of overseas USDA officials. The 1930 Act explicitly granted the USDAs overseas officials diplomatic status, in short order, FAS posted additional staff overseas, to Marseille, Belgrade and Kobe, in addition to existing staff in London, Buenos Aires and Shanghai. In Washington, Hobson hired Lazar Volin, a Russian émigré, as the agencys first D. C. -based regional analyst, the FAS led agricultural tariff negotiations, first concluding a new tariff agreement with Cuba, followed by Belgium, Sweden and Colombia. By 1939, new agricultural tariffs were in place with 20 countries, including the United Kingdom and this new responsibility spurred a change in field reporting from overseas offices.
Thus, in addition to traditional commodity reporting, the attachés, on December 1,1938, the Foreign Agricultural Service Division was upgraded, made directly subordinate to the Secretary, and renamed simply the Foreign Agricultural Service. On July 1,1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all personnel, including the agricultural attachés and commissioners. The Foreign Agricultural Service was abolished, and its headquarters staff was renamed the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, OFAR began handling food aid in 1941 when President Roosevelt and the Congress authorized $1.35 billion of food assistance to Great Britain. During this period OFAR led negotiations that resulted in creation of the International Wheat Council, after the war OFAR was instrumental in carrying out land reform in Japan and offering agricultural technical assistance under the Marshall Plan and the Point Four Program. By 1953, OFAR had roughly 400 agricultural specialists working on development programs in 27 foreign countries, OFAR continued food aid programs, particularly using the Agricultural Act of 1949s authorities to donate surplus commodities.
At this point OFAR directed the work of technical assistance programs while the Department of State directed the work of the agricultural attachés. On March 10,1953, Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson abolished OFAR, on September 1,1954, following passage of H. R.8033, the agricultural attachés were transferred back from State Department to FAS
A slaughterhouse or abattoir /ˈæbətwɑːr/ is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food for humans. Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant logistical problems, animal welfare problems, public health requirements, due to public aversion in many cultures, determining where to build slaughterhouses is troubling. Until modern times, the slaughter of animals took place in a haphazard. Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, the slaughterhouse emerged as a coherent institution in the nineteenth century. An additional motivation for eliminating private slaughter was to impose a system of regulation for the morally dangerous task of putting animals to death. As a result of tension, meat markets within the city were closed. An early framework for the establishment of public slaughterhouses was put in place in Paris in 1810, five areas were set aside on the outskirts of the city and the feudal privileges of the guilds were curtailed.
As the meat requirements of the number of residents in London steadily expanded. Meat had been traded at Smithfield Market as early as the 10th century, by 1726, it was regarded as without question, the greatest in the world, by Daniel Defoe. In 1843, the Farmers Magazine published a petition signed by bankers, aldermen, butchers, an Act of Parliament was finally passed in 1852. Under its provisions, a new cattle-market was constructed in Copenhagen Fields, the market was designed by architect Sir Horace Jones and was completed in 1868. A cut and cover tunnel was constructed beneath the market to create a triangular junction with the railway between Blackfriars and Kings Cross. This allowed animals to be transported into the slaughterhouse by train and these slaughterhouses were regulated by law to ensure good standards of hygiene, the prevention of the spread of disease and the minimization of needless animal cruelty. The slaughterhouse had to be equipped with a water supply system to effectively clean the operating area of blood.
Veterinary scientists, notably George Fleming and John Gamgee, campaigned for stringent levels of inspection to ensure that such as rinderpest would not be able to spread. By 1874, three meat inspectors were appointed for the London area, and the Public Health Act 1875 required local authorities to provide central slaughterhouses. Yet the appointment of inspectors and the establishment of centralised abattoirs took place much earlier in the British colonies, such as the colonies of New South Wales. Attempts were made throughout the British Empire to reform the practice of slaughter itself, the eminent physician, Benjamin Ward Richardson, spent many years in developing more humane methods of slaughter
The Codex Alexandrinus is a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the four Great uncial codices, along with the Codex Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus, it is one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible. Brian Walton assigned Alexandrinus the capital Latin letter A in the Polyglot Bible of 1657 and this designation was maintained when the system was standardized by Wettstein in 1751. Thus, Alexandrinus held the first position in the manuscript list and it derives its name from Alexandria where it resided for a number of years before it was brought by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch Cyril Lucaris from Alexandria to Constantinople. Then it was given to Charles I of England in the 17th century, until the purchase of Codex Sinaiticus, it was the best manuscript of the Greek Bible deposited in Britain. Today, it rests along with Codex Sinaiticus in one of the showcases in the Ritblat Gallery of the British Library, a full photographic reproduction of the New Testament volume is available on the British Librarys website.
As the text came from different traditions, different parts of the codex are not of equal textual value. The text has been edited several times since the 18th century, the codex is in quarto, and now consists of 773 vellum folios, bound in four volumes. Three volumes contain the Septuagint, Greek version of the Old Testament, the fourth volume contains the New Testament with 31 NT leaves lost. In the fourth volume 1 and 2 Clement are missing leaves, the codex contains a nearly complete copy of the LXX, including the deuterocanonical books 3 and 4 Maccabees, Psalm 151 and the 14 Odes. The Epistle to Marcellinus attributed to Saint Athanasius and the Eusebian summary of the Psalms are inserted before the Book of Psalms and it contains all of the books of the New Testament. In addition, the codex contains 1 Clement and the known as 2 Clement. The books of the Old Testament are thus distributed, Genesis —2 Chronicles, Hosea —4 Maccabees, the New Testament books follow in order, Acts of the Apostles, General epistles, Pauline epistles, Book of Revelation.
Damaged, Gen 14, 14-17,15, 1-5,15, 16-19,16, 6-9, Defects due to leaves, Genesis 1, 20-25,1, 29-2,3, Lev 8,6,7,16, Sirach 50, 21f,51,5. The ornamented colophon of the Epistle to Philemon has been cut out, the manuscript measures 12.6 ×10.4 inches and most of the folios were originally gathered into quires of eight leaves each. In modern times it was rebound into sets of six leaves each, the text in the codex is written in two columns in uncial script, with between 49 and 51 lines per column and 20 to 25 letters per line. The beginning lines of each book are written in red ink, words are written continuously in a large and well-formed uncial hand. There are no accents and breathing marks, except a few added by a hand, the punctuation was written by the first hand
The Federal Register, abbreviated FR or sometimes Fed. Reg. is the journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules. It is published daily, except on federal holidays, the Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no restrictions on the Federal Register, as a work of the U. S. government. In essence, the Federal Register is a way for the government to announce changes to government requirements, the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, the Federal Register is the main source for the U. S. Both proposed and final rules are published in the Federal Register, a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking typically requests public comment on a proposed rule, and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed.
The public comments are considered by the government agency. The United States Government Manual is published as an edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on programs and activities, to purchase current or back print copies of the Federal Register, one may contact the U. S. Government Publishing Office. In each issue of the Federal Register, there is a subscription page, currently, a years subscription rate within the U. S. is US$929. Each individual issue may be priced from $11 to $33 depending on its pages, virtually every law library associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries. The Federal Register has been online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the side of regulations. gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present.
GovPulse. us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundations Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity, on July 25,2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse. us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives, on August 1,2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content
World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates
The report provides an analysis of the fundamental condition of the agricultural commodity markets for the use of farmers and other market participants. The WASDE report is compiled using information from a number of reports produced by the USDA. It is widely considered to be the benchmark to which all other private, the recent releases of the WASDE report provide forecasts covering, Crops including wheat, corn, barley, soybeans and sugar. Livestock including meat animals and dairy, the WASDE report is generally released between the 8th and 12th of each month at 12,00 noon Eastern Time. It is available in form and can be downloaded from the USDA website from the time of release. Subscription to the report can be made through the Albert R. Mann Library for delivery by e-mail shortly after release on the Internet. As a work of the United States government, the WASDE reports are released into the domain in accordance with U. S. copyright law,17 U. S. C. Predecessor publications date back to the 19th century, subsequent such reports appeared irregularly, and evolved by the 1960s into commodity-oriented circulars published at regular intervals by USDA agencies.
The first direct predecessor of the WASDE report was released on September 17,1973, as the Agricultural Supply and it was originally focused on supply and trade in the United States. Estimates for individual countries were first included in the released on January 11,1985. United States Department of Agriculture Agriculture in the United States United States Department of Agriculture and public domain policy
Economics is a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production and consumption of goods and services according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work, consistent with this focus, textbooks often distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behaviour of elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, firms, macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues. Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, as in business, health care, Economic analyses may be applied to such diverse subjects as crime, the family, politics, social institutions, war and the environment. At the turn of the 21st century, the domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The ultimate goal of economics is to improve the conditions of people in their everyday life. There are a variety of definitions of economics. Some of the differences may reflect evolving views of the subject or different views among economists, to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the publick services. Say, distinguishing the subject from its uses, defines it as the science of production, distribution. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle coined the dismal science as an epithet for classical economics, in this context and it enquires how he gets his income and how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. He affirmed that previous economists have usually centred their studies on the analysis of wealth, how wealth is created and consumed, but he said that economics can be used to study other things, such as war, that are outside its usual focus. This is because war has as the goal winning it, generates both cost and benefits, resources are used to attain the goal.
If the war is not winnable or if the costs outweigh the benefits. Some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets, there are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment. The same source reviews a range of included in principles of economics textbooks. Among economists more generally, it argues that a particular definition presented may reflect the direction toward which the author believes economics is evolving, microeconomics examines how entities, forming a market structure, interact within a market to create a market system
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis and it includes agrichemicals, crop production, farm machinery and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry, agribusiness is used simply as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, there are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations, agribusiness publications, and so forth, worldwide. The UNs Food and Agriculture Organization operates a section devoted to agribusiness development which seeks to promote food industry growth in developing nations, in the context of agribusiness management in academia, each individual element of agriculture production and distribution may be described as agribusinesses. However, the term agribusiness most often emphasizes the interdependence of these various sectors within the production chain, among critics of large-scale, vertically integrated food production, the term agribusiness is used negatively, synonymous with corporate farming.
As such, it is contrasted with smaller family-owned farms. As concern over global warming intensifies, biofuels derived from crops are gaining increased public and scientific attention and this is driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. In Europe and in the US, increased research and production of biofuels has been mandated by law, studies of agribusiness often come from the academic fields of agricultural economics and management studies, sometimes called agribusiness management. To promote more development of economies, many government agencies support the research and publication of economic studies. Some of these studies are on foods produced for export and are derived from agencies focused on food exports and these agencies include the Foreign Agricultural Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and New Zealand Trade and Enterprise.
The Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies and reports by FAS and AAFC, ray A. Goldberg coined the term agribusiness together with coauthor John H. Davis. They provided an economic framework for the field in their book A Concept of Agribusiness. That seminal work traces a complex value-added chain that begins with the purchase of seed and livestock. Agribusiness boundary expansion is driven by a variety of transaction costs, manuel Alvarado Ledesma and Peter D. Goldsmith explain the implications of weak institutions on agribusiness investment. According to them weak institutions lead to development and enforcement grounded in the moment, rather than based on precedent. The Globalization of Agribusiness and Developing World Food Systems, southern Innovator Magazine Issue 3, Agribusiness and Food Security, United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation