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National Ambient Air Quality Standards

The U. S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards are limits on atmospheric concentration of six pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, other health hazards. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act, NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country; the six criteria air pollutants, or criteria pollutants, for which limits are set in the NAAQS are ozone, atmospheric particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides. These are emitted from many sources in industry, transportation, electricity generation and agriculture. In many cases they are the products of the combustion of industrial processes; the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants cover many other chemicals, require the maximum achievable reduction that the EPA determines is feasible. The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as needing standards on a national level.

The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the six CAPs. The NAAQS are health based and the EPA sets two types of standards: primary and secondary; the primary standards are designed to protect the health of'sensitive' populations such as asthmatics and the elderly. The secondary standards are concerned with protecting the environment, they are designed to address visibility, damage to crops, vegetation and animals. The EPA established the NAAQS according to Sections 108 and 109 of the U. S. Clean Air Act, last amended in 1990; these sections require the EPA " to list widespread air pollutants that reasonably may be expected to endanger public health or welfare. Ozone: Ozone found on the surface-level known as tropospheric ozone is regulated by the NAAQS under the Clean Air Act. Ozone was found to be damaging to grapes in the 1950s; the US EPA set "oxidants" standards in 1971. These standards were created to reduce other related damages. Like lead, ozone requires a reexamination of new findings of health and vegetation effects periodically.

This aspect necessitated the creation of a US EPA criteria document. Further analysis done in 1979 and 1997 made it necessary to modify the pollution standards Atmospheric particulate matter PM10, coarse particles: 2.5 micrometers to 10 μm in size PM2.5, fine particles: 2.5 μm in size or less. Particulate Matter was listed in the 1996 Criteria document issued by the EPA. In April 2001, the EPA created a Second External Review Draft of the Air Quality Criteria for PM, which addressed updated studies done on particulate matter and the modified pollutant standards done since the First External Review Draft. In May 2002, a Third External Review Draft was made, the EPA revised PM requirements again. After issuing a fourth version of the document, the EPA issued the final version in October 2004. Lead: In the mid-1970s, lead was listed as a criteria air pollutant that required NAAQS regulation. In 1977, the EPA published a document; this document was based on the scientific assessments of lead at the time.

Based on this report, the EPA established a "1.5 µg/m3 Pb NAAQS in 1978." The Clean Air Act requires periodic review of NAAQS, new scientific data published after 1977 made it necessary to revise the standards established in the 1977 Lead AQCD document. An Addendum to the document was published in 1986 and again as a Supplement to the 1986 AQCD/Addendum in 1990. In 1990, a Lead Staff Paper was prepared by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, based on information presented in the 1986 Lead/AQCD/Addendum and 1990 Supplement, in addition to other OAQPS sponsored lead exposure/risk analyses. In this paper, it was proposed that the Pb NAAQS be revised further and presented options for revision to the EPA; the EPA elected to not modify the Pb NAAQS further, but decided to instead focus on the 1991 U. S. EPA Strategy for Reducing Lead Exposure; the EPA concentrated on regulatory and remedial clean-up efforts to minimize Pb exposure from numerous non-air sources that caused more severe public health risks, undertook actions to reduce air emissions.

Carbon monoxide: The EPA set the first NAAQS for carbon monoxide in 1971. The primary standard was set at 9 ppm averaged over an 8-hour period and 35 ppm over a 1-hour period; the majority of CO emitted into the ambient air is from mobile sources. The EPA has reviewed and assessed the current scientific literature with respect to CO in 1979, 1984, 1991, 1994. After the review in 1984 the EPA decided to remove the secondary standard for CO due to lack of significant evidence of the adverse environmental impacts. On January 28, 2011 the EPA decided that the current NAAQS for CO were sufficient and proposed to keep the existing standards as they stood; the EPA is strengthening monitoring requirements for CO by

G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology

G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology known as Pantnagar University, is the first agricultural university of India, it was inaugurated by Jawahar Lal Nehru on 17 November 1960 as the "Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University". The name was changed to "Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology" in 1972 in memory of the first Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and Bharat Ratna recipient Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant; the University was declared as the best among all the other State Universities in India, in 1997. The University lies in the campus-town of Pantnagar in the district of Udham Singh Nagar in the state of Uttarakhand; the university is regarded as the harbinger of Green Revolution in India. The first Education Commission of India headed by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan recommended setting up rural universities in India on American land-grant model. Uttar Pradesh, under chief-ministership of Govind Ballabh Pant, took the first step and in 1954 invited an Indo- American team headed by Dr. K. R. Damle, the Vice-President of ICAR, to consider an area around Tarai State farm in erstwhile Nainital district as a possible site for a rural university.

This area was a dense forest near Himalayan foothills and the government was using this area to rehabilitate Hindu and other migrants from West Pakistan, in the aftermath of the partition of 1947. Encouraged by favourable view of the Damle team, two senior government officials- H S Sandhu and A N Jha visited United States to look for collaborations with US Universities. In consultation with University of Illinois dean Dr H W Hannah, the government of state of Uttar Pradesh presented a proposal to the Government of India in 1956 for establishing a Land-grant style university. Thereafter, a contract between the Government of India, the Technical Cooperation Mission and few US land grant universities, was signed to promote agricultural education in India; the US universities included the University of Tennessee, the Ohio State University, the Kansas State University, the University of Illinois, the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Missouri. The task of mentoring the proposed university in UP was assigned to the University of Illinois which signed a contract in 1959.

The University was dedicated to the Nation by the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, on 17 November 1960. In the early Days, Illinois faculty served the university in designing its education system and putting in place an effective research and extension system. Six to eight Illinois faculty used to stay in Pantnagar at a time serving between 2 and 4-year terms for a period of 12 years. Dr. William Thompson, a team member on site at Pantnagar, shared that it was unusual for the project to start a university in a place with nothing. All buildings and facilities had to be constructed in the jungle there. In 1965, drastic upheaval of the university board of directors, spurred by lack of state government support for the institution, caused removal of the entire administrative and governance team of the university. D P Singh was named vice chancellor of the university with complete control over its affairs until a new board of directors was chosen. Under Singh's leadership, many necessary upgrades took place, the university flourished.

The University of Illinois left Pantnagar in 1972, when president Richard Nixon ordered Americans out of the near east. The UP Act XI-V of 1958– the founding legislative act was amended under UP Universities Re-enactment and Amendment Act 1972 and the University was rechristened as Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology keeping in view the contributions of Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant. Pantnagar is a symbol of successful partnership between the United States. US influenced the development of the university through its funding of several university programs. Many of the university's research activities were funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Indo-U. S. Technical Cooperation Programme, the United States Agency for International Development; the establishment of this university brought about a revolution in agricultural education and extension. It paved the way for setting up of 41 other state agricultural universities in the country. Pantnagar University soon became a significant force in the development and transfer of High Yielding Variety seeds and related technology.

The Mexican wheat varieties, developed by Norman Borlaug were tested in Pantnagar and locally adaptable selections, like Pantnagar Kalyan Sona and other improved varieties were released for farmers. The university utilised its 16,000 acres of land to launch one of the largest seed production programs at that time, under the brand name Pantnagar Seeds, which became a household name in rural India; the contribution of the university was recognised by Norman Borlaug, who described Pantnagar as "Harbinger of Green Revolution". The University campus at Pantnagar is spread in an area of 12,661-acre which makes it the second largest university in the world, in terms of contiguous area. Before 2002, the university owned16,000-acre, out of which 3,339-acre was transferred to State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand for developing an Integrated Industrial estate, thus leaving 12,661-acre with the university. Remaining land was transferred to other industries, airport etc. MIT occupies a smaller piece of land.

Berry College occupies 28,000-acre of contiguous land, Paul Smith's College occupies 14,200-acre of land in the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York, but neither is a university. Duke U

White Mountain art

White Mountain art is the body of work created during the 19th century by over four hundred artists who painted landscape scenes of the White Mountains of New Hampshire in order to promote the region and sell their works of art. In the early part of the 19th century, artists ventured to the White Mountains of New Hampshire to sketch and paint. Many of the first artists were attracted to the region because of the 1826 tragedy of the Willey family, in which nine people lost their lives in a mudslide; these early works portrayed a untamed mountain wilderness. Dr. Robert McGrath describes a Thomas Cole painting titled Distant View of the Slide that Destroyed the Willey Family thus: "... an array of broken stumps and errant rocks, together with a gathering storm, suggest the wildness of the site while evoking an appropriate ambient of darkness and desolation". The images stirred the imagination of Americans from the large cities of the Northeast, who traveled to the White Mountains to view the scenes for themselves.

Others soon followed: innkeepers, writers and more artists. The White Mountains became a major attraction for tourists beyond; the circulation of paintings and prints depicting the area enabled those who could not visit, because of lack of means, distance, or other circumstance, to appreciate its beauty. Transportation improved to the region. Benjamin Champney, one of the early artists, popularized the Conway Valley. Other artists preferred the Franconia area, yet still others ventured to Gorham and the communities of the north. Although these artists all painted similar scenes within the White Mountains, each artist had an individual style that characterized his work; these landscape paintings in the Hudson River tradition, however fell out of favor with the public, and, by the turn of the century, the era for White Mountain art had ended. On August 28, 1826, torrential rains in the White Mountains caused a mudslide on Mount Willey; the Willey couple, with their five children, lived in a small house in the notch between Mounts Willey and Webster.

They evacuated their home with the help of two hired men to escape the landslide, but all seven Willeys and the two hired men died in the avalanche. The Willey home was left standing. Rescuers found an open Bible on a table in the home, indicating that the family retreated in haste; the news of the Willey tragedy spread across the nation. During the ensuing years, it would become the subject of literature, local histories, scientific journals, paintings. One such example is the painting by Thomas Hill titled Crawford Notch, the site of the Willey tragedy before the slide; the Willey disaster started a new awareness of the American landscape and the raw wilderness of the White Mountains. This allure — tragedy and untamed nature — was a powerful draw for the early artists who painted in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Thomas Cole in his diary entry of October 6, 1828, wrote, "The site of the Willey House, with its little patch of green in the gloomy desolation naturally recalled to mind the horrors of the night when the whole family perished beneath an avalanche of rocks and earth."The incident provided the basis for an 1835 story by Nathaniel Hawthorne titled "The Ambitious Guest".

In 1827, one of the first artists to sketch in the White Mountains was Thomas Cole, founder of the style of painting that would be called the Hudson River School. Cole's 1839 work, A View of the Pass Called the Notch of the White Mountains, is the best and finest example of early 19th-century White Mountain art. Catherine Campbell, in her reference New Hampshire Scenery, stated, "The Notch of the White Mountains magistral work, one of the undisputed masterpieces of White Mountain painting." Two other early White Mountain painters were the Massachusetts artists Alvan Fisher and Thomas Doughty. The works of these early artists depicted dramatic landscapes and man's relative insignificance compared to nature. "Fisher's turbulent view emphasizes the power of the mountains and the fragility of human enterprise." These paintings helped to promote the region at a time when the White Mountains were an unknown wilderness. Beginning in the 1830s, the landscape painters of the Hudson River School "sought to define America and what it was to be an American.

Artists of that time saw themselves as scientists making documents that expressed Christian truths and democratic ideals." In 1851, John Frederick Kensett produced a large canvas, 40 by 60 inches, of Mount Washington that has become one of the best and finest examples of White Mountain art. Barbara J. MacAdam, the Jonathan L. Cohen Curator of America Art at the Hood Museum of Dartmouth College, has written: "John Frederick Kensett first made the scene famous through his monumental landscape, Mount Washington from the Valley of Conway... Kensett's image became the single most effective mid-nineteenth-century advertisement for the scenic charms of the White Mountains and of North Conway in particular. Mount Washington from the Valley of Conway, purchased by the American Art Union, was made into a print by the engraver James Smillie and distributed to over 13,000 Art Union subscribers throughout the country. Many artists painted copies of this same scene from the print, Currier and Ives published a lithograph of this view in 1860.

Kensett's painting is another example of a work of art. Catherine Campbell described the painting as "canonical among White Mountain paintings" and "the best known land

Puan Partido

Puan Partido is a partido in the south west of Buenos Aires Province in Argentina. The provincial subdivision has a population of about 16,000 inhabitants in an area of 6,835 km2, its capital city is Puan, around 575 km from Buenos Aires; the economy of Puan Partido is dominated by agriculture. The main crops are wheat and oats, which are processed in the Maltería Pampa, one of the largest breweries in South America. Other agricultural products of the region are soya beans and maize. Beef farming plays a major role in the rural economy, the main breeds are Aberdeen Angus and Polled Hereford. Information about Puan Federal Website Coordinates are wrong, Puan it's located on 37°32'S and 62°46 W, check it, because on Google Earth it's wrong located the link to this article too, because of this mistake

S. Semmalai

S. Semmalai is an Indian politician active in Tamil Nadu, he is the incumbent member of the state legislative assembly from Mettur constituency. He has been elected four times to the Tamil Nadu state assembly and once to the national parliament of India. Semmalai has won four elections in his career spanning from 1980 to the present. In 1980, he won his first election. Semmalai was elected to the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly from Taramangalam constituency as an Independent candidate in the 1980 election, he won as an independent candidate, that is, not belonging to any political party, this is a rare achievement. He joined the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and was elected to the state assembly on a ticket of that party from the same Taramangalam constituency in the 1984 election, his career from 1989 to 2001 is not properly known. In 2001, he was elected from Omalur constituency as an Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam candidate in the 2001 Tamil Nadu state assembly election. In 2009, he was elected a member of parliament from the Salem Constituency on an Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam ticket.

In 2016, he was elected from Mettur constituency as an Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam candidate in the 2016 Tamil Nadu state assembly election

Giuseppe Bonolis

Giuseppe Bonolis was an Italian painter, known for his portraits and historical canvases. He first trained with Muzio Muzii in the city of his birth, he taught Calligraphy in the Royal College of Teramo, but in 1820 he was dismissed because he was suspected of seditious Carboneria connections. He moved to Naples in 1822, where he attended the Academy of Fine Arts, studied under Giuseppe Cammarano, he became a teacher in various schools in that city. He married in 1832 one of his pupils Adelaide Mazza. Among his works are a Death of Abel displayed at the 1837 Exhibition of Fine Arts in Naples. Infancy of Bacchus and Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne were exhibited both in 1841. Among his other canvases are The four gifts of Poets, he painted the Renunciation of the Crown of Naples by Frederick of Naples. He painted an altarpiece of St Bernard, patron of the city, for the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Teramo. Among his portraits are ones of the Prince of Fondi, the Marchese Tommasi of Naples, The Greek Princesses Ipsilanti and Kantakouzene, Prince Ghica of Moldavia.

He painted self-portraits found at the Pinacoteca of Teramo and of Macerata. Among his pupils were Achille Vertunni, Filippo Palizzi and Francesco Nétti, he died from typhus in 1851 in Naples, his burial monument there contains a marble bust by Pasquale Ricca