Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, United States owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church and one-third of its U. S. students are from Utah. The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs. Students attending BYU agree to follow an honor code, which mandates behavior in line with LDS teachings such as academic honesty, adherence to dress and grooming standards, abstinence from extramarital sex and from the consumption of drugs and alcohol; the university curriculum includes religious education, with required courses in, the Bible, LDS scripture and history, the university sponsors weekly devotional assemblies with most speakers addressing religious topics. Many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as LDS missionaries.
An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, since "a significant portion" of the cost of operating the university is subsidized by the church's tithing funds. BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law; the university is broadly organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges and divisions defining their own admission standards. The university administers two satellite campuses, one in Jerusalem and one in Salt Lake City, while its parent organization, the Church Educational System, sponsors sister schools in Hawaii and Idaho. BYU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the BYU Cougars, their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other sports teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYU's sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships.
Brigham Young University's origin can be traced back to 1862 when a man named Warren Dusenberry started a Provo school in Cluff Hall, a prominent adobe building in the northeast corner of 200 East and 200 North. After some financial difficulties the school was recreated in the Kinsey and Lewis buildings on Center street in Provo, after gaining some recognition for its quality, was adopted to become the Timpanogos branch of the University of Deseret; when financial difficulty forced another closure, on October 16, 1875, Brigham Young president of the LDS Church, deeded the property to trustees to create Brigham Young Academy after earlier hinting a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16, 1875, is held as BYU's founding date. Brigham Young had been envisioning for several years the concept of a church university. Said Young about his vision: "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."
Brigham Young Academy classes commenced on January 3, 1876. Warren Dusenberry served as interim principal for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Young's choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maeser's direction, the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland and future U. S. Senator Reed Smoot; the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluff's term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored by the LDS Church until July 18, 1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion; the suggestion received a large amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying the school wasn't large enough to be a university, but the decision passed. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund said, "I hope their head will grow big enough for their hat."In 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, was replaced by two institutions: Brigham Young High School, Brigham Young University.
The BY High School class of 1907 was responsible for the famous giant "Y", to this day embedded on a mountain near campus. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU, he had not received a high school education. He was an excellent orator and organizer. Under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called "Temple Hill". After some controversy among locals over BYU's purchase of this property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus, the Karl G. Maeser Memorial. Brimhall presided over the University during a brief crisis involving the theory of evolution; the religious nature of the school seemed at the time to collide with this scientific theory. Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, settled the question for a time by asking that evolution not be taught at the school. A few have described the school at this time as nothing more than a "religious seminary". However, many of its graduates at this time would go on to great success and become well renowned in their fields.
Franklin S. Harris was appointed the university's president in 1921, he was the first BYU president to have a doctoral degree. Harris made several
Conversion therapy is the pseudoscientific practice of trying to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual or bisexual to heterosexual using psychological or spiritual interventions. There is no reliable evidence that sexual orientation can be changed and medical bodies warn that conversion therapy practices are ineffective and harmful and medical and governmental organizations in the United States and United Kingdom have expressed concern over the validity and ethics of conversion therapy. Various jurisdictions in Asia, Europe and the Americas have passed laws against conversion therapy. Techniques used in conversion therapy prior to 1981 in the United States and Western Europe included ice-pick lobotomies. More recent clinical techniques used in the United States have been limited to counseling, social skills training, psychoanalytic therapy, spiritual interventions such as "prayer and group support and pressure", though there are some reports of aversive treatments through unlicensed practice as late as the 1990s.
The term reparative therapy has been used as a synonym for conversion therapy in general, but it has been argued that speaking it refers to a specific kind of therapy associated with the psychologists Elizabeth Moberly and Joseph Nicolosi. The American Psychiatric Association opposes psychiatric treatment "based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon the a priori assumption that a patient should change his/her sexual homosexual orientation" and describes attempts to change sexual orientation by practitioners as unethical, it states that debates over the integration of gay and lesbian people have obscured science "by calling into question the motives and the character of individuals on both sides of the issue" and that the advancement of conversion therapy may cause social harm by disseminating unscientific views about sexual orientation. United States Surgeon General David Satcher in 2001 issued a report stating that "there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed".
The highest-profile advocates of conversion therapy today tend to be fundamentalist religious organizations which use a religious justification for the therapy rather than speaking of homosexuality as "a disease". The main organization advocating secular forms of conversion therapy is the National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, which partners with religious groups; the history of conversion therapy can be divided broadly into three periods: an early Freudian period. During the earliest parts of psychoanalytic history, analysts granted that homosexuality was non-pathological in certain cases, the ethical question of whether it ought to be changed was discussed. By the 1920s analysts assumed that homosexuality was pathological and that attempts to treat it were appropriate, although psychoanalytic opinion about changing homosexuality was pessimistic; those forms of homosexuality that were considered perversions were held to be incurable. Analysts' tolerant statements about homosexuality arose from recognition of the difficulty of achieving change.
Beginning in the 1930s and continuing for twenty years, major changes occurred in how analysts viewed homosexuality, which involved a shift in the rhetoric of analysts, some of whom felt free to ridicule and abuse their gay patients. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud stated that homosexuality could sometimes be removed through hypnotic suggestion, was influenced by Eugen Steinach, a Viennese endocrinologist who transplanted testicles from straight men into gay men in attempts to change their sexual orientation, stating that his research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homo-eroticism". Freud cautioned that Steinach's operations would not make possible a therapy that could be applied, arguing that such transplant procedures would be effective in changing homosexuality in men only in cases in which it was associated with physical characteristics typical of women, that no similar therapy could be applied to lesbianism. Steinach's method was doomed to failure because the immune system rejects transplanted glands, was exposed as ineffective and harmful.
Freud's main discussion of female homosexuality was the 1920 paper "The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman", which described his analysis of a young woman who had entered therapy because her parents were concerned that she was a lesbian. Her father wanted. In Freud's view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which she entered therapy, because homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict. Freud wrote that changing homosexuality was difficult and possible only under unusually favourable conditions, observing that "in general to undertake to convert a developed homosexual into a heterosexual does not offer much more prospect of success than the reverse". Success meant making heterosexual feeling possible, not eliminating homosexual feelings. Gay people could be convinced that heterosexual sex would provide them with the same pleasure they derived from homosexua
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; the term pseudoscience is considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or deceptively. Those described as practicing or advocating pseudoscience dispute the characterization; the demarcation between science and pseudoscience has scientific implications. Differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies, science education. Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs, creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Pseudoscience can cause negative consequences in the real world.
Antivaccine activists present pseudoscientific studies that falsely call into question the safety of vaccines. Homeopathic remedies with no active ingredients have been promoted as treatment for deadly diseases; the word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Although the term has been in use since at least the late 18th century the concept of pseudoscience as distinct from real or proper science seems to have become more widespread during the mid-19th century. Among the earliest uses of "pseudo-science" was in an 1844 article in the Northern Journal of Medicine, issue 387: That opposite kind of innovation which pronounces what has been recognized as a branch of science, to have been a pseudo-science, composed of so-called facts, connected together by misapprehensions under the disguise of principles. An earlier use of the term was in 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie.
During the 20th century, the word was used pejoratively to describe explanations of phenomena which were claimed to be scientific, but which were not in fact supported by reliable experimental evidence. From time-to-time, the usage of the word occurred in a more formal, technical manner in response to a perceived threat to individual and institutional security in a social and cultural setting. Philosophers classify types of knowledge. In English, the word science is used to indicate the natural sciences and related fields, which are called the social sciences. Different philosophers of science may disagree on the exact limits – for example, is mathematics a formal science, closer to the empirical ones, or is pure mathematics closer to the philosophical study of logic and therefore not a science? – but all agree that all of the ideas that are not scientific are non-scientific. The large category of non-science includes all matters outside the natural and social sciences, such as the study of history, religion and the humanities.
Dividing the category again, unscientific claims are a subset of the large category of non-scientific claims. This category includes all matters that are directly opposed to good science. Un-science includes pseudoscience, thus pseudoscience is a subset of un-science, un-science, in turn, is subset of non-science. Pseudoscience is differentiated from science because – although it claims to be science – pseudoscience does not adhere to accepted scientific standards, such as the scientific method, falsifiability of claims, Mertonian norms. A number of basic principles are accepted by scientists as standards for determining whether a body of knowledge, method, or practice is scientific. Experimental results should be verified by other researchers; these principles are intended to ensure experiments can be reproduced measurably given the same conditions, allowing further investigation to determine whether a hypothesis or theory related to given phenomena is valid and reliable. Standards require the scientific method to be applied throughout, bias to be controlled for or eliminated through randomization, fair sampling procedures, blinding of studies, other methods.
All gathered data, including the experimental or environmental conditions, are expected to be documented for scrutiny and made available for peer review, allowing further experiments or studies to be conducted to confirm or falsify results. Statistical quantification of significance and error are important tools for the scientific method. During the mid-20th century, the philosopher Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience. Statements, hypotheses, or theories have falsifiability or refutability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false; that is, if it is possible to conceive of an argument which negates them. Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einstein's theory of relativity as an example of science, he subdivided nonscience into philosophical, mythological and metaphysical formulations on one hand, pseudoscientific formulations on the other, though he did not provide clear criteria for the differences.
Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be f
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
Human Rights Campaign
The Human Rights Campaign is the largest LGBT civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the United States. The organization focuses on protecting and expanding rights for LGBT individuals, most notably advocating for marriage equality, anti-discrimination and hate crimes legislation, HIV/AIDS advocacy; the organization has a number of legislative initiatives as well as supporting resources for LGBT individuals. HRC is an umbrella group of two separate non-profit organizations and a political action committee: the HRC Foundation, a 501 organization that focuses on research and education; the Human Rights Campaign's leadership includes President Chad Griffin. HRC's work is supported by three boards: the Board of Directors, the governing body for the organization. Steve Endean, who had worked with a established Gay Rights National Lobby from 1978, established the Human Rights Campaign Fund political action committee in 1980; the two groups merged. In 1983, Vic Basile, at the time one of the leading LGBT rights activists in Washington, D.
C. was elected as the first executive director. In October 1986, the HRC Foundation was formed as a non-profit organization. In January 1989, Basile announced his departure, HRC reorganized from serving as a political action committee to broadening its function to encompass lobbying, research and media outreach. HRC decided on a new Statement of Purpose: "For the promotion of the social welfare of the gay and lesbian community by drafting and influencing legislation and policy at the federal and local level." Tim McFeeley, a Harvard Law School graduate, founder of the Boston Lesbian and Gay Political Alliance, a co-chair of the New England HRC Committee, was elected the new executive director. Total membership was approximately 25,000 members. In 1992, HRC endorsed a presidential candidate for Bill Clinton. In March 1993, HRC began National Coming Out Day. From January 1995 until January 2004, Elizabeth Birch served as the executive director of the HRC. Under her leadership, the institution more than quadrupled its membership to 500,000 members.
In 1995, the organization dropped the word "Fund" from its name. That same year, it underwent a complete reorganization; the HRC Foundation added new programs such as the Workplace Project and the Family Project, while HRC itself broadly expanded its research and marketing/public relations functions. The organization unveiled a new logo, a yellow equal sign inside of a blue square; as part of the activities surrounding the Millennium March on Washington, the HRC Foundation sponsored a fundraising concert at Washington, D. C.'s RFK Stadium on April 29, 2000. Billed as a concert to end hate crimes, "Equality Rocks" honored hate crime victims and their families, such as featured speakers Dennis and Judy Shepard, the parents of Matthew Shepard; the event included Melissa Etheridge, Garth Brooks, Pet Shop Boys, k.d. lang, Nathan Lane, Rufus Wainwright, Albita Rodríguez, Chaka Khan. Elizabeth Birch's successor, Cheryl Jacques, resigned in November 2004 after only 11 months as executive director. Jacques said she had resigned over "a difference in management philosophy".
In March 2005, HRC announced the appointment of Joe Solmonese as the president. He served in that position until stepping down in May 2012 to co-chair the Barack Obama presidential campaign. HRC launched its Religion and Faith Program in 2005 to mobilize clergy to advocate for LGBT people, helped form DC Clergy United for Marriage Equality, involved in the legalization of same-sex marriage in the District of Columbia. On March 10, 2010, the first recognized same-sex weddings in the District of Columbia were held at the headquarters of the Human Rights Campaign. On August 9, 2007, HRC and Logo TV co-hosted a forum for 2008 Democratic presidential candidates dedicated to LGBT issues. In 2010, HRC lobbied for the repeal of the United States' ban on HIV-positive people's entry into the country for travel or immigration. In September 2011, it was announced that Joe Solmonese would step down as president of HRC following the end of his contract in 2012. Despite initial speculation that former Atlanta City Council president Cathy Woolard would be appointed, no replacement was announced until March 2, 2012, when American Foundation for Equal Rights co-founder Chad Griffin was announced as Solmonese's successor.
Griffin took office on June 11, 2012. In 2012, HRC said that it had raised and contributed $20 million to re-elect President Obama and to advance same-sex marriage. In addition to the Obama re-election campaign, HRC spent money on marriage-related ballot measures in Washington, Maine and Minnesota, the election of Democratic Senator Tammy Baldwin in Wisconsin. In 2013, HRC conducted a postcard campaign in support of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act. In 2019, HRC joined with 42 other religious and allied organizations in issuing a statement opposing Project Blitz, an effort by a coalition of Christian right organizations to influence state legislation; each year since 1997, HRC has hosted a
Evergreen International, Inc. was a 501 non-profit organization located in Salt Lake City, whose stated mission was to assist "people who want to diminish same-sex attractions and overcome homosexual behavior". It adhered to Christian and LDS teaching and supported the doctrines of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the organization stated this task could be accomplished with the help of the Lord and, in some cases, psychological counseling. Evergreen was founded in 1989 as a grassroots organization by men who were seeking to deal with their homosexual feelings in ways congruent to the teachings of the LDS Church. Evergreen stated that by using the atonement individuals could change and transition away from the condition of homosexuality and homosexual sins, they could diminish their attractions to those of the same sex; the organization agreed with all teachings and policies of the LDS Church "without reservation or exception", but stated that it was not "affiliated with the Church".
Evergreen taught that "to be successful in diminishing erotic same-sex attractions and overcoming homosexual behavior, you must be willing to make a total commitment to the change process. It is our testimony that when you do all that you can and are willing to employ all the resources that are available to you, God's grace will make up the difference."They published a map that outlined the major areas that people may have to address to diminish their same-sex attraction and overcome homosexual behavior. It included the following elements: Read books on same-sex attraction, masculinity/femininity and related subjects from LDS authors, Christian authors, professionals. Personal prayer. Develop personal relationship with God and Jesus Christ. Develop one-on-one, nurturing relationships with family, close friends, acquaintances. Provide service to others, both inside and outside Evergreen. Experience activities as a bridge to the real world." General LDS church leaders spoke at nearly every Evergreen annual conference from 1996 to 2011.
2000 – Elder Alexander B. Morrison of the First Quorum of the Seventy addressed members of Evergreen at their 10th annual conference, held in the church's Joseph Smith Memorial Building and stated, "Avoid as the plague social interaction with persons who justify, encourage or engage in homosexual behavior. Stay away from places where those challenged by same-gender attraction congregate." 2005 – At the 15th annual conference Elder James O. Mason of the Second Quorum of the Seventy directed, "Can individuals struggling with some same-gender attraction be cured? “With God nothing should be impossible”... The right course of action remains the same: eliminate or diminish same sex attraction." "Feelings of attraction toward someone of the same gender should be eliminated if possible or controlled." 2007 – Church seventy Douglas Callister spoke at an Evergreen conference and urged listeners to battle their challenge of "same-gender inclinations" and thoughts through prayer and taking the sacrament.
2009 – Elder Bruce C. Hafen of the First Quorum of the Seventy gave an address at the 19th annual conference promising, "If you are faithful, on resurrection morning—and maybe before then—you will rise with normal attractions for the opposite sex; some of you may wonder. But Elder Dallin H. Oaks has said it MUST be true, because'there is no fullness of joy in the next life without a family unit, including a husband and wife, posterity.' And'men are that they might have joy.'" 2010 – Keith B. McMullin of the Presiding Bishopric addressed the 20th annual conference and counseled that "If someone seeking your help says to you,'I am homosexual' or'I am lesbian' or'I am gay,' correct this miscasting. Heavenly Father does not speak of His children this way, neither should we, it is not true. To speak this way sows seeds of doubt and deceit about who we are, it belittles and disparages the individual." He further teaches that the "such limitations" as same-gender attraction won't exist after death, though "in and of itself it is neither evil nor sinful".
"Evergreen does not advocate any particular form of therapy" but did provide suggestions on how to choose a therapist and information on individual and group therapy. Evergreen stated that some people had lessened their same sex attractions by using the following therapies: gender wholeness, reorientation, re-education; the website referenced the works of Joseph Nicolosi who says reparative therapy can help people "explore the source of their problem, develop nonerotic same-sex relationships that diminish the sexual attraction they feel toward men, become more secure in their gender-identity, enjoy heterosexual relationships." The therapy is based on the view that homosexual attractions develop because of incomplete gender-identity development and defensive detachment from other males. While some of these therapies offered to reduce same-sex attractions, Evergreen made clear that "therapy will not be a cure in the sense of erasing all homosexual feelings," but would "strengthen masculine identification" for men.
The LDS Church has stated that it does not have a position on "scientific questions" such as the cause of homosexuality. Evergreen followed this stance; the National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality known as the NARTH Institute, is an organization that functions under the Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity. It offers conversion therapy and other regimens that purport to change the sexual orientation of people with same-sex attraction. NA
Joseph Nicolosi was an American clinical psychologist and director of the Thomas Aquinas Psychological Clinic in Encino, a founder and president of the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. Nicolosi advocated and practiced reparative therapy, a pseudoscientific and controversial practice that he claimed could help people overcome or mitigate their homosexual desires and replace them with heterosexual ones. Nicolosi described his theories in Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach and three other books. Nicolosi proposed that homosexuality is the product of a condition he described as gender-identity deficit caused by an alienation from, perceived rejection by, individuals of the subject's gender. Like all forms of conversion therapy, reparative therapy is pseudoscientific, based on faulty assumptions, opposed by mainstream medical and psychological practitioners, harmful to patients, he held a Ph. D. from the California School of Professional Psychology.
Nicolosi was a founding member of the National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality and was its president for some time. NARTH is a professional association, he was an advisor to, officer of, NARTH. In 2012, California passed a law that banned the provision of conversion therapy to minors, including some of Nicolosi's existing patients. Nicolosi was named as a plaintiff in a lawsuit challenging the law on constitutional grounds but the law barring Nicolosi's clinic from taking on patients under the age of 18, was subsequently upheld; the Supreme Court explicitly referenced this case. He died in March 2017 at the age of 70 from complications from the flu. Sexual orientation Sexual orientation change efforts Nicolosi, Joseph. Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality: A New Clinical Approach. Jason Aronson, Inc. ISBN 0-87668-545-9. Nicolosi, Joseph. Healing Homosexuality: Case Stories of Reparative Therapy. Jason Aronson, Inc. ISBN 0-7657-0144-8. Nicolosi, Joseph. Dean. "Retrospective self-reports of changes in homosexual orientation: A consumer survey of conversion therapy clients".
86. Psychological Reports: 1071–1088. Nicolosi, Joseph. "A meta-analytic review of treatment of homosexuality". Psychological Reports. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Nicolosi, Joseph & Nicolosi, Linda Ames. A Parent's Guide to Preventing Homosexuality. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-2379-4. Nicolosi, Joseph. "A critique of Bem's "exotic becomes erotic" theory of sexual orientation development". Psychological Reports. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Nicolosi, Joseph. "Clients' perceptions of how reorientation therapy and self-help can promote changes in sexual orientation". Psychological Reports. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Nicolosi, Joseph. Shame and Attachment Loss: The Practical Work of Reparative Therapy. InterVarsity Press Nicolosi, Joseph. A Parent's Guide to revised edition. Liberal Mind Publishers Official website Author interview: A Parent's Guide to Preventing Homosexuality by Dr. Joseph Nicolosi and Linda Nicolosi. Book Excerpt: Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality by Dr. Joseph Nicolosi.
Book excerpt: Healing Homosexuality: Case Stories of Reparative Therapy by Dr. Joseph Nicolosi. Book excerpt: A Parent's Guide to Preventing Homosexuality by Dr. Joseph Nicolosi and Linda Nicolosi. Review: Therapy Terminable and Interminable:'Non-gay Homosexuals' Come Out of the Closet by James Weinrich. A scholarly review of one of Nicolosi's scholarly books about conversion therapy