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National Assembly (South Korea)

The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea shortened to the National Assembly in domestic English-language media, is the 300-member unicameral national legislature of South Korea. Elections to the National Assembly are held every four years; the latest legislative elections were held on 13 April 2016. Single-member constituencies comprise 253 of the assembly's seats, while the remaining 47 are allocated by proportional representation. Members serve four-year terms; the unicameral assembly consists of at least 200 members according to the South Korean constitution. In 1990 the assembly had 299 seats, 224 of which were directly elected from single-member districts in the general elections of April 1988. Under applicable laws, the remaining seventy-five representatives were elected from party lists. By law, candidates for election to the assembly must be at least thirty years of age; as part of a political compromise in 1987, an earlier requirement that candidates have at least five years' continuous residency in the country was dropped to allow Kim Dae-Jung, who had spent several years in exile in Japan and the United States during the 1980s, to return to political life.

The National Assembly's term is four years. In a change from the more authoritarian Fourth Republic and Fifth Republic, under the Sixth Republic, the assembly cannot be dissolved by the president; the constitution stipulates that the assembly is presided over by a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers, who are responsible for expediting the legislative process. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers are elected in a secret ballot by the members of the Assembly, their term in office is restricted to two years; the Speaker is independent of party affiliation, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers may not be government ministers. Parties that hold at least 20 seats in the assembly form floor negotiation groups, which are entitled to a variety of rights that are denied to smaller parties; these include a greater amount of state funding and participation in the leaders' summits that determine the assembly's legislative agenda. To introduce a bill, a legislator must present the initiative to the Speaker with the signatures of at least ten other members of the assembly.

The bill must be edited by a committee to ensure that the bill contains correct and systematic language. It can be approved or rejected by the Assembly. There are 17 standing committees which examine bills and petitions falling under their respective jurisdictions, perform other duties as prescribed by relevant laws. House Steering Committee Legislation and Judiciary Committee National Policy Committee Strategy and Finance Committee Science, ICT, Future Planning and Communications Committee Education Committee Culture and Tourism Committee Foreign Affairs and Unification Committee National Defense Committee Security and Public Administration Committee Agriculture, Rural Affairs and Fisheries Committee Trade and Energy Committee Health and Welfare Committee Environment and Labor Committee Land and Transport Committee Intelligence Committee Gender Equality and Family Committee Since the promulgation of the March 1988 electoral law, the assembly has been elected every four years through a Supplementary Member system, meaning that some of the members are elected from constituencies according to the system of first past the post, while others are elected at a national level through proportional representation.

As of 2016, 253 members represent constituencies. In contrast to elections to the Assembly, presidential elections occur once every five years, this has led to frequent situations of minority government and legislative deadlock. A proposal to lower the number of seats required to form a negotiation group to 15 was passed on 24 July 2000, but was overturned by the Constitutional Court that month. In order to meet the quorum, the United Liberal Democrats, who held 17 seats, arranged to "rent" three legislators from the Millennium Democratic Party; the legislators returned to the MDP after the collapse of the ULD–MDP coalition in September 2001. From 2004 to 2009, the assembly gained notoriety as a frequent site for legislative violence; the Assembly first came to the world's attention during a violent dispute on impeachment proceedings for President Roh Moo-hyun, when open physical combat took place in the assembly. Since it has been interrupted by periodic conflagrations, piquing the world's curiosity once again in 2009 when members battled each other with sledgehammers and fire extinguishers.

Images of the melee were broadcast around the world. Elections for the assembly were held under UN supervision on 10 May 1948; the First Republic of South Korea was established on 17 July 1948 when the constitution of the First Republic was established by the Assembly. The Assembly had the job of electing the President, elected anti-communist Syngman Rhee as President on 10 May 1948. Under the first constitution, the National Assembly was unicameral. Under the second and third constitutions, the National Assembly became bicameral and consisted of the House of Commons and the Senate, but unicameral with the House of Commons because the House of Commons could not pass a bill to establish the Senate. Conservative Liberal Progressive majority plurality only largest minority Since the reopening of the National Assembly in 1963 until today, it has been unicameral. List of members of the South Korean Constituent Assembly List of members of the National Assembly, 1950–1954 List of members of the National Assembly, 2012–2016 List of members of the National Assembly, 2016–present L

Process of a New Decline

Process of a New Decline is the third full-length album by technical death metal band Gorod and the first to feature new drummer Samuel Santiago. "Disavow Your God" – 5:02 "Programmers of Decline" – 5:11 "Diverted Logic" – 4:58 "Rebirth of Senses" – 4:05 "The Path" – 3:44 "Splinters of Life" – 5:20 "Guilty of Dispersal" – 4:23 "Gilded Cage" – 3:25 "A Common Hope" – 4:16 "Watershed" – 5:05 "Almighty's Murderer" – 4:35 Guillaume Martinot - Vocals Arnaud Pontaco - Guitar Mathieu Pascal - Guitar Benoit Claus - Bass Samuel Santiago - Drums

Fort de l'Olive

The Fort de l'Olive is a fortification in the vicinity of Briançon in the Dauphiné region of southeastern France. Built in 1881 it was called the Ouvrage du Bois des Gasquets, it was the third and final fort built near Briançon as part of the Séré de Rivières system of fortifications in the 1870s and 1880s. Located at an altitude of 2,239 metres, the Fort de l'Olive overlooked the valley of the Clarée above the village of Plampinet from a height of 800 metres with a view of the Italian frontier, it controlled the Col de l'Echelle, the Col des Thures and the Col des Acles. The rectangular walled fort extends over an area of about 2.5 hectares. The Fort de l'Olive was armed in the 1880s with fourteen 120mm guns, it was linked to the Fort de l'Infernet by optical telegraph, by telephone. A cableway provided a means of resupply from the valley below in the winter when road access was difficult; the Batterie du Lenlon was a subsidiary position. The fort was modernized in the 1930s with an infantry shelter or abri, known derisively as the Fort des Nuages, equipped with two casemates for guns.

While being fired on by Chaberton in June 1940, the Fort de l'Olive in turn fired on the Italian fort Jaffereau in Bardonecchia. The construction of Fort Chaberton on an higher peak on the Italian side of the frontier rendered the Fort de l'Olive vulnerable to artillery from Chaberton, 900 metres higher; the position was used by the French Army in the defense of Briançon until 1940, when it was part of the Fortified Sector of the Dauphiné. The fort took artillery fire from Chaberton during the Italian invasion of France in 1940; the site is abandoned but in good condition, is accessible. Le fort de l'Olive http://fortiffsere.fr/briancon/index_fichiers/Page358.htm Fort de l'Olive at fortiff.be

Pitt Lake

Pitt Lake is the second-largest lake in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. About 53.5 square kilometres in area, it is about 4.5 km wide at its widest. It is one of the world's few tidal lakes, among the largest. In Pitt Lake, there is on average a three foot tide range; the lake's southern tip is 20 km upstream from The Pitt River confluence with the Fraser River and is 40 km east of Downtown Vancouver. The community of Pitt Meadows occupies the marshy lowland at the southern end of the lake, some of which has become drained and is known as the Pitt Polder. Just southwest of the lake is the community of Port Coquitlam, across the Pitt River from Pitt Meadows. At the north end of the lake is a locality named Alvin, a transport and shipping point for logging companies and their employees; the Upper Pitt, meaning the valley upstream from the lake, is considered one of BC's best fly-fishing rivers and one of its best steelhead streams. The lake is popular with boaters and canoeists, but is prone to heavy winds and rains as well as big waves.

There is a destination golfing resort in the Pitt Polder area called Swan-e-set. At the south end of Pitt Lake, adjacent to the Polder, is Pitt Lake Indian Reserve 5. Pitt Lake is in a typical U-shaped glacial valley in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia; the overdeepening of the lower end of the valley over the span of the Wisconsin glaciation created a trough over 140 m below current sea level. After initial glacial retreat at around 13,000 years ago a saltwater fjord occupied this basin when relative sea levels were still ca 120 to 140m above current levels in the region. Unlike neighbouring Indian Arm and Howe Sound farther west, this fjord basin became cut off from tidal waters by sedimentation of the lower Fraser River ca 10,500 years ago, Pitt Lake is now considered a tidal fjord lake; the mountain range on its east flank comprises Golden Ears Provincial Park, its basin to the north is in southern Garibaldi Provincial Park, while the mountain range on its west, northeast of Vancouver's Coquitlam Lake watershed reservoir, is Pinecone Burke Provincial Park.

The waterfront and foreshore of the lake and river are public-access and include extensive migratory wildfowl habitat. Part of it is protected by BC Parks as the Pitt Polder Ecological Reserve; the largest mainland British Columbia lake is Harrison Lake, 60 km to the east, the last in a series of north-south lake and river combinations that line the north bank of the Fraser River in its last stretch west through BC's Lower Mainland. Others are those of the valleys of the Coquitlam, Alouette and Chehalis Lakes, beyond, Harrison. Pitt Lake has an oceanic climate; as such, it features cool, rainy winters with warm and dry summers. The average annual precipitaion is 2,155.4 mm. Extremes vary from −23.3 °C, recorded on January 23rd, 1969 to 37.0 °C, recorded on July 21st, 2006. The area along the east side of the lake is somewhat notorious for being the reputed location of Slumach's lost gold mine, the location of many failed and sometimes disastrous searches for the alleged murderer's lost gold mine.

Local historian Bill Barlee has said "that this colourful and interesting tale, accepted as fact by a host of treasure seekers does not exist." According to Barlee by the geological information available it would appear unlikely that a gold deposit would be found in the region of Pitt Lake. Historian Garnet Basque states that geologists are convinced that the region around Pitt Lake is not gold bearing; the lost mine of Pitt Lake is a story without scientific support

Philippe Pastour de Costebelle

Philippe Pastour de Costebelle was a naval officer and Governor of Newfoundland, born in Languedoc and died in Louisbourg. Costebelle served in the French Navy as early as 1683, in 1692 served as lieutenant to a marine infantry company sent to Plaisance, the principal French settlement on Newfoundland. There he was involved in defending the port from English naval assaults in the ongoing King William's War, embarked on raiding expeditions against English settlements on the island. Costebelle distinguished himself, was promoted to captain in 1694, lieutenant in 1695; that year he was ordered to improve the fortifications and establish contact with the English colonists in St. Mary's Bay. In 1696 Costebelle was sent to France, thus did not participate in Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville's celebrated and destructive Avalon Peninsula Campaign; when he returned to Plaisance in 1697 he had hoped to succeed to the governorship, but was instead forced to continue in the role of king's lieutenant under first Joseph de Monic and Daniel d'Auger de Subercase.

Monic was absent from the colony, so Costebelle spent a significant time during Monic's tenure in actual command of the colony. In 1702, while awaiting Subercase's arrival, Costebelle rallied the province's defences against Captain John Leake's raiding expedition that brought Queen Anne's War to Newfoundland. Subercase arrived to take command in 1703, adopted a vigorous strategy against the English. In 1705 he led a raiding expedition against English outposts that sought to repeat d'Iberville's successes in 1696. Costebelle went on the expedition, but saw no action. Subercase's expedition was successful, destroying many English settlements, but he was unable to take St. John's. Subercase was rewarded with the governorship of Acadia, Costebelle was appointed governor of Plaisance in 1706. In June 1708 he was awarded the Order of Saint Louis. In December 1708 Costebelle organized a successful attack on the British at St. John's. Although he captured the town and its fortress, he did not have the resources to hold it, it was reoccupied by the English.

By the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 Newfoundland was handed over to Britain and the king of France ordered Costebelle to evacuate the colony in the spring of 1714. Costebelle oversaw the evacuation of French subjects from Newfoundland to Cape Breton Island, where the colony of Île-Royale was established. Costebelle became its first governor, oversaw the establishment of Louisbourg. Costebelle returned to France in 1717, died at Fort Dauphin not long after his return in October 1717. Costebelle was twice married, had two daughters. Governors of Newfoundland List of people of Newfoundland and Labrador Biography at Government House The Governorship of Newfoundland and Labrador Pastour de Costebelle, Philippe at Dictionary of Canadian Biography

Best Baker in America

Best Baker in America is an American cooking competition television series that airs on Food Network. The first season of the series premiered on September 27, 2017; the second season of the series premiered on May 7, 2018. The third season premiered on May 13, 2019. There are 8 home bakers competing in a 6-episode baking tournament. One person is eliminated every week until the final episode where the final three compete for the grand prize of $25,000. Contestants 1st - Dwayne Ingraham, Executive Pastry Chef from Oxford, MS 2nd/3rd - Andy Chlebana, Pastry Instructor from Plainfield, IL 2nd/3rd - Thiago Silva, Executive Pastry Chef from Boston, MA 4th - Adalberto Diaz Labrada, Pastry Chef and Instructor from Salt Lake City, UT 5th - Cheryl Storms, Bakery Owner from San Diego, CA 6th - Brittani Brooker, Executive Pastry Chef from Charlotte, NC 7th - Susana Mijares, Bakery Owner from San Antonio, TX 8th - Margarita Kallas-Lee, Pastry Chef from Los Angeles, CA This baker won the competition; this baker was a finalist.

This baker was eliminated. This baker never had the worst; this baker had one of the best dishes. This baker had the best dish. ‡ This baker had the best dish in the skills challenge. This baker was last to be called safe. There are 9 contestants competing in a 7-episode baking tournament. One person is eliminated every week until the final episode where the final three compete for the grand prize of $25,000. 1st - Adam Young, Bakery Owner and Head Pastry Chef from Mystic, CT 2nd/3rd - Jean-Francois Suteau, Executive Pastry Chef from White Sulphur Springs, WV 2nd/3rd - Lasheeda Perry, Executive Pastry Chef from Atlanta, GA 4th - Max Santiago, Executive Pastry Chef from Miami, FL 5th - Becca Craig, Executive Cake Chef from Philadelphia, PA 6th - Leigh Omilinsky, Pastry Chef from Chicago, IL 7th - Jeremy Fogg, Pastry Chef from New Orleans, LA 8th - Kym DeLost, Pastry Chef from Chicago, IL 9th - Frania Mendivil, Executive Pastry Chef from Los Angeles, CA This baker won the competition. This baker was a finalist.

This baker was eliminated. This baker never had the worst; this baker had one of the best dishes. This baker had the best dish. ‡ This baker had the best dish in the skills challenge. This baker was last to be called safe. There are 9 contestants competing in a 7-episode baking tournament. One person is eliminated every week until the final episode where the final three compete for the grand prize of $25,000. 1st - Eric Keppler, Executive Pastry Chef from East Palo Alto, CA 2nd/3rd - Jeffrey De Leon, Pastry Chef Consultant from White Los Angeles, CA 2nd/3rd - Joshua Livsey, Executive Pastry Chef from Boston, MA 4th - Marian Mulero, Pastry Chef from Miami, FL 5th - Julie Franceschini, Executive Pastry Chef from West Palm Beach, FL 6th - Michael Russ II, Executive Pastry Chef from Oakland, CA 7th - Edet Okon, Freelance Cake Artist and Owner from Houston, TX 8th - Yolanda Diaz, Executive Pastry Chef from Austin, TX 9th - Casey Renee, Pastry Chef from Pittsburgh, PA This baker won the competition.

This baker was a finalist. This baker was eliminated; this baker never had the worst. This baker had one of the best dishes; this baker had the best dish. ‡ This baker had the best dish in the skills challenge. This baker was last to be called safe. Official website Best Baker in America on IMDb