An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator
American Institute of Architecture Students
The American Institute of Architecture Students is an independent, student-run organization dedicated to providing unmatched progressive programs and resources on issues critical to architecture and the experience of education. The vision of the AIAS is to promote excellence in architecture education, training; the core focus of AIAS membership supports architecture students in collegiate schools across the United States, a population of 25,000 students annually enrolled in accredited degree programs. In recent years, the AIAS has expanded into international academic programs; the organization represents one of five collateral organizations that govern the discipline of architecture in the United States, including allied organizations: the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, the National Architectural Accrediting Board, National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, the American Institute of Architects. These governing bodies reflect the trajectory an architect will take during their career, from initial education, through licensure, into practice.
The AIAS fulfills an important advocacy role by representing the voice of its members and future trends in practice to professional of these collateral organizations. AIAS publishes Crit, Journal of the AIAS and hosts diverse events for students and professionals throughout the year, including FORUM, Grassroots Leadership Conference, Quad Conferences; the organization was founded in 1956. The name changed to the Association of Student Chapters, AIA, before finding its present-day name the American Institute of Architecture Students. In 1956, architecture students established a continuing presence with the formation of the National Architectural Student Association. Chapters are established at all of the schools of architecture and a regional governance network is formed by the students at the first Student Forum; the students elect Jim Barry as the first national president. Having accomplished the task of organizing a disparate array of local student activities into a collective voice, the ambitious students of NASA plant the seed for the nationally organized student voice from which we benefit from today.
Jim Barry serves as a part-time volunteer from his school with funding provided by the American Institute of Architects and Washington-area architectural programs. During his term, NASA publishes the first issue of LINE magazine, has representatives involved on AIA committees and hosts many interesting programs at the Octagon; the members of NASA attend AIA Convention in Los Angeles, with special programs designed for students. In 1958 the student organization is renamed the Association of Student Chapters, AIA, with the goal of bridging members to the AIA upon graduation; however and leaders of the AIA are concerned in the early years about a separate student organization. It is believed this will conflict with the objective of encouraging students to maintain their memberships with both organizations. At the 1960 student convention the AIA board of directors proposed to abolish the ASC/AIA. John Richards, FAIA president of the AIA states, " of the past had not been as successful as had been hoped, that it was feeling of the staff of the AIA that student organization structure was in need of improvement."
Students leaders lobbied to convince the AIA board of directors that the ASC/AIA chapter system was the foundation for the AIA and for the promotion of future generations entering architecture. Final remarks made by student president Charles Jones on this matter foreshadow. In his speech to the General Session of the AIA on April 22, 1960 he states, "The students have no desire to make this organization so large that it becomes out of hand." However, the organization did grow. At the 1970 AIA Convention student president Taylor Culver leads a student revolt. Minutes of the meeting report that Culver and his fellow students take over the podium held by the AIA president and display their strength and solidarity in numbers; the strength of the organization continues to grow in all directions, the responsibilities of the officers coincide. In 1972, two-term student president Fay D'Avignon is elected as the first female president of the organization, becomes the first ASC/AIA officer to take full-time responsibilities in Washington, DC.
This marks a new phase in the organization's efforts to become an autonomous voice of architectural students. This is a significant point when professionals and the AIA relinquish responsibilities to the ASC/AIA in many affairs that directly impact students; as a result, ASC/AIA develops into a unified national voice for students. The number of local chapters increases as does the general membership. With the extra workload, it is clear that the vice president is needed on a full-time basis in Washington, DC. In 1975 president Ella Hall and vice president Steve Biegel become the first ASC/AIA national officers to work full-time in the National Office in Washington, DC as a team; the term for the national officers changes to the July–June schedule, parallel to academic schedules. Exhibiting unbridled energy, 1976–1
National Council of Architectural Registration Boards
The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards is a nonprofit corporation comprising the constituted architectural registration boards of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands as its members, its mission is to protect the public health and welfare by leading the regulation of the practice of architecture through the development and application of standards for licensure and credentialing of architects. NCARB recommends model law, model regulations, other guidelines for adoption by its member jurisdictions, but each makes its own laws and registration requirements; as a service to its members, NCARB develops and maintains the Architectural Experience Program and the Architect Registration Examination as well as facilitates reciprocity between jurisdictions through the NCARB Certificate. Illinois became the first state in to enact laws regulating the practice of architecture in 1897. In May 1919, during an American Institute of Architects convention in Nashville, TN, 15 architects from 13 states came together to form an organization that would become NCARB.
Emil Lorch from Ann Arbor, MI, was elected the organization’s first president in May 1920. As expressed by its founding members, NCARB’s stated goals were: To facilitate the exchange of information on examining and regulating architects To foster uniformity in licensing and practice laws To facilitate reciprocal licensing To discuss the merits of various examining methods as well as the scope and content of licensing examinations To strive to improve the general education standards of the architectural profession in the United States NCARB is led by a Board of Directors elected by the member registration boards at its Annual Meeting and Conference each June, it has eight directors. Additionally, a chief executive officer and two vice presidents lead the headquarters in Washington, DC; the office is split into two divisions and operations. Between 90 and 100 people are on staff in Washington, DC. Today, NCARB comprises the registration boards from the 50 U. S. states, the District of Columbia, three U.
S. territories. These boards are organized into six regional conferences: New England Conference: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont Middle-Atlantic Conference: Delaware, District of Columbia, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, West Virginia Southern Conference: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Texas, Virgin Islands Mid-Central Conference: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Wisconsin Central States Conference: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming Western Conference: Alaska, California, Guam, Idaho, New Mexico, Utah, Washington Each U. S. jurisdiction grants individuals an architectural license. To become licensed, there are three essential components: education and examination. NCARB maintains intern and architect records as a service to their customers and their member registration boards. Additionally, NCARB develops and administers the programs most required to complete jurisdictions’ experience and examination requirements.
NCARB facilitates reciprocity between jurisdictions and acts on behalf of its Member Boards when negotiating international agreements. Most U. S. jurisdictions require a professional degree from a program, accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. NCARB publishes the NCARB Education Standard as a recommendation to its Member Boards, but requirements vary between jurisdictions; those who do not have a degree from a NAAB-accredited program may have their degree evaluated through the NAAB’s Education Evaluation Services for Architects if they would like to earn an NCARB Certificate. More information on the education requirement can be found in the NCARB Education Guidelines. All U. S. jurisdictions accept completion of NCARB’s Architectural Experience Program to help satisfy their experience requirements. The AXP is a comprehensive training program, created to ensure that interns in the architecture profession gain the knowledge and skills required for the independent practice of architecture.
The Architect Registration Examination is required by all U. S. jurisdictions and accepted by 11 Canadian provinces to satisfy examination requirements for licensure. It is a computerized exam that assesses candidates for their knowledge and ability to provide the various services required to practice architecture independently. An NCARB Record is a detailed, verified record of education and training, is used to establish qualifications for examination and certification. An architectural intern must have an NCARB Record to participate in the Architectural Experience Program, the Architect Registration Examination, or apply for the NCARB Certificate; the NCARB Certificate facilitates reciprocal registration among all 54 NCARB Member Boards, 11 Canadian jurisdictions, can be used to support an application for registration in other countries. Although certification does not qualify a person to practice architecture in a jurisdiction, it does signify that he or she has met the highest professional standards established by the registration boards responsible for protecting the health and welfare of the public.