"Wilhelmus van Nassouwe" known just as the "Wilhelmus", is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It dates back to at least 1572. Although the "Wilhelmus" was not recognized as the official national anthem until 1932, it has always been popular with parts of the Dutch population and resurfaced on several occasions in the course of Dutch history before gaining its present status, it was the anthem of the Netherlands Antilles from 1954 to 1964. The "Wilhelmus" originated in the Dutch Revolt, the nation's struggle to achieve independence from the Spanish Empire, it tells of the Father of the Nation William of Orange, stadholder in the Netherlands under the King of Spain. In the first person, as if quoting himself, William speaks to the Dutch people about both the revolt and his own, personal struggle: to be faithful to the king, without being unfaithful to his conscience: to serve God and the Dutch people. In the lyrics William compares himself with the biblical David who serves under the tyrannic king Saul.
As the merciful David defeats the unjust Saul and is rewarded by God with the kingdom of Israel, so too William hopes to be rewarded a kingdom. Both the "Wilhelmus" and the Dutch Revolt should be seen in the light of the 16th century Reformation in Europe and the resulting persecution of Protestants by the Spanish Inquisition in the Low Countries. Militant music proved useful not only in lampooning Roman clerks and repressive monarchs but in generating class transcending social cohesion. In combining a psalmic character with political relevancy, the "Wilhelmus" stands as the pre-eminent example of the genre; the melody of the "Wilhelmus" was borrowed from a well known Roman Catholic French song titled "Autre chanson de la ville de Chartres assiégée par le prince de Condé" or in short: "Chartres'". This song ridiculed the failed Siege of Chartres in 1568 by the Huguenot Prince de Condé during the French Wars of Religion. However, the triumphant contents of the "Wilhelmus" is the opposite of the content of the original song, making it subversive at several levels.
Thus, the Dutch Protestants had taken over an anti-Protestant song, adapted it into propaganda for their own agenda. In that way, the "Wilhelmus" was typical for its time, since It was common practice in the 16th century for warring groups to steal each other's songs in order to rewrite them. Though the melody stems from 1568, the first known written down version of it comes from 1574, in the time the anthem was sung in a much quicker pace. Dutch composer Adriaen Valerius recorded the current melody of the "Wilhelmus" in his "Nederlantsche Gedenck-clanck" in 1626, slowing down the melody's pace to allow it to be sung in churches; the current official version is the 1932 arrangement by Walther Boer. The origins of the lyrics are uncertain; the "Wilhelmus" was first written some time between the start of the Eighty Years' War in April 1568 and the Capture of Brielle on 1 April 1572, making it at least 446–447 years old. Soon after the anthem was finished it was said that either Philips of Marnix, a writer and former mayor of Antwerp, or Dirck Coornhert, a politician and theologian, wrote the lyrics.
However, this is disputed as neither Marnix nor Coornhert mentioned that they wrote the lyrics though the song was immensely popular in their time. The "Wilhelmus" has some odd rhymes in it. In some cases the vowels of certain words were altered to allow them to rhyme with other words; some see this as evidence that neither Marnix or Coornhert wrote the anthem, as they were both experienced poets when the "Wilhelmus" was written, it is said they would not have taken these small liberties. Hence some believe that the lyrics of the Dutch national anthem were the creation of someone who just wrote one poem for the occasion and disappeared from history. A French translation of the "Wilhelmus" appeared around 1582. Recent stylometric research has mentioned Petrus Dathenus as a possible author of the text of the Dutch national anthem. Dutch and Flemish researchers discovered by chance a striking number of similarities between his style and the style of the national anthem; the complete text comprises fifteen stanzas.
The anthem is an acrostic: the first letters of the fifteen stanzas formed the name "Willem van Nassov". In the current Dutch spelling the first words of the 12th and 13th stanzas begin with Z instead of S. Like many of the songs of the period, it has a complex structure, composed around a thematic chiasmus: the text is symmetrical, in that verses one and 15 resemble one another in meaning, as do verses two and 14, three and 13, etc. until they converge in the 8th verse, the heart of the song: "Oh David, thou soughtest shelter from King Saul's tyranny. So I fled this welter", where the comparison is made between not only the biblical David and William of Orange as merciful and just leader of the Dutch Revolt, but between the tyrant King Saul and the Spanish crown, between the promised land of Israel granted by God to David, a kingdom granted by God to William. In the first person, as if quoting himself, William speaks about how his disagreement with his king troubles him. Therefore, the last two lines of the first stanza, indicate that the leader of the Dutch civil war against the Spanish Empire of which they were part, had no specific quarrel with king Philip II of Spain, but rather with his emissa
The "Marcha Real" is the national anthem of Spain. It is one of only four national anthems in the world. One of the oldest in the world, the Spanish national anthem was first printed in a document dated 1761 and entitled Libro de la Ordenanza de los Toques de Pífanos y Tambores que se tocan nuevamente en la Ynfantª Española, by Manuel de Espinosa. There, it is entitled "La Marcha Granadera". According to the document, Manuel de Espinosa de los Monteros is the composer. There is a misconception that its author was Frederick II of a great lover of music; that started in 1861. In 1864, the colonel Antonio Vallecillo published the story in the diary El Espíritu Público, claiming the supposed Prussian origin of Marcha Real popular. According to Vallecillo, the anthem was a gift from Frederick II to the soldier Juan Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor, serving in the Prussian Court to learn the military tactics developed by Frederick II's army, under orders of King Charles III. In 1868, the history is published in Los Sucesos, changing the destinatary of the gift with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.
The myth was picked up in different publications of 1884 and 1903 until it was included in 1908 in the Enciclopedia Espasa. According to the tradition in 1770, Charles III declared the "Marcha de Granaderos" as the official Honor March, that formalized the habit of playing it in public and solemn acts, it became the official anthem during Isabel II's reign. After the 1868 Revolution, General Prim convoked a national contest to create an official state anthem, but it was declared deserted, advising the jury that "Marcha de Granaderos" was considered as such. By Alfonso XIII's time, it was established by a Royal Circular Order that interpreted the harmonization of the march done by Bartolomé Pérez Casas, Major Music of the Royal Corps of Halberdier Guards. During the Second Republic, Himno de Riego was adopted as official anthem, but after the Spanish Civil War, "Marcha Real" returned to be used as anthem, sometimes sung with the verses written by the poet José María Pemán in 1928; the actual symphonic version of the "Marcha Real" that replaces the Pérez Casas one belongs to maestro Francisco Grau and is the official one after the Royal Decree of 10 October 1997, when the Kingdom of Spain bought the author rights of the Marcha Real belonging to Pérez Casas's heirs.
According to the Royal Decree 1560/1997, it should be in the key of B-flat major and a tempo of 76 bpm, with a form of AABB and a duration of 52 seconds. Under the Trienio Liberal, the First Spanish Republic and the Second Spanish Republic, "Himno de Riego" replaced "Marcha Real" as the national anthem of Spain. At the conclusion of the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Franco restored "Marcha Real" as the country's national anthem, under its old title of "Marcha Granadera"; the current official version of "Marcha Real", as described in Royal Decree 1560/1997, is a sixteen-bar long phrase, divided in two sections, each one is made up of four repeated bars. Tempo is set to ♩= 76 and key to B-flat; the long, complete version is the honors music for the King, while a shorter version without the repetitions is performed for the Princess of Asturias, the President of the Government of Spain, or during sporting events. There are three official arrangements: one for orchestra, another for military band, a third for organ, written by Francisco Grau Vegara and requested by the Government of Spain.
All in all, there are six different official adaptations, for each length. They all were recorded by the Spanish National Orchestra and the Spanish Royal Guard Band as an official recording and released on compact disc for a limited period of time; as the harmonisation of "Marcha Real" was written by Pérez Casas in the early 20th century, the copyright has not yet expired. The government bought it from Pérez Casas' estate in 1997 for 130 million pesetas to avoid future legal problems; until it expires, the copyright belongs to the Ministry of Culture and collecting societies charge copyright fees, which has led to criticism. As a result, many different harmonisations have been devised by performers to avoid paying. Nonetheless, the rights to the 1997 Francisco Grau revision were transferred to the government at no charge, but they were not placed in the public domain. Though the Marcha Real has no lyrics, words have been used for it in the past. One version was used during another during the Francoist State.
The national anthem has been played without words since 1978, when the lyrics, approved by General Francisco Franco were abandoned. After witnessing a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Anfield in 2007, the President of the Spanish Olympic Committee, Alejandro Blanco, said he felt inspired to seek lyrics to "La Marcha Real" ahead of Madrid's bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games; that same year Telecinco, enticed by the COE, organized a National contest and posted 25 different lyrics on their website which they thought best matched COE's requirements. The winner was chosen after 40,000 people voted; the lyrics by Enrique Hernández-Luike, magazine publisher and poet, spoke of freedom and the Constitution. The winni
Der er et yndigt land
"Der er et yndigt land" translated into English as "There is a lovely country", is one of the national anthems of Denmark. The lyrics were written in 1819 by Adam Oehlenschläger and bore the motto in Latin: Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet; the music was composed in 1835 by Hans Ernst Krøyer. Thomas Laub and Carl Nielsen each composed alternative melodies, but neither of them has gained widespread adoption, today they are unknown to the general population; when first published, the national anthem had 12 verses, but this was shortened to the first, third and last verse in editions. In common use, only the first verse and the last three lines of the fourth verse are sung; the first half of the last verse is heard and the last line of each verse is repeated once. Denmark is one of only two countries in the world—the other being New Zealand—with two official national anthems. Kong Christian stod ved højen mast is both a national and a royal anthem. On royal and military occasions, Kong Christian is performed alone, or the two national anthems are played together.
Denmark: Der er et yndigt land - Audio of the national anthem of Denmark, with information and lyrics Aarhus Universitet - original lyrics by Oehlenschläger
Nad Tatrou sa blýska
"Nad Tatrou sa blýska" is the national anthem of Slovakia. The origins of it are in the Central European activism of the 19th century, its main themes are a storm over the Tatra mountains that symbolized danger to the Slovaks, a desire for a resolution of the threat. It used to be popular during the 1848–1849 insurgencies, it was played in many Slovak towns at noon. As a national anthem of a sovereign state, "Nad Tatrou sa blýska" is performed at special events, such as soccer games. 23-year-old Janko Matúška wrote the lyrics of "Nad Tatrou sa blýska" in January and February 1844. The tune came from the folk song "Kopala studienku" suggested to him by his fellow student Jozef Podhradský, a future religious and Pan-Slavic activist and gymnasial teacher. Shortly afterwards, Matúška and about two dozen other students left their prestigious Lutheran lyceum of Pressburg in protest over the removal of Ľudovít Štúr from his teaching position by the Lutheran Church under pressure from the authorities.
The territory of present-day Slovakia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian Empire and the officials objected to his Slovak nationalism. "Lightning over the Tatras" was written during the weeks when the students were agitated about the repeated denials of their and others' appeals to the school board to reverse Štúr's dismissal. About a dozen of the defecting students transferred to the Lutheran gymnasium of Levoča; when one of the students, the 18-year-old budding journalist and writer Viliam Pauliny-Tóth, wrote down the oldest known record of the poem in his school notebook in 1844, he gave it the title of Prešporskí Slováci, budúci Levočania, which reflected the motivation of its origin. The journey from Pressburg to Levoča took the students past the High Tatras, Slovakia's and the Kingdom of Hungary's highest and symbolic mountain range. A storm above the mountains is a key theme in the poem. No authorized version of Matúška's lyrics has been preserved and its early records remained without attribution.
He stopped publishing after 1849 and became clerk of the district court. The song became popular during the Slovak Volunteer campaigns of 1848 and 1849, its text was copied and recopied in hand before it appeared in print in 1851, which gave rise to some variation, namely concerning the phrase zastavme ich or zastavme sa. A review of the extant copies and related literature inferred that Matúška's original was most to have contained "let's stop them." Among other documents, it occurred both in its oldest preserved handwritten record from 1844 and in its first printed version from 1851. The legislated Slovak national anthem uses this version, the other phrase was used before 1993. On 13 December 1918, only the first stanza of Janko Matúška's lyrics became half of the two-part bilingual Czechoslovak anthem, composed of the first stanza from a Czech operetta tune, Kde domov můj, the first stanza of Matúška's song, each sung in its respective language and both played in that sequence with their respective tunes.
The songs reflected the two nations' concerns in the 19th century when they were confronted with the fervent national-ethnic activism of the Hungarians and the Germans, their fellow ethnic groups in the Habsburg Monarchy. During the Second World War, "Hej, Slováci" was adopted as the official state anthem of the puppet regime Slovak Republic; when Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in 1993, the second stanza was added to the first and the result legislated as Slovakia's national anthem. Romantic poets began to employ the Tatras as a symbol of the Slovaks' homeland; that is, to join the national-ethnic activism underway among other peoples of Central Europe in the 19th century. The standard meaning of sláva is "glory" or "fame"; the figurative meaning, first used by Ján Kollár in the monumental poem The Daughter Of Sláva in 1824, is "Goddess/Mother of the Slavs". The idiomatic simile "like a fir" was applied to men in a variety of positive meanings: "stand tall," "have a handsome figure," "be tall and brawny," etc.
See the article on Kriváň for the mountain's symbolism. One of the trends shared by many Slovak Romantic poets was frequent versification that imitated the patterns of the local folk songs; the additional impetus for Janko Matúška to embrace the trend in Lightning over the Tatras was that he designed it to replace the lyrics of an existing folk song. Among the Romantic-folkloric features in the structure of Lightning over the Tatras are the equal number of syllables per verse, the consistent a−b−b−a disyllabic rhyming of verses 2-5 in each stanza. Leaving the first verses unrhymed was Matúška's license: — Nad Tatrou sa blýska a - Hromy divo bijú b - Zastavme ich bratia b - Veď sa ony stratia a - Slováci ožijúAnother traditional arrangement of Matúška's lines gives 4-verse stanzas rhymed a−b−b−a with the first verse made up of 12 syllables split by a mid-pause, each of the remaining 3 verses made up of 6 syllables: a - Nad Tatrou sa blýska, hromy divo bijú b - Zastavme ich bratia b - Veď sa ony stratia a - Slováci ožijú Slovak nationalism Anthem of the Slovak Republic – A page at the official website of the President of Slovakia featuring various audio f
Amhrán na bhFiann
"Amhrán na bhFiann", called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is Ireland's national anthem. The music was composed by Peadar Kearney and Patrick Heeney, the original English lyrics by Kearney, the Irish-language translation, now heard, by Liam Ó Rinn; the song has three verses, but only the choral refrain has been designated the national anthem. The Presidential Salute, played when the President of Ireland arrives at an official engagement, consists of the first four bars of the national anthem followed by the last five; the song, as "A Soldier's Song", was composed "early in 1910 or late in 1909", with words by Peadar Kearney, music by his childhood friend and neighbour Patrick Heeney, who had collaborated on songs since 1903. Kearney assisted Heeney in setting the refrain. Heeney composed it with his melodeon. Seán Rogan of the Irish Citizen Army, may have helped with the music, first wrote it in musical notation. Kearney wrote much of the text in the Swiss Café at the corner of O'Connell Street and North Earl Street.
The first draft of the text, handwritten on copybook paper, sold at auction in Dublin in 2006 for €760,000. After being rejected by The United Irishman, Bulmer Hobson's magazine Irish Freedom published the text in 1912. Whelan and Son of Ormond Quay, published the lyrics for sale as a flysheet, it was used as marching song by the Irish Volunteers and Seamus Hughes first sang it in public at a Volunteer fundraising concert. It was sung by rebels in the General Post Office during the Easter Rising of 1916, its popularity increased among rebels held in Frongoch internment camp after the Rising. The sheet music was first published in late 1916 by Whelan and Son, in an arrangement by Cathal Mac Dubhghaill. In December 1916 in New York City, Victor Herbert published his own piano and orchestral arrangements under the title "Soldiers of Erin, the Rallying Song of the Irish Volunteers", on the instigation of R. F. O'Reilly, an Irish priest. O'Reilly arranged for proceeds to go to the Gaelic League, but paid royalties to Kearney and Heeney once he discovered they were the authors.
With cheques from the US, Kearney earned "not much more than £100". By 1917, according to Séumas Robinson, the song was being parodied by British soldiers in Ireland. Éamon de Valera's platform at the June 1917 East Clare by-election featured a large banner with the opening two lines. That October the Irish Volunteers allied with Sinn Féin under de Valera and during the Irish War of Independence the Volunteers evolved into the Irish Republican Army; the song's popularity led to its being called the "Sinn Féin anthem". Copies were confiscated by British security forces as seditious. Carl Hardebeck played it unannounced on Low Sunday 1918 in Belfast. Victor Herbert's version was well known to Irish Americans by 1919, when de Valera arrived as President of Dáil Éireann of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic. In the 1922–23 Civil War, the IRA split into the "National Army" of the nascent Irish Free State and the "Irregulars" loyal to the defunct Republic. Both sides continued to sing "The Soldier's Song".
After the war, it remained popular as an Army tune, was played at many military functions. The Free State did not adopt any official state anthem; the delicate political state in the aftermath of the Civil War provoked a desire to avoid controversy. Ex-unionists continued to regard "God Save the King" as the national anthem, as it had been for the rest of the British Empire; the fact that "The Soldier's Song" described Irishmen fighting a foreign foe allowed it to overlook the painful memory of the Civil War. W. T. Cosgrave, 1922–32 President of the Executive Council, avoided explicitly making it the national anthem for fear of exacerbating the antipathy for the Free State held by unionists in Northern Ireland; as with the Irish tricolour, the government did not want to disassociate the state from the anthem for fear of leaving a potent symbol available for its republican opponents to claim."The Soldier's Song" was if unofficially sung by nationalists. Public perception that it was recognised sprang from a concert on 3 February 1924 at the Theatre Royal, Dublin by the Irish Army music school under its German-born director, Colonel Fritz Brasé.
As an encore to the concert, Brasé conducted "Irish March, no.1", his medley of Irish patriotic airs, which ended with that of "The Soldier's Song". Most dignitaries present stood up at this point, including Governor-General Tim Healy and most of the Executive Council, although Richard Mulcahy remained seated. On 28 April 1924, Cosgrave expressed opposition to replacing "The Soldier's Song", provisionally used within the State. Sean Lester, Publicist at the Department of External Affairs considered "The Soldier's Song" to be "hardly suitable in words or music" and favoured the music, though not the words, of "Let Erin Remember"; this was used as the anthem for the state at the 1924 Olympics in Paris, other events abroad for the next two years. The Dublin Evening Mail held contests in 1925 to find verses for a new anthem. There was concern that the lack of an official anthem was giving unionists an opportunity to persist with "God Save the King". Ewan Morris writes, "While some many, nationalists undoubtedly disliked'The soldier's song', few would have objected so as to refuse to honour it as the national anthem.
But for ex-unionists'The soldier's song' remained anathema, and'God save the king' continued to be the national anthem they honoured." By 1926 foreign diplomats' protocol offices were requestin
Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" is the national anthem of Estonia. It was adopted as the national anthem in 1920; the lyrics were written by Johann Voldemar Jannsen and are set to a melody composed in 1848 by Fredrik Pacius, that of the national anthem of Finland: "Maamme". The only difference between the two anthems is the key signature, it is considered to be an ethnic anthem for Livonian people with text "Min izāmō, min sindimō". The song was first presented to the public as a choral work in the Grand Song Festival of Estonia in 1869 and became a symbol of the Estonian National Awakening. "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" was adopted as the national anthem of Estonia in 1920, after the Estonian War of Independence. In contrast, Finland never passed an equivalent legislation for "Maamme", thus it is considered to be the de facto Finnish national anthem. In 1944, the Soviet Union invaded and illegally occupied Estonia and "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ended up being banned by the Soviet regime. During the Soviets' occupation of Estonia from 1945 to 1990, the Soviet puppet regime for Estonia, known as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, had its own regional anthem.
Yet the people of Estonia could hear their former national anthem as Finland's state broadcaster Yleisradio, whose radio and television broadcasts were received in northern Estonia, played an instrumental version of the Finnish national anthem, identical to this song, at the conclusion of its broadcast every night. The official lyrics are in Estonian; the Estonian national anthem - web page of the State Chancellery, an audio stream. The anthem is played by vocals by the National Male Choir. Streaming audio and details of the Estonian anthem