Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport is the primary air passenger and air cargo facility in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region of the Canadian province of Alberta. Operated by Edmonton Airports, it is located 14 nautical miles south southwest of Downtown Edmonton in Leduc County on Highway 2 opposite of the city of Leduc; the airport offers scheduled non-stop flights to major cities in Canada, the United States, the Caribbean, Central America and Europe. It is a hub facility for Northern Canada; the airport has a catchment area encompassing Central and Northern Alberta, northern British Columbia, Yukon, the Northwest Territories and western Nunavut. Total catchment area is 1.8 million residents. It is Canada's largest major airport by total land area, the 5th busiest airport by passenger traffic and 9th busiest by aircraft movements, it served 8,254,121 passengers in 2018. Transport Canada selected the current site for Edmonton International Airport, on the opposite side of the city from the military airport at RCAF Station Namao, purchased over 7,000 acres of land.
When the airport opened on November 15, 1960, its first terminal was an arch hangar. Today, it is in use by Canadian North. In 1963, a passenger terminal, built in the international style, was opened, it remains in use as the North Terminal. Artwork, fired by Alberta Natural Gas, adorned the departures area exterior. A large mural, commissioned by the Canadian government in 1963 for CAD$18,000 titled "Bush Pilot in Northern Sky" by Jack Shadbolt, remains to this day. An appraisal in 2005 indicated that the mural was worth $750,000, a restoration of the mural was undertaken in 2007. During the 1970s, the airport experienced a rapid growth in traffic as the city of Edmonton grew, served 2 million passengers by 1980. However, from the early 1980s until 1995, traffic declined; this decline was attributed to the continued usage of Edmonton City Centre Airport as well as to a slowing economy. Edmonton City Centre did not have the facilities to accept large long-haul aircraft, thus airlines used City Centre to fly short-haul flights to hubs in other cities where connections to many locations were available.
Growth returned in 1995. In a municipal plebiscite in that year, 77% of voting Edmontonians voted to consolidate all scheduled jet passenger service at Edmonton International Airport. In 1998, the airport began a $282 million "1998–2005 Redevelopment Project"; the three-phase project included the construction of a south terminal and central hall concept, a commuter facility, doubling of the apron, a multi-storey parkade. This redevelopment project expanded the passenger capacity to 5.5 million. By the time the expansion project was completed in 2005, continued passenger growth triggered planning for another expansion. A new 107,000-square-foot control and office tower was added in 2009. Further expansions completed in 2013 including seven new passenger gates, 14 boarding bridges, moving walkways, advanced baggage handling and scanning systems. A new Renaissance Hotel was another major addition to the airport landscape; the airport played a major role during the 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire, operating as hubs for aerial firefighting and Medevac.
The airport became a temporary shelter for thousands of Fort McMurray evacuees. The Emergency Operations Centre in the airport ran for 112 hours, organizing the arrival and departure of hundreds of aircraft. During May 2016, the airport saw more than 300 additional daily flights on top of their scheduled service. In August 2016, the Government of Alberta announced $90 million in funding to begin twinning Highway 19 and that it has protected the area needed for a third runway, required due its estimated 3,530 m length and orientation as runway 11/29, causing it to exceed current airport boundaries; the airport plans to extend runway 12/30 by one-third its current length from 3,100 to 4,030 m to increase accessibility and capacity tied to Port Alberta Developments/Intercontinental routes. The airport had international service soon. In 1960, Canadian Pacific Airlines was operating nonstop flights to Amsterdam with Bristol Britannia turboprop aircraft several times a week. By 1961, Canadian Pacific had introduced Douglas DC-8 jetliners on its nonstop service to Amsterdam.
In 1961, US-based Northwest Airlines was operating daily Douglas DC-7C propliner service on a routing of Edmonton - Winnipeg - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Milwaukee - New York City Idlewild Airport. In 1962, Trans-Canada Airlines operated direct flights to London's Heathrow Airport once a week via a stop in Winnipeg and to Paris Orly Airport three times a week via stops in Toronto and Montreal with Douglas DC-8 jets. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Pacific Western Airlines operated Boeing 707 charter flights from the airport to the UK and other destinations in Europe. In 1970, Air Canada operated nonstop Douglas DC-8 service to London-Heathrow twice a week while CP Air flew nonstop DC-8 service to Amsterdam three times a week. CP Air introduced Boeing 747 jumbo jet service nonstop to Amsterdam with two flights a week being operated in 1976. By 1978, the airline was flying nonstop Boeing 747 service to Honolulu. Air Canada had begun daily nonstop Boeing 727-200 service to both Los Angeles and San Francisco by 1979 and was operating direct one stop McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 service to Chicago O'Hare Airport via Winnipeg by 1985.
Earlier, in 1983, both airlines were operating wide body jetliners on their respective services to Europe with Air Canada flying Lockheed L-1011 TriStar long range series 500 model aircraft three days a week nonstop to London Heathr
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
London International Airport
London International Airport is located 5 nautical miles northeast of the city of London, Canada. In 2016, the airport handled 514,685 passengers, and, in 2011, was the 20th busiest in Canada in terms of aircraft movements, with 94,747. Air Canada Express, WestJet and WestJet Encore serve London International Airport, it provides services for cargo airlines. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 180 passengers. In January 1927 the City of London selected a site for an airfield at Lambeth, Ontario near 42°55′00″N 081°17′00″W. A group of local businessmen acquired the site in 1928 and by 3 May 1929 an airport license was issued to London Airport Ltd; the London Flying Club became a tenant of the new airport. The airfield was used for flying instruction, private aviation, for air mail. By 1933 it had become too small for some commercial aircraft; the London Flying Club continued to use the Lambeth airfield until 7 August 1942.
In 1935 the city decided to replace the original London Airport. Site surveys and consultations took place and on 9 September 1939, at the start of World War II, work began on a new airport located near Crumlin; the city leased the new airport to the Government of Canada, Department of Transport on 24 January 1940 for the duration of the war. Runways 14-32 and 05-23 were paved and ready for use by July 1940 and the Royal Canadian Air Force established RCAF Station Crumlin on part of the airport; this air station was host to No. 3 Elementary Flying Training School and No. 4 Air Observer School, both part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The airport remained under civilian management and was used for civil and military aviation during the war years; the licence for London City Airport was issued on 6 May 1941. Improvements made during this time include: main terminal building opened in July 1942 Trans-Canada Airlines began serve to the airport in July 1942. Runway 08-26 added in 1943.
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan operations ended on 31 December 1944 with the closure of No. 4 Air Observer School. The Royal Air Force Transport Command, No. 45 Group established the Mosquito Preparation and Despatching Unit at London on 10 January 1945. This detachment had twenty three members and test flew De Havilland Mosquitos built in Toronto before they were flown overseas. After the war the airport remained under the control of the Department of Transport. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed at 43°02′N 81°09′W with a Var. 5 degrees W and elevation of 899 feet. Two runways were listed as follows: After World War II RCAF reserve or auxiliary squadrons were given the task of defending Canada's major cities. 420 Squadron reformed as City of London 420 Auxiliary Squadron at the airport in September 1948. Equipped with Harvard aircraft, the squadron upgraded to Mustangs in 1952 and CT-133 jets in 1954; the squadron disbanded in 1957. Air Defence Command reformed 2420 Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron at London on 1 July 1956.
2420 trained Fighter Control operators and disbanded on 31 May 1961. RCAF Station London opened in 1950 to support a NATO Induction and Training Centre moved to Centralia; the station closed on 30 September 1958. As a tribute to this period, a Canadair T-33 aircraft in former Royal Canadian Air Force livery is mounted in front of the main terminal building; the airport has been continuously improved since World War II as navigation and air traffic control systems evolved, as commercial aircraft became larger and larger. These improvements include: 1950, installation of the Instrument Landing System on runway 14-32 1955, runway 14-32 lengthened to 6,000 feet to accommodate the Vickers Viscount 1960, Meteorological Branch weather station opened 1965, new terminal building opened 1968, Air Canada begins DC-9 jet service 1974, runway 14-32 lengthened to 8,800 feet to accommodate DC-8, Boeing 707 and 747, L-1011 aircraft 1988, runway 05-23 decommissioned 1990, new radar system installed 1998, control of the airport was transferred from Transport Canada to the Greater London International Airport Authority 2003, main terminal building renovated and expanded CHC Helicopter — Ornge Jet Aircraft Museum - The Jet Aircraft Museum operates 6 Canadair T-33 Silver Stars - otherwise known as the T-bird Executive Aviation — Esso-affiliated fixed-base operator Trek Aviation - Aircraft Maintenance and Consulting Services B&W Aviation — Shell-affiliated fixed-base operator Diamond Aircraft — Light aircraft manufacturer Discovery Air — Niche flight services Diamond Flight Centre - Flight training school Forest City Flight Centre — Flight training school AFS Aerial Photography — Aerial photography services Aero Academy 427 Wing - Air Force Association of Canada International Test Pilots SchoolLondon International Airport Fire Crash and Rescue Station provides fire and rescue operations at the airport with three crash tenders based on Blair Boulevard.
Shuttle service is available for passengers wishing to connect to flights at Toronto Pearson International Airport in Toronto. London Transit Commission provides service between Fanshawe College. On December 15, 2016, a Bombardier Dash 8, Air Canada Jazz Flight 8640, bound from London to Toronto slid off the runway into snow-covered grass following takeoff, it was snowing at the time of incident but the runway was reported to be in good condition. None of the 53 passengers or crew on board were injured. All passengers
Regina International Airport
Regina International Airport is an international airport located in Regina, Canada, located 2 nautical miles south-west and 7 km west south-west of the city centre. It is run by the Regina Airport Authority, it was, in 2010, the second busiest airport in Saskatchewan. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 120 passengers. However, they can handle up to 250; the first site in Regina used for flying was the infield at Regina Exhibition Park's horse race track, where visiting barnstormer "Lucky Bob" St. Pierre flew a Curtiss Model D biplane in August, 1911. A few other barnstormers, notably aviator Katherine Stinson of the famous aviation family, appeared in Regina and other prairie cities in the years thereafter, but there was no other aviation activity in Western Canada during the First World War. After the First World War, Reginan Roland Groome returned from military service as a flying instructor in Southern Ontario and, with partners, set up a company called the "Aerial Service Co."
Its primitive airfield was located near what is the current intersection of Hill Avenue and Cameron Street in the city's southern Lakeview district. In May 1920, federal government regulators assigned this field the designation of Canada's first licensed "air harbour". Groome received Canadian commercial pilot's licence No. 1 and mechanic Robert McCombie was given air engineer's licence No. 1. The airport site was developed from 1928-30. A terminal building was built in 1940. Scheduled airline service was provided by Moose Jaw-based Prairie Airways and Trans-Canada Air Lines. From the beginning of the war the Regina Flying Club was involved in the contract training for the Royal Canadian Air Force; the majority of this training was conducted out of the Regina Municipal Airport. The implementation of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan in the early 1940's resulted in the formation of No. 15 Elementary Flying Training School and RCAF Station Regina at the Airport on 11 November 1940. The School was managed by the Regina Flying Club and was in operation at the site until it was closed on the 11 Aug 1944.
From 1-30 November 1945 the former 15 EFTS facilities at the airport were used as a release center for Airmen leaving the service. In 1942 the airport was listed as RCAF & D of T Aerodrome - Regina, Saskachewan at 50°26′N 104°39′W with a variation of 17 degrees east and elevation of 1,885 ft. Three runways were listed as follows: A new terminal building was erected in 1960. Major renovations to this terminal building were conducted in 1983-86. A $24-million expansion started in January 2004, increasing its capacity to 1.2 million passengers per year. The first stage of the expansion included the expansion of the terminal and includes a larger post-security holding room, another passenger loading bridge, an expansion to the international arrivals area and more baggage carousels; the first phase was completed in August 2005. The second phase is now under way and includes further expansion for security services and for facilities for new tenants such as stores and eating establishments. In 2009, construction began on two new jetways, one between gates 5 and 6, to the right of the glass atrium, the other as an offshoot of gate 1.
This is to keep up with airport demand and to further increase passenger comfort and safety in winter months. On May 1, 1995, under the Canada-US Open Skies agreement, Northwest Airlines began service to Minneapolis–Saint Paul. United Express began non-stop service to Chicago O'Hare and Denver. In 1996 WestJet began Boeing 737-200 service. Air Canada, which began scheduled service to Regina in early 1939, ended mainline service into Regina and six other medium-sized Canadian cities in October 2005, turning over these routes to its subsidiary Air Canada Jazz and its fleet of Canadair Regional Jets. Mainline service to Toronto returned on November 2008 using the Embraer E-190 aircraft. In the summer of 2010, Air Canada Jazz introduced summer seasonal service between Regina and Ottawa using the CRJ-705 aircraft, as well late in 2013 WestJet Encore has started service to Calgary using the Dash 8 Q400 aircraft. Since Edmonton and Winnipeg have been added to WestJet's Encore network out of Regina. Starting in the 2014 summer season, WestJet has added two weekly flights to Las Vegas, one flight on Wednesday, the other being on Saturday.
In late 2014, United Airlines cancelled service to Chicago, on February 28, 2015 cancelled service to Denver. In May 2016, Delta Air Lines confirmed that service to Minneapolis would cease on July 31, 2016, ending the last year-round service from Regina to the United States. For a short period of time in 2016, ultra low-cost carrier NewLeaf operated flights to and from Kelowna before suspending the service on November 1, 2016. There were as of August 2018 service has not continued; as of 2019, the CEO of Regina Airport was in talks with multiple airlines for possible services back to the United States with a 1.55% increase in passengers in 2018. The last scheduled year-long flight to the United States was in 2016 with Delta Airlines flight to Minneapolis International Airport. Passenger services at YQR are under significant renovation. In late 2013 and early 2014, Regina Airport Authority undertook efforts to develop and execute a strategy to improve retail and beverage serv
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres, nearly 10 percent of, fresh water, composed of rivers and the province's 100,000 lakes. Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. As of late 2018, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,165,903. Residents live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, North Battleford and the border city Lloydminster. Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters; as a result, its climate is continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U. S. border are tied for the highest recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C are possible in the south during extreme cold snaps. Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774, it became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; the province's economy is based on agriculture and energy. Saskatchewan's current lieutenant governor is the current premier is Scott Moe. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan; the First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands.
Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River; the river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy in the Cree language. As Saskatchewan's borders follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program. Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south, they are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres; the Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands, are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation. The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres, is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta.
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province; the province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills. Drought can affect agricultural areas during no precipitation at all; the northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate with a shorter summer season. Summers can get hot, sometimes above 38 °C during the day, with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of
Montréal–Mirabel International Airport
Montréal–Mirabel International Airport called Montréal International Airport and known as Mirabel, is a cargo and former international passenger airport in Mirabel, Canada, 21 nautical miles northwest of Montreal. It opened on October 4, 1975, the last commercial passenger flight took off on October 31, 2004; the main role of the airport today is cargo flights, but it is home to MEDEVAC and general aviation flights, is a manufacturing base for Bombardier Aerospace, where final assembly of regional jet aircraft and the Airbus A220 is conducted. The former passenger terminal apron is now a racing course, the terminal building was demolished in 2016. Prior to the demolition of the terminal, Montréal–Mirabel International Airport was classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and was staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. A smaller AOE is still available at the Hélibellule FBO It was one of two airports in Canada with sufficient right-of-way that can be expanded to accommodate 50 million passengers per year, the other being Toronto Pearson International Airport.
A lack of traffic meant. It is one of only two non-capital airports with fewer than 200,000 passengers a year to be part of the National Airports System; the airport was intended to replace the existing Dorval Airport as the eastern air gateway to Canada. Accordingly, from 1975 to 1997, all international flights to and from Montreal were required to use Mirabel. However, Mirabel's distant location, the lack of adequate transport links to urban centres and the continued operation of domestic flights from Dorval Airport made Mirabel unpopular with travellers and airlines, it did not help that Montreal's economy declined relative to that of Toronto during the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, passenger levels never approached the levels, anticipated, indeed remained lower than what Dorval could handle when renovated; when the decision was made to consolidate Montreal's passenger traffic at one airport, Dorval was chosen, Mirabel was relegated to the role of a cargo airport. Mirabel thus turned out to be a white elephant.
Dorval Airport was renamed Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, after the Canadian Prime Minister whose government initiated the Mirabel project, the aim of, to close and replace the Dorval airport. By surface area, it was the largest airport in the world, envisioned, with a planned area of 39,660 hectares. In 1989, 32,780 hectares of the 39,660 hectares were deeded back to their original owners. In the 1960s, Montreal experienced a tremendous economic boom. Massive construction projects, including the Montreal Metro and those linked with the hosting of Expo 67, brought the city international status. More and more visitors were arriving to the city by airplane but not always by choice; the federal government required European airlines to make Montreal their only Canadian destination. That resulted in 15–20% annual growth in passenger traffic at the city's Dorval Airport. Optimistic about the city's future and its continuing ability to attract more and more visitors, government officials decided to build a new airport that would be more than able to absorb increased passenger traffic well into the 21st century.
The Canadian Department of Transport studied five possible sites for Montreal's new airport: Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Vaudreuil-Dorion, Joliette, St-Amable, Ste-Scholastique. The federal government proposed. Not only was it well served by existing road and rail routes, but it was close enough to both Ottawa and Montreal to serve as the gateway for both cities. However, Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa, who had a frosty relationship with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau did not want such an important project to be placed so close to the Ontario border; the Bourassa government preferred. In March 1969 the federal and provincial governments reached a compromise to locate at the St. Scholastique site, proposals were drawn up to expropriate 39,250 hectares, an area larger than the entire city of Montreal; this area is served only by a long road link via Autoroute 15 and Autoroute 50. An additional link via Autoroute 13 was never completed. Planned was the connection of Autoroute 50 to the Ottawa/Gatineau area, a goal which would not be achieved until decades in 2012.
The federal government expropriation resulted in making Mirabel the world's largest airport by property area.. The airport's operations zone, which encompassed what was built plus expansion room, amounted to only 6,880 hectares, about 19% of the total area of the airport; the federal government planned to use the excess land as a noise buffer and as an industrial development zone. This attracted the ire of the people of St. Scholastique who protested vehemently against the expropriation of their land. Construction started in June 1970 under the auspices of BANAIM, a government organization formed