Motorcycle speedway referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. The motorcycles are specialist machines which have no brakes. Competitors use this surface to slide their machines sideways, powersliding or broadsiding into the bends. On the straight sections of the track the motorcycles reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour. There are now both domestic and international competitions in a number of countries including the Speedway World Cup whilst the highest overall scoring individual in the Speedway Grand Prix events is pronounced the world champion. Speedway is popular in Central and Northern Europe and to a lesser extent in Australia and North America. A variant of track racing, speedway is administered internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme. Domestic speedway events are regulated by FIM affiliated national motor sport federations; the early history of speedway race meetings is a subject of much controversy.
There is evidence to show that meetings were held on small dirt tracks in Australia and the United States before World War I. On the 13th November 1905 motorcycle racing was held at the Newcastle NSW Rugby Ground, a distance of 440 yards. American rider named Don Johns was known to have used broadsiding before 1914, it was said that he would ride the entire race course wide open, throwing great showers of dirt into the air at each turn. By the early 1920s, Johns' style of cornering was followed in the US – where it was called "Short Track Racing" – by riders such as Albert "Shrimp" Burns, Maldwyn Jones and Eddie Brinck. Motorcycle Speedway can be traced back to the early 1920s. One track that staged speedway, amongst others, was at the West Maitland Showground, whose first speedway meeting was staged on December 15, 1923; this track had a motorcycle riding entrepreneur as its Secretary and his personal account has him inviting his friends and their associates to do a few laps one Sunday morning, the noise attracted the attention of the Showground committee and approval to race at the “Electric Light Festival “ was won.
Motorcycle racing under lights was a huge success and its promoter was New Zealand born John S Hoskins. These pioneers introduced the Speedway signatures of No Left Footpeg and the Steel Shoe fashioned from worn coal shovels, manufactured in this Steel region. Following the success of Maitland, Speedway meetings were conducted at Newcastle Showground in 1924; these events were successful and led to the construction of Newcastle Speedway off Darling St, Hamilton. Johnnie Hoskins became the Secretary of Newcastle Speedway Ltd; the Newcastle Herald reports the Grand Opening on the 14/11/1925 attracted an audience of 42,000 at that time it was one-third of Newcastle’s entire population. After Maitland, Newcastle Showground is the second oldest Motorcycle Speedway track in the world. However, its first recorded motorcycle race was much earlier in 1908; the first Australian Motorcycle Speedway Championship was held at Newcastle Showground in 1926. It was won by American rider Cec Brown. Visiting English and American racers were common, for they were paid showmen winning a year’s salary in just one night.
It was successful, so Newcastle Showground held the championship again in 1927. Fitting that Newcastle Showground held the first National Speedway Championship anywhere in the world. In 1926 Johnnie Hoskins took his Speedway show to Sydney’s Royal Showground. A wet Sydney summer nearly sent Hoskins broke, so he took the show on the road to Perth, where one good season made him wealthy again, he and his riders decided to take the show to England as the word had spread about this exiting sport. 14th April 1928, Johnnie Hoskins,13 Australian Riders and their motorcycles sailed from Perth on the passenger ship Oronsay to introduce Speedway Solo motorcycle racing to England, the rest is History. The first meeting in the United Kingdom took place at High Beech on 19 February 1928. There are, claims that meetings were held in 1927 at Camberley and Droylsden, Lancashire. Despite being described as "the first British Dirt Track meeting" at the time, the meeting at Camberley on 7 May 1927 differed in that the races were held in a clockwise direction.
Races at Droylsden were held in an anti-clockwise direction but it is accepted that the sport arrived in the United Kingdom when Australians Billy Galloway and Keith McKay arrived with the intention of introducing speedway to the Northern Hemisphere. Both featured in the 1928 High Beech meeting; the first speedway meeting in the UK to feature bikes with no brakes and broadsiding round corners on loose dirt was the third meeting held at High Beech on 9 April 1928, where Colin Watson, Alf Medcalf and "Digger" Pugh demonstrated the art for the first time in the UK. Proto speedway was staged in Glasgow at the Olympic Stadium on April 9, 1928 and the first professional meeting was staged at Celtic Park on April 28, 1928; the first meeting in Wales was staged at Cardiff White City on Boxing Day 1928. In the 1928/29 season at the Melbourne Exhibition Speedway, Australian Colin Stewart won the prestigious Silver Gauntlet, which required the rider to win the feature race 10 times in one season, he won it 12 times.
He achieved success at an international level, racing for Southampton Saints in 1929 and captained Glasgow in the Northern League in 1930 before moving to Wembley Lions in 1931, for whom he rode in just four matches, averaging 4.00 points per match. He
A disc jockey abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records; the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title DJ is used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk. DJs use audio equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs; this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when played together or to enable a smooth transition from one song to another.
DJs use specialized DJ mixers, small audio mixers with crossfader and cue functions to blend or transition from one song to another. Mixers are used to pre-listen to sources of recorded music in headphones and adjust upcoming tracks to mix with playing music. DJ software can be used with a DJ controller device to mix audio files on a computer instead of a console mixer. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the "disc" in "disc jockey" referred to gramophone records, but now "DJ" is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files stored on USB stick or laptop. DJs perform for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or a TV, radio broadcast audience, or in the 2010s, an online radio audience. DJs create mixes and tracks that are recorded for sale and distribution. In hip hop music, DJs may create beats, using percussion breaks and other musical content sampled from pre-existing records.
In hip hop, rappers and MCs use. DJs use equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music and mix them together; this allows the DJ to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs. This involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together, either so two records can be played at the same time, or to enable the DJ to make a smooth transition from one song to another. An important tool for DJs is the specialized DJ mixer, a small audio mixer with a crossfader and cue functions; the crossfader enables the DJ to transition from one song to another. The cue knobs or switches allow the DJ to listen to a source of recorded music in headphones before playing it for the live club or broadcast audience. Previewing the music in headphones helps the DJ pick the next track they want to play, cue up the track to the desired starting location, align the two tracks' beats in traditional situations where auto sync technology is not being used.
This process ensures that the selected song will mix well with the playing music. DJs may use a microphone to speak to the audience; the title "DJ" is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names as a title to denote their profession. Some DJs focus on creating a good mix of songs for the club dancers or radio audience. Other DJs use turntablism techniques such as scratching, in which the DJ or turntablist manipulates the record player turntable to create new rhythms and sounds. DJs need to have a mixture of artistic and technical skills for their profession, because they have to understand both the creative aspects of making new musical beats and tracks, the technical aspects of using mixing consoles, professional audio equipment, and, in the 2010s, digital audio workstations and other computerized music gear. In many types of DJing, including club DJing and radio/TV DJing, a DJ has to have charisma and develop a good rapport with the audience. Professional DJs specialize in a specific genre of music, such as house music or hip hop music.
DJs have an extensive knowledge about the music they specialize in. Many DJs are avid music collectors of rare or obscure tracks and records. Radio DJs or radio personalities introduce and play music broadcast on AM, FM, digital or Internet radio stations. Club DJs referred as DJs in general, play music at musical events, such as parties at music venues or bars, music festivals and private events. Club DJs mix music recordings from two or more sources using different mixing techniques in order to produce non-stopping flow of music. One key technique used for seamlessly transitioning from one song to another is beatmatching. A DJ who plays and mixes one specific music genre is given the title of that genre; the quality of a DJ performance consists of two main features: technical skills, or how well can DJ operate the equipment and produce sm
Dirt track racing
Dirt track racing is a type of auto racing performed on clay or dirt surfaced oval tracks. It became widespread during the 1920s and 1930s. Two different types of race cars dominated—open wheel racers in the Northeast and West and stock cars in the South. While open wheel race cars are purpose-built racing vehicles, stock cars can be either purpose-built race cars or street vehicles that have been modified to varying degrees. Dirt track racing is the single most common form of auto racing in the United States. There are hundreds of regional racetracks throughout the nation; the sport is popular in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The track surface may be composed of any soil; the curation of a racetrack requires hours of work. The machines for track curation include a grader, cultivator and water truck however this varies at different dirt tracks around the world; the track is graded and'dug up' after the racing is finished and it is watered with a water truck. It may be broken down with a cultivator or rolled.
These steps are repeated however many times necessary and do vary according to climate and soil composition. Nearly all tracks are less than 1-mile in length with most being 1/2 mile or less; the most common increments in the U. S. are ½ mile, ⅜ mile, ⅓ mile, ¼ mile, ⅛ mile. With the longer tracks, the race cars achieve higher speeds up to 160 mph and the intervals between cars increase; this decreases the chance of crashes but increases the damage and chance of injury when cars do crash. In Great Britain the oval tracks are on grass with lengths of 400 meters to 800 meters; the races consist of several four lap. There is a final race featuring the fastest competitors. In mainland Europe, long tracks can be grass, sand or cinder, can be up to 1-kilometer long. Dirt track racing in Australia has a history dating back to the 1930s. Most oval track speedways are similar to those in the USA for car racing such as sprint cars and sedans, with most tracks around ¼ mile to ⅓ mile in length. Most tracks have a clay surface, though some use dolomite and clay mix or sand and clay mix.
During the 1970s and early 1980s, a small number of tracks were paved with asphalt, though this phase only lasted about a decade and all tracks paved over reverted to their former surfaces. Each racetrack or sponsoring organization maintains a rule book outlining each class of race car which includes dimensions, engine size, equipment requirements and prohibitions; the requirements for each class are coordinated with multiple tracks to allow for the widest available venue for each type of car. This coordination allows the drivers to compete at many different racetracks, increase competitors' chances of winning, lets racing associations develop a series of race events that promote fan interest. Many tracks support two types of racing in open wheel cars and stock cars. Both types range from large and powerful V8 engines to small yet still powerful, four-cylinder engines; some of the smaller open wheel race cars have classes for single-cylinder engines. Depending on the class, the cars may have wings to aid in handling at higher speeds.
Open wheel cars are manufactured with tubular frames and a body purchased for that particular class. The wheels of these vehicles are not protected by fenders. Classes include: Dwarf Mod lite - 1000-1250cc motorcycle engines Kart Mini sprint- 600-1200cc motorcycle engines. Utilize a top wing. Winged sprint- 410ci, 360ci engine, or 305ci engines; the top wing helps these powerful racecars with downforce. Non-wing sprint car Silver crown Midget Three quarter midget Quarter midget 600 and 270 micro sprintsOpen wheel sanctioning bodies include: USAC - The United States Automobile Club World of Outlaws Sprint Cars All Star Circuit of Champions National Sprint League American Sprint Car Series United Sprint Car Series MOWA POWRi Popular chassis manufacturers around the country for winged sprint cars are Eagle, Maxim, J&J, Triple X, GF1. There are several engine builders that build both 410ci and 360ci engines for traveling sprint car teams. Speedway, Gaerte, Shaver, Don Ott Racing Engines, Fisher Racing Engines are the more popular engine builders.
Modified cars are a hybrid of open wheel cars and stock cars. This class of car has the racing characteristics of a stock car; the rear wheels are covered by fenders but the front wheels are left exposed. There are sanctioning bodies; each sanctioning body has their own set of guidelines provided in an annual rule book and their own registration fees. Sanctioning bodies include: Super DIRTcar Series IMCA UMP USRA USMTS WISSOTA TSMA (Tri-State
Driving Standards Agency
The Driving Standards Agency was an executive agency of the UK Department for Transport. DSA promoted road safety in Great Britain by improving motorcycling standards, it set standards for education and training, as well as carrying out theory and practical driving and riding tests. The responsibilities of DSA only covered Great Britain. In Northern Ireland the same role was carried out by Vehicle Agency, it was announced on 20 June 2013 that DSA would merge with the Vehicle and Operator Services Agency into a single agency in 2014. The name of the new agency was confirmed as the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency on 28 November 2013; the DSA was abolished on 31 March 2014, the DVSA took over its responsibilities on 1 April 2014. DSA is a national organisation with headquarters in Nottingham and learning materials centre at Cardington in Bedfordshire and administrative centres in Cardiff and Newcastle. DSA employs around 2,400 staff around Great Britain and run tests from around 400 practical driving test centres.
Theory tests are carried out at around 150 theory test centres. DSA is a Trading Fund with a turnover of over £184 million in 2009-10 funded through fees and revenue from other road safety initiatives; the DSA's mission and primary aim is to continually promote road safety by influencing driver and rider behaviour. It does this through: setting the standards for pre-driver education and driver trainers registering and supervising quality assured Approved Driving Instructors carrying out theory and practical driving and riding tests quality assurance of all testing activity investigating cases of suspected theory test and practical test impersonations and identity fraud developing the future education and testing environment through its Learning to Drive programme The DSA employs 1,789 practical driving examiners, 728 administrative staff and managers. By March 2011 it plans to employ a total of 2,769 staff, dependent on trading and the government freeze on recruitment; the chief executive is accountable to the Secretary of State for ensuring that the DSA meets its obligations and delivers its targets and services.
The chief executive has overall responsibility for the DSA's activities, ensuring it meets its financial obligations, providing assurance of a sound system of internal control. The Director General of Motoring and Freight Services, Steve Gooding, is the additional accounting officer; the chief executive is supported by an executive board, including two non-executive directors. The executive board's role is to provide advice; the executive board meet on a monthly basis. A separate audit and risk management committee, comprising non-executive directors, acts independently of the executive board to provide assurance both on financial and non-financial matters, including corporate governance and risk management, to the chief executive; the change board, attended by the chief executive and appropriate directors, oversees the development and effective management of the DSA’s investment plan of change projects and programmes. The change board meets monthly; the operational performance group, which meets monthly is chaired by the operations director and attended by senior managers, monitors performance against targets and business plan objectives.
Before learning to drive a car, moped or motorcycle, a provisional driving licence must be obtained. If a driver holds a valid full driving licence but wishes to drive larger vehicles, minibuses or buses, provisional entitlement for these categories of vehicle is required. For those holding a provisional licence, taking the theory test is the next step before acquiring a full licence. For cars and motorcycles candidates are asked 50 questions in 57 minutes and the pass mark is 43 out of 50. For lorries and buses, there are 100 questions in 115 minutes and the pass mark is 85 out of 100; the hazard perception test is the second part of the driving theory test. Both parts must be passed in order to pass the theory test. If successful, one can apply to take the practical driving test; the practical test starts with some vehicle safety questions. The driving part of the test lasts about 40 minutes, involves performing some specific manoeuvres as well as demonstrating an overall safe standard of driving.
A candidate still pass the test. However, if one serious or dangerous fault is committed the test is failed; the current pass rate for car'L' tests is 43%. The cost of the theory test is now £31, the practical car test is £62 if taken on weekdays or £75 if taken at weekends or weekday evenings. To help candidates prepare for their theory and practical driving and motorcycle tests, The Stationery Office, DSA’s official publishing partner, produces a range of best-selling official publications; these include The Official DSA Theory Test for Car Drivers, The Official DSA Complete Theory Test Kit and The Official DSA Guide to Driving – the essential skills. The full range of titles is available from The Stationery Office online bookshop; the last increases prior to July 2005 were: Practical car and motorcycling test: 2002 Lorry and bus tests: 2001 Driving instructor test: 1997Sources: http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/PressRelease.asp?id=4206 http://www.dft.gov.uk/dsa/PressRelease.asp?id=145 The DSA holds a register of Approved Driving Instructors in Great Britain.
The ADI Registrar issues trainee licences to give instruction. In order to qualify as an ADI, three tests must be passed: theory - a multiple choice section and a video-based hazard perception section.
Mark O'Shea (herpetologist)
Mark O'Shea is an English herpetologist, author and television personality. He is known internationally as the presenter of the Animal Planet/Discovery Channel series O'Shea's Big Adventure. From Wolverhampton, Mark O'Shea moved to Shropshire in 2001. Since 1980, O'Shea has conducted herpetological fieldwork in over 30 countries on six continents but he has special interest in the Australo-Papuan region, he has worked in Papua New Guinea since 1986 when he first visited the country as a member of the scientific directing staff of Operation Raleigh. He continued fieldwork in the country as a member of the Oxford University Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine snakebite research team throughout the 1990s, now researches there under the auspices of a fellowship from the Australian Venom Research Unit, based in the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Melbourne. In 2006 O'Shea designed a set of six postage stamps called "The Dangerous Snakes of Papua New Guinea", for Post PNG; the launch of these stamps coincided with the snakebite workshops and fieldwork O'Shea and his colleagues from AVRU were conducting in that country.
O'Shea is involved in the Tropical Research Initiative at Victor Valley College and led by Hinrich Kaiser. The primary aim of the project was to conduct the first herpetological survey of Timor-Leste and to provide education and research opportunities for local researchers and students in their native environment. An additional goal was to assist government policy-makers and to educate the citizens of Asia's newest country as they tackle issues related to conservation and sustainability; the research has identified greater amphibian and reptile diversity than known. Mark held the position of Curator of Reptiles at the West Midland Safari Park from 1987 until 2002 when he became Consultant Curator of Reptiles. In 1997 and 1998 O'Shea made two films: Giant Snake in Venezuela and Black Mamba in South Africa. O'Shea's Big Adventure, or OBA, known as O'Shea's Dangerous Reptiles on Channel 4 in the UK, chronicles his many field excursions to find reptiles around the world; the programs were divided into four series, The Americas, Australasia & Pacific, South & Southeast Asia and Africa & South America.
The first two series each contained 13 half-hour films, the latter two each comprised four one-hour films. They have been aired worldwide. Since OBA, he has filmed two episodes of the series Safari Park, charting the day-to-day activities of West Midland Safari Park and the Ongava Game Reserve, filming in the UK and Namibia, has presented or appeared on other programs, including a report on the Dangerous Wild Animals Act for the BBC strand Inside Out, filming in the UK and the Netherlands. O'Shea is represented by David Foster Management. O'Shea has written several books, including The Book of Snakes: A Life-Size Guide to Six Hundred Species from around the World, A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea, Dorling Kindersley's Handbook to Reptiles and Amphibians, Venomous Snakes of the World, Boas and Pythons of the World, he has contributed chapters to books on subjects ranging from rainforest ecology to snakebite, written numerous popular and scientific articles. O'Shea is The Explorers Club of New York.
In November 2000 he received the Millennium Award for Services to Exploration from the British Chapter of The Explorers Club. The other recipients were Brian Jones, F. Story Musgrave, Michael Wood, Sylvia Earle, Sir Chris Bonington, Buzz Aldrin, Sir Ranulph Fiennes, he was Chairman of the International Herpetological Society from 1983–86 and its President from 2003–06. In July 2010 the IHS awarded O'Shea with a life membership and fellowship for his "contributions to the Society and herpetology in general". In September 2002 O'Shea received an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the University of Wolverhampton, for "services to herpetology". In September 2018 O'Shea was appointed Professor of Herpetology at the University of Wolverhampton O'Shea is a patron of the National Association for Bikers with a Disability. and the Small Woods Association. University of Wolverhampton Graduate Feature: Mark O'Shea, University of Wolverhampton O'Shea's Big Adventure on IMDb
National Lottery (United Kingdom)
The National Lottery is the state-franchised national lottery in the United Kingdom. It is operated by Camelot Group, to whom the licence was granted in 1994, 2001 and again in 2007; the lottery was regulated by the National Lottery Commission, which has since been abolished and its responsibilities transferred to the Gambling Commission, was established by the government of John Major in 1994. All prizes are tax-free. Of all money spent on National Lottery games, around 53% goes to the prize fund and 25% to "good causes" as set out by Parliament. 12% goes to the UK Government as lottery duty, 4% to retailers as commission, a total of 5% to operator Camelot, with 4% to cover operating costs and 1% as profit. Lottery tickets and scratch cards may be bought only by people of at least 16 years of age. A statute of 1698 provided that in England lotteries were by default illegal unless authorised by statute. Early English state lotteries included the Malt Lottery; these Lotteries were part of a series of financial experiments by the English government including recoinage and the foundation of the Bank of England to raise the capital available to the state.
A 1934 Act, further liberalised in 1956 and 1976, legalised small lotteries. A National Health Service Lottery was piloted in 1988 but cancelled for legal reasons before the first draw; the UK's state-franchised lottery was set up under government licence by the government of John Major in 1993. The National Lottery is franchised to a private operator; the first draw took place on 19 November 1994 with a television programme presented by Noel Edmonds. The first numbers drawn were 30, 3, 5, 44, 14 and 22, the bonus was 10, seven jackpot winners shared a prize of £5,874,778. Tickets became available on the Isle of Man on 2 December 1999 at the request of Tynwald. A second lottery draw, was introduced by Camelot on 12 June 1999; the National Lottery undertook a major rebranding programme in October 2002, designed to combat falling sales. The main game was renamed Lotto, the National Lottery Extra became Lotto Extra, though Camelot would retire Lotto Extra on 8 July 2006 due to low sales; the stylised crossed-fingers logo was modified.
However, the games as a collective are still known as the National Lottery. It is one of the most popular forms of gambling in the United Kingdom; the draw machines for Lotto and Lotto Extra were the Criterion model, manufactured by Smartplay International Inc. but on the 25th October 2003, Camelot replaced them with Smartplay's Magnum I model. On the 21st November 2009 Camelot replaced its older Lotto draw machines again; the new machines are named Arthur, Guinevere and Merlin, reusing the names of older machines. Shortly after the new Lotto draw machines were introduced, new machines for the Thunderball game were introduced, replacing Smartplay's older Halogen I model, in use since 1999; the current Lotto machines are the Smartplay Magnum II model, the current Thunderball and Set For Life machines are the Smartplay Halogen II model. On 16 March 2018, Camelot advised more than 10 million players with online accounts to change their passwords because of a "low-level" cyber attack that affected 150 customer accounts.
They claim. Camelot claimed the hackers used a method called credential stuffing and said the attack appeared to have begun on 7 March; as of December 2016, the eligibility requirements include: Players must be at least 16 years old to buy scratchcards or to play Lotto, Thunderball or Euromillions Tickets may be bought in person at approved premises in the UK, or online over the Internet Online purchase of tickets from the National Lottery website is restricted to people who have a UK bank account, are resident in the UK or Isle of Man, are physically present in the UK or Isle of Man when making the ticket purchase. The ticket purchaser for a syndicate its manager, must meet the eligibility criteria for ticket purchase. Syndicate members must be aged 16 or over Lottery tickets are not transferable, so commercial syndicates are not permitted Several games operate under the National Lottery brand: As of March 2019, the current games include: Players buy tickets with their choice of six different numbers between 1 and 59.
The entry fee to the Lotto draw was set at £1 per board from its introduction, increased to £2 in October 2013. The draw is conducted twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays, except that a draw on Christmas Day is moved to Christmas Eve. Saturday draws started on 19 November 1994, under the name'National Lottery'. All of the draws are shown live on the official website at 20:30. Lotto was called The National Lottery, but was renamed Lotto in an update in 2002 after ticket sales decreased. Lotto is by far the most popular draw, with around 15 to 45 million tickets sold each draw; the most winners for a single jackpot was 133 in January 1995, each player winning £122,510. In the draw, six numbered balls are drawn without replacement from a set of 59 balls numbered from 1 to 59. A further Bonus Ball is drawn, which affects only players who match five numbers. There a
Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Birds, which are cladistically included within Reptilia, are traditionally excluded here. Thus, the definition of herpetology can be more stated as the study of ectothermic tetrapods. Under this definition "herps" exclude fish, but it is not uncommon for herpetological and ichthyological scientific societies to "team up", publishing joint journals and holding conferences in order to foster the exchange of ideas between the fields, as the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists does. Many herpetological societies have been formed to promote interest in reptiles and amphibians, both captive and wild. Herpetology offers benefits to humanity in the study of the role of amphibians and reptiles in global ecology because amphibians are very sensitive to environmental changes, offering a visible warning to humans that significant changes are taking place; some toxins and venoms produced by reptiles and amphibians are useful in human medicine.
Some snake venom has been used to create anti-coagulants that work to treat strokes and heart attacks. The word "herpetology" is from Greek: ἑρπετόν, herpeton, "creeping animal" and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge". People with an avid interest in herpetology and who keep different reptiles or amphibians refer to themselves as "herpers"."Herp" is a vernacular term for non-avian reptiles and amphibians. It is derived from the old term "herpetile", with roots back to Linnaeus's classification of animals, in which he grouped reptiles and amphibians together in the same class. There are over 9000 species of reptiles. In spite of its modern taxonomic irrelevance, the term has persisted in the names of herpetology, the scientific study of non-avian reptiles and amphibians, herpetoculture, the captive care and breeding of reptiles and amphibians; the field of herpetology amphibians. Batrachology, the study of amphibians in particular Ophiology, the study of snakes. Saurology, the study of lizards. Cheloniology, the study of turtles and tortoises.
Career options in the field of herpetology include, but are not limited to lab research, field studies and survey, zoological staff, museum staff and college teaching. In modern academic science, it is rare for individuals to consider themselves a herpetologist first and foremost. Most individuals focus on a particular field such as ecology, taxonomy, physiology, or molecular biology, within that field ask questions pertaining to or best answered by examining reptiles and amphibians. For example, an evolutionary biologist, a herpetologist may choose to work on an issue such as the evolution of warning coloration in coral snakes. Modern herpetological writers include Philip Purser. Modern herpetological showmen include Jeff Corwin, Steve Irwin, popularly known as the "Crocodile Hunter", the star Austin Stevens, popularly known as "AustinSnakeman" in the TV series Austin Stevens: Snakemaster. Most colleges or universities do not offer a major in herpetology at the undergraduate or the graduate level.
Instead, persons interested in herpetology select a major in the biological sciences. The knowledge learned about all aspects of the biology of animals is applied to an individual study of herpetology. Herping List of herpetologists List of herpetology academic journals Adler, Kraig. Contributions to the History of Herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Eatherley, Dan. Bushmaster: Raymond Ditmars and the Hunt for the World's Largest Viper. New York: Arcade. 320 pp. ISBN 978-1628725117. Goin, Coleman J.. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. Xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. Iranian Herpetological Studies Institute Field Herpetology Guide American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Herpetological Conservation and Biology Societas Europaea Herpetologica Distribution Maps for European Reptiles and Amphibians Center for North American Herpetology over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians European Field Herping Community New Zealand Herpetology Chicago Herpetological Society Biology of the Reptilia is an online copy of the full text of a 22-volume 13,000-page summary of the state of research of reptiles.
HerpMapper is a database of reptile and amphibian sightings Amphibian and Reptile Atlas of Peninsular California, San Diego Natural History Museum A Primer on Reptiles and Amphibians