1. United States Postal Service – The United States Postal Service, is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution, Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, where Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The USPS as of February 2015 has 617,254 active employees, the USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world. The USPS is legally obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price, the USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked U. S. The USPS lost $5.5 billion in fiscal year 2014 and $5.1 billion in 2015, in the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service. These early attempts were of small scale and usually involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, for example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service, the patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later, Neale appointed Andrew Hamilton, Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster. The first postal service in America commenced in February 1692, rates of postage were fixed and authorized, and measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed laws, and a very imperfect post office system was established. Neales patent expired in 1710, when Parliament extended the English postal system to the colonies, the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies, most of the mail went back and forth to counting houses and government offices in London. The Revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, News, new laws, political intelligence, and military orders circulated with a new urgency, and a postal system was necessary. Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at very low cost, overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774-1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, and created a new postal system. The United States Post Office was created on July 26,1775, the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress To establish post offices, the 1792 law provided for a greatly expanded postal network, and served editors by charging newspapers an extremely low rate. The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, and provided the country with low-cost access to information on public affairs. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger, Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west of the MississippiUnited States Postal Service – ~ Benjamin Franklin ~ George Washington ~ The First U.S. Postage Stamps Issued 1847 The first stamp issues were authorized by an act of Congress and approved on March 3, 1847. The earliest known use of the Franklin 5¢ is July 7, 1847, while the earliest known use of the Washington 10¢ is July 2, 1847. Remaining in postal circulation for only a few years, these issues were declared invalid for postage on July 1, 1851.
2. American Letter Mail Company – The American Letter Mail Company was started by Lysander Spooner in 1844, competing with the legal monopoly of the United States Post Office in violation of the Private Express Statutes. It succeeded in delivering mail for prices, but the U. S. Government challenged Spooner with legal measures. According to McMaster, the company had offices in cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia. In February 1844, Spooner advertised rates of Postage 6 1/4 cents for each half oz. Stamps and he further stated, The Company design also thoroughly to agitate the question, and test the constitutional right of free competition in the business of carrying letters. Stamps could be purchased and then attached to letters which could be sent to any of its offices, from there agents were dispatched who travelled on railroads and steamboats, and carried the letters in handbags. Letters were transferred to messengers in the cities along the routes who then delivered the letters to the addressees, from its inception, the Company was a vehicle for legal challenge. Mr. Spooner, the head of the American Letter Mail Company, has transmitted to the Department at Washington, the federal government treated this as a criminal act, United States v. John C. Although the business was forced by the U. S. Government to close shop after only a few years, ought He to be Paid. by Lysander Spooner The Post Office and Private Mail Service 19th century individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker opposes USPS monopolyAmerican Letter Mail Company – American Letter Mail Company
3. American Postal Workers Union – The American Postal Workers Union is a labor union in the United States. It represents over 200,000 employees and retirees of the United States Postal Service who belong to the Clerk, Maintenance, Motor Vehicle and it also represents approximately 2,000 private-sector mail workers. The American Postal Workers Union is currently working to stop the closing of Post Offices, due to current economic factors, the USPS is looking to close several local branches and mail processing centers around the nation. Postal workers in the United States first won collective bargaining rights after the U. S. postal strike of 1970, two organizations of postal clerks emerged in the 1890s, they merged in 1899 into the United National Association of Post Office Clerks. It was too conservative for the AFL, which in 1906 sponsored the National Federation of Post Office Clerks, NFPOC grew from 16,000 members in 1922, to 36,000 in 1932, and nearly 50,000 by 1940. It did not engage in strikes, but spent much of its efforts in opposing hostile Congressional legislation. Additional rivals were formed in the 1930s, but the first serious rival was the National Postal Clerks Union that began in 1958, by 1970, the NPCU had reached a membership of 80,000. Merger discussions dragged on for years, until finally the NFPOC, UNMAPOC, in 1971 five unions combined into the American Postal Workers Union. On August 20,2007, the previously independent National Postal Professional Nurses merged with the APWU, as a result of this merger, the members of the NPPN were granted membership in the Support Services Division of the APWU. The NPPN-APWU represents over 90 occupational health nurses who are employed by the Postal Service and this 2007 merger was the first merger of any postal unions in the United States since the U. S. postal strike of 1970. On Thursday, July 30,2009, the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee voted 12-1 in favor of S.1507, Sen. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, and Sen. The American Postal Workers Union, National Postal Mail Handlers Union, the NALC and this Association was organized as a fraternal benefit society for railway clerks by five men in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1898. The original name of the association was the National Association of Railway Postal Clerks, the name of the society was changed to Railway Mail Association in 1904, and the National Postal Transport Association in 1949. In 1961 it became the United Federation of Postal Clerks Benefit Association and it adopted its present name in 1972. Membership is open to all members of the American Postal Workers Union who are employed as postal workers, in 1979, there were 23,000 members in 604 local branches. Branch meetings are held concurrently with meetings of the American Postal Workers Union, in addition to insurance benefits, the APW-ABA sponsors blood banks, Boys Scouts troops, conducts drives for community and medical research funds, and visits sick and disabled members. The highest authority is the National Convention, which meets biennially, headquarters are in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The candidate also pledges to be considerate to the widow and the orphan, the weak and the defenseless, to freedom of thought and expressionAmerican Postal Workers Union – The APWU headquarters at 1300 L Street NW in Washington, D.C.
4. National Association of Letter Carriers – The National Association of Letter Carriers is an American labor union, representing non-rural letter carriers employed by the United States Postal Service. The NALC has 2,500 local branches representing letter carriers in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Letter carriers were the first postal workers to form their own union. They had tried to organize a union at least three times—in 1870 in Washington, DC, in 1877 in New York City, and in 1880 again in New York City. On August 29,1889, delegates moved quickly, unanimously adopting a resolution to form a National Association of Letter Carriers. On the next day, August 30,1889, they elected William Wood of Detroit as the first president, NALC had 52 locals, called branches, with 4,600 members in 1890, and 335 branches by 1892. In the beginning, the focused on forcing postmasters to honor federal law mandating an eight-hour day for federal employees. In 1893, the NALC won a Supreme Court decision and $3.5 million in overtime pay. Local postmasters vigorously opposed the union, even though it did not sponsor strikes, NALC joined the American Federation of Labor in 1917. By the mid-1960s, NALC had 175,000 members in 6,400 local branches, the history of the National Association of Letter Carriers is documented through archival collections at the Walter P. Reuther Library in Detroit, Michigan. Letter carrier morale plummeted during the mid-1960s as inflation eroded carriers salaries, a growing sense of militancy developed as carriers and their families in big cities neared the poverty level. In New York Citys Branch 36, a storm of protest erupted when President Richard Nixon provided only a 4.1 percent pay raise in 1969, far below what was needed. Despite being barred from participating in a strike, on March 17,1970, the votes were counted in Branch 36, and a long-threatened strike was approved,1,555 to 1,055. At 12,01 a. m. on March 18, picket lines created by Branch 36 went up at post offices throughout Manhattan, within two days, more than 200,000 letter carriers and other postal employees across the country had joined the walkout. Nixon called out 25,000 soldiers to move the mail in New York City, the strike ended after eight days when local NALC leaders assured strikers that an agreement had been reached, even though their word was premature. Round-the-clock negotiations began and on April 2 a satisfactory agreement was reached, the NALC Office of the President, James H. Rademacher Records contain archival material related to the strike. The militancy that came out of New Yorks Branch 36 during the strike changed forever the nature of the NALC, sombrotto was elected national president in 1978, ousting incumbent President J. Joseph Vacca. He moved quickly to enhance the unions lobbying power with Congress, johnson when he vetoed a postal pay raise in the mid-1960s. The union has also supported a number of individual Republican candidates, the rate of postal pay was set by the Congress by federal law, meaning that the Postal Service and its employees were deeply affected by CongressNational Association of Letter Carriers – City & rural carriers offer their opinions of CDS outside the Downtown Fort Myers post office on June 27, 2007
5. National Postal Mail Handlers Union – The National Postal Mail Handlers Union is a progressive labor union representing more than 50,000 Mail Handler craft members in United States Postal Service facilities across the United States. The NPMHU is an organization of employees dedicated to advancing the interests of its members. Mail Handler members belong to a union, with jurisdiction in their city, town. Locals elect their own officers and conduct their own day-to-day business and they negotiate a Local Memorandum of Understanding to supplement the National Agreement on certain local concerns. Nationally, NPMHU has its headquarters in Washington D. C. to administer the Union and to implement programs and policies mandated by the Constitution, the national resident officers include the National President and the National Secretary-Treasurer. The NPMHU is a division of the Laborers International Union of North America, the Mail Handlers are also affiliated with the Communications International Union and the Postal Employees Relief Fund. On Thursday, July 30,2009, the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee voted 12-1 in favor of S.1507, Sen. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, and Sen. United States Postal Service National Rural Letter Carriers Association National Association of Letter Carriers American Postal Workers Union nhpmu. org Contracts Alabama, Local 317National Postal Mail Handlers Union – NPMHU
6. Postal Regulatory Commission – The United States Postal Regulatory Commission, formerly called the Postal Rate Commission, is an independent regulatory agency created by the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970. Like the Postal Service, it was defined in law as an independent establishment of the executive branch, the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 created the PRC—originally named the Postal Rate Commission—to set the rates for different classes of mail by holding hearings on rates proposed by the USPS. From 1970 through 2006, the PRC also had authority over the USPS in areas besides rates changes. The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006 - H. R.6407 enacted on December 20,2006, one stipulation of the PAEA has caused controversy. This requirement also explicitly stated that the USPS was to stop using its savings to reduce postal debt and this is in addition to deductions from pay for federal contribution to social services. This pre-funding method is unique to the USPS, in June 2011, the USPS had to suspend its weekly payment of 115 million into the fund because it had reached 8 billion dollars in debt and the retirement plan had a surplus of 6.9 billion dollars. As with Postal Governors, PRC commissioners are permitted to serve for one additional year beyond the end of their term if a replacement has not been nominated and confirmed. The President designates one Commissioner as Chairman of the Commission, the Commissioners together designate one of their number as a Vice-Chairman for a one-year term. No more than three of the Commissioners can be any one political party. The current members are, Commissioners Langley and Hammond were confirmed by the Senate in December 2014, the PRC is organized into five operating offices, Accountability and Compliance, General Counsel, Public Affairs and Government Relations, Secretary, and Inspector General. Areas of expertise include economic and econometric analysis, analysis of characteristics of the postal system, analysis of Postal Service operating costs. OAC also collects, analyzes and periodically summarizes financial and various other information to support Commission responsibilities. PAGR engages in outreach, responds to media inquiries and disseminates information concerning Commission decisions. PAGR also provides information to customers and assists in the resolution of informal complaints, called rate and service inquiries. It also manages facilities and infrastructure, and provides support services, the Office of Inspector General also investigates allegations and complaints. The law requires that the Commission designate an individual to represent the interest of the public in every public proceeding. This obligation is likely unique in the government, although state-level public utility commissions have similar arrangements. Since 2007, the Commission has used the method of appointing a member, on a case-by-case basisPostal Regulatory Commission – United States Postal Regulatory Commission
7. United States Postal Inspection Service – The United States Postal Inspection Service is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as crimes that may affect or fraudulently use the U. S. Mail. In fiscal year 2014, USPIS had 2,376 field employees, in 2008, the U. S. Postal Inspection Service had 2,288 full-time personnel with the authority to make arrests and carry firearms on duty. This represented a 23. 1% drop over the five years. The Postal Inspection Service has the oldest origins of any law enforcement agency in the United States. It traces its roots back to 1772 when colonial Postmaster General Benjamin Franklin first appointed a surveyor to regulate, thus, the Services origins—in part—predate the Declaration of Independence, and therefore the United States itself. As Franklin was Postmaster under the Continental Congress and was George Washingtons first Postmaster, in 1801, the title of surveyor was changed to Special Agent. In 1830, the Special Agents were organized into the Office of Instructions, the Postal Inspection Service was the first federal law enforcement agency to use the title Special Agent for its officers. Congress changed this title to Inspector in 1880, for some time, one of their primary duties was the enforcement of obscenity prohibitions under the Comstock Act. As fact-finding and investigative agents, Postal Inspectors are sworn law enforcement officers who carry firearms, make arrests and serve federal search warrants. Inspectors work closely with U. S. Attorneys, other law enforcement agencies, the USPIS has responsibility to safeguard over 600,000 Postal Service employees and billions of pieces of mail transported worldwide yearly by air, land, rail and sea. The USPS OIG conducts independent audits and investigations, Audits of postal programs and operations help to determine whether the programs and operations are efficient and cost-effective. Investigations help prevent and detect fraud, waste, and misconduct and have a deterrent effect on postal crimes, the OIG primarily took over the Postal Inspection Services audit function, as well as fraud waste and abuse. Since the September 11,2001, attacks, the USPIS has also investigated several cases where ricin, anthrax, mcGee is credited with assisting in the conviction of former Illinois Governor Otto Kerner on mail fraud charges. This function also investigates robberies of postal employees and postal facilities, burglaries of postal facilities and this investigative function focuses on ensuring that the sanctity and trust in the U. S. The laundering of narcotics and other criminal proceeds through the use of Postal Money Orders is sometimes categorized under this investigative function, security Audits are conducted by these teams to ensure that postal service maintains facilities secure from not only theft and robberies but also natural and manmade disasters. USPIS maintains investigators in the US and in posts around the world for protection, liaison, joint Task Force Investigations, USPIS participates in joint task force investigations where laws applicable to the mail service are involved. These cases are often wide ranging and involve every law enforcement agency of the Federal Government, the U. S. Postal Inspection Service first established a crime lab in 1940United States Postal Inspection Service – Patch of the United States Postal Inspection Service Postal police uniform division
8. United States Postal Savings System – The system paid depositors 2 percent annual interest. Depositors in the system were limited to hold a balance of $500. At its peak in 1947, the system held almost $3.4 billion in deposits, the system originally had a natural advantage over deposit-taking private banks because the deposits were always backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government. However, because the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation gave the guarantee to depositors in private banks. On March 26,1911, the locations of the central depositories for the first 19 states were established, followed the day by 25 others. The post offices were selected by merit rather than geography, based on those with the best efficiency record in the state. LUnited States Postal Savings System – A certificate of a $5 deposit in the United States Postal Savings System issued on September 10th, 1932
9. Express mail in the United States – The United States Postal Service provides Express Mail for domestic U. S. delivery, and offers two Express Mail services, although only one of them is part of the EMS standard. One is called Priority Mail Express International and the service is called Global Express Guaranteed. The latter having no relation whatsoever to EMS International service as provided by the EMS Cooperative, the USPS Global Express Guaranteed, by which USPS offices act as drop locations for international packages which are then handled by FedEx international delivery network. S. In 2013, the USPS changed the name of the service from Express Mail International to Priority Mail Express International and this may lead to confusion, as Priority Mail is still used, and the packaging is very similar. Special Delivery, an accelerated delivery service, was introduced on 3 March 1885 initially with a fee of 10¢ paid by a Special Delivery stamp. It has been transformed into Express Mail, which was introduced in 1977 after a period that started in 1970. Express Mail is a domestic mail delivery service operated by the United States Postal Service. It is able to provide delivery to most locations within the continental United States. Unlike most other USPS delivery options which provide only delivery confirmation, Express Mail provides accurate, up-to-date tracking information, items shipped using this service can be delivered within the 48 contiguous United States and the Washington, D. C. within 1 to 2 business days. Packages sent to Canada, Mexico, Alaska, and Hawaii frequently require up to 2 additional business days, Express Mail deliver 365 days a year, including Saturdays, Sundays, and federal holidays. Sunday/Holiday incurs a charge of $12.50 in addition to standard rate, unlike Priority Mail and First Class Mail, USPS provides real-time tracking information online and by phone for Express Mail shipments. Global Express Guaranteed service is an international expedited delivery service provided through an alliance with FedEx Corporation and it provides reliable, high–speed, guaranteed, and time–definite service from selected Post Office facilities in the United States to a large number of international destinations. Global Express Guaranteed delivery service is guaranteed to meet the service standards or the postage paid may be refunded. For almost all destinations, liability insurance is provided for lost or damaged shipments. Other private express carriers guarantee overnight or 2-day delivery by as early as 8,30 or 10,30 AM, Express Mail also conveys other benefits under specific circumstances, U. SExpress mail in the United States – 1944 13¢ Special Delivery stamp
10. United States postal notes – This article is about The US Postal Notes of 1883-1894. You might be looking for information on Post-it notes, Postal notes were the specialized money order successors to the United States Department of the Treasurys postage and fractional currency. They were created so Americans could safely and inexpensively send sums of money under $5 to distant places, Postal Notes were privately produced by three different firms in six design types during three four-year contracts. Developed under Postmaster General Walter Q, gresham, they were first issued at the nations post offices on Monday, September 3,1883. Numerous first day souvenir notes have survived, government officials, wary of the continuing problem of postal theft, initially mandated that the notes could be cashable only in the city named by the purchaser. Engraved and printed by the Homer Lee Bank Note Company, the first two designs had a space for the clerk to indicate where the note was being sent. If stolen en route, the note had no value, as it could not be cashed in any other city, all Postal Notes were printed on a watermarked security paper produced by Crane & Co. that features a unique watermark. Type I notes were printed on a yellow security paper blank that was about 10% larger than all subsequent issues, Type II and later notes were printed on a creamy white security paper. In January 1887, Congress changed the applicable law, rather than being cashable at only one named post office, it decided that newly issued Postal Notes could be cashable at any money order office – the systems larger and busier offices. To comply with the new law, Any Money Order Office was rubber-stamped or hand written in place of a specific paying city on the Type II forms and these notes are called Type II-A. To comply with the law, Homer Lees engravers added the words ANY MONEY ORDER OFFICE in a line into the second designs printing plates. Due to the period of time between the passage of the new law and the start of the second production contract, few post offices ordered and issued Type III Postal Notes. The American Bank Note Company of New York was the winning bidder for the second Postal Note engraving and printing contract. Thomas F. Morris, creator of the designs for U. S. currency and stamps, as well as stock and bond certificates, etc. was assigned to design. No major changes were required during Americans four-year contract, the only change noted during ABNCos contract was the decade change on the date line from 188___ to 189___. All Postal Notes issued with the American Bank Note Company logotype are Type IV, the third and final Postal Note engraving and printing contract extended from September 1891 to June 30,1894. Dunlap & Clarke of Philadelphia won the competition and their design, unchanged during the length of their contract, is catalogued as Type V. Between 1883 and 1894, some 70.8 million Postal Notes were issued, used as intended, approximately 1,500 have survived for modern collectors and historiansUnited States postal notes – An 1883 postal note of Homer Lee Bank Note Co., Philadelphia 7 Sept 1883.
11. Railway Mail Service – The United States Postal Services Railway Mail Service was a significant mail transportation service in the US during the time period from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th century. The RMS, or its successor the Postal Transportation Service, carried the vast majority of letters, Armstrong, manager of the Chicago Post Office, is generally credited with being the founder of the concept of en route mail sorting aboard trains which became the Railway Mail Service. A superintendent was over each division, all under the direction of George B, Armstrong, who had been summoned from Chicago to Washington, D. C. to become general superintendent of the postal railway service. Armstrong served only two years as general superintendent before resigning because of failing health and he died in Chicago on May 5,1871, two days after his resignation. Armstrongs successor in Chicago, George S. Bangs, was appointed as the general superintendent of the postal railway service. In 1890,5,800 postal railway clerks provided service over 154,800 miles of railroad, by 1907, over 14,000 clerks were providing service over 203,000 miles of railroad. When the post office began handling parcel post in 1913, terminal Railway Post Office operations were established in cities by the RMS. The Railway Mail Service reached its peak in the 1920s, then began a decline with the discontinuance of RPO service on branchlines. After 1942, Highway Post Office service was utilized to continue en route sorting after discontinuance of some railway post office operations, as highway mail transportation became more prevalent, the Railway Mail Service was redesignated as the Postal Transportation Service. Abandonment of routes accelerated in the late 1950s and early 1960s, on June 30,1974, the Cleveland and Cincinnati highway post office, the last HPO route, was discontinued. The last railway post office operated between New York and Washington, D. C. on June 30,1977, a large bust and monument to Armstrong is displayed in the north side of Chicagos Loop Station Post Office. A restored RPO car is displayed as part of the Pioneer Zephyr at the Chicagos Museum of Science, the restored 1927 AT&SF Railway #74 RPO car is displayed at the Pacific Southwest Railway Museum in Campo, CA. First Division, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, second Division, New York, New Jersey. Third Division, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, fourth Division, Tennessee, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Florida. Eighth Division, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, ninth Division, Michigan, also lines of New York Central Railroad between New York City and Chicago. Tenth Division, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, eleventh Division, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma. Thirteenth Division, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, fifteenth Division, Pennsylvania, Delaware, also lines of Pennsylvania Railroad west of Pittsburgh. 29 Years to Oblivion, The Last Years of Railway Mail Service in the United States, Mobile Post Office Society, Omaha, the Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Boyce, VirginiaRailway Mail Service – The RPO section of the Pioneer Zephyr
12. Registered mail – The name of this service varies from country to country, and postal services in some countries offer more than one level of service under different names. See the country-specific information below for details, traditionally, registered mail was a manual process which gave rise to a great variety of distinctive postal markings, like handstamps, and usage of registration labels. Many countries have issued postal stationery and postage stamps for registered mail. Earlier similar services were known as Money Letters, today, however, the registration process is largely computerized with barcode registration labels replacing the traditional analog labels having only a printed serial number. Generally, the item is pre-paid with the postage rate. Upon payment of this fee the sender is given a receipt, as the letter travels from post office to post office and through any sorting office, it has to be signed for on a ledger. This process is completed when the letter is delivered and the signs for the item. Many postal authorities provide tracing information for registered items on their website, internationally, the use of registered mail requires labels with a 13-digit reference number and corresponding barcode. The first two letters indicate registration while the last 2 letters usually represent the country where the item was posted. RR913282511SG indicating Singapore, RB5584847749CN indicating China or RR123456785KR indicating Korea and this was likely for state security rather than mail security. In 1603, another Order of Council was made whereby all letters had to be recorded and this system was in effect a registration system although it applied to all items sent via the post. William Dockwras 1680s London Penny Post also recorded all details on letters accepted for onward transmission but unlike the general post office, the registration of letters as known today was introduced in 1841 in Great Britain. The letter had to be enclosed within a sheet of green paper. The green sheet was addressed to the Post Office where the recipient lived, the green sheet was then used as a receipt and was returned to the office of origin after delivery. On 1 July 1858 the green sheet was replaced by a silk ribbon. In 1870 the tape was replaced by green string, on the introduction of postal stationery registration envelopes in 1878 the string was replaced by printed blue crossed lines. The blue crossed lines have survived on registered letters to the present day, since 1998, the Special Delivery service has been the only registered service offered by Royal Mail, after the old-style Registered Letter service was discontinued. The United States Postal Service offers two services called Certified Mail and Registered MailRegistered mail – A 1936 registered letter from Canada to Great Britain sent via the RMS Queen Mary.
13. U.S. Special Delivery (postal service) – Special Delivery was a postal service paid for with additional postage for urgent letters and postal packets which are delivered in less time than by standard or first class mail service. Its meaning is different and separate from express mail delivery service, Post Office in conjunction with the Universal Postal Union established a basis for a special service for speedier delivery of mail for an extra fee beginning in 1885. Special Delivery was at first limited to post offices operated in townships with populations of 4,000 or more. In 1886 Congress revised Special Delivery service to all U. S. post offices, in 1885 Congress enacted the use of “a special stamp of the face valuation of ten cents. When attached to a letter, in addition to the lawful postage thereon, shall be regarded as entitling such letter to immediate delivery. ”The first Special delivery stamp was printed by the American Bank Note Company and issued on October 1,1885. It could not be used to prepay postage or any other service, the stamp bears the words Secures immediate delivery at a special delivery office. In 1886 the Special Delivery service was expanded to all post offices, the revised stamp was identical to the first issue of 1885 but instead bore the statement Secures immediate delivery at any post office. The release of the stamp was delayed by the Post Office until 1888, however. But the usage of stamps had their drawbacks. Special Delivery only served communities whose population was over 4,000 people, to be valid the Special Delivery stamp had to be affixed to the envelope along with all other postage and could not be used to prepay regular and airmail postage. Five distinct issues showing the messenger were made. In 1908 a helmet of the god Mercury was briefly used for the design, the bicycle design was reinstated and continued with subsequent issues having differences in perforations and watermarks. The series ended in 1922 when a messenger riding a motorcycle was shown, in the following years the truck and motorcycle pictures reappeared as rates changed and various color, printing and perforation varieties were created. Finally in 1954 a design featuring hands passing a letter went into use, the last image, instituted in 1969, portrayed arrows. Overall philatelists recognize 23 separate issues of special delivery stamps spanning the years 1885 to 1971, in addition, three Airmail Special Delivery stamps were issued in the 1930s, two regular ones and an imperforated issue specially produced by Postmaster General James Farley. In used condition none of the special stamps are particularly scarce. On June 7,1997, the United States Postal Service terminated Special Delivery mail service which left many unused Special Delivery stamps in circulation that were no longer valid for such postage. The remaining stamps were allowed to be returned to the Post Office for their value as services were not renderedU.S. Special Delivery (postal service) – Special Delivery badges
14. Special handling – Special handling originated as a service that secured accelerated processing of fourth class mail, so that it would be delivered as promptly as first-class material. This was to protect perishable items, with mention of live animals. It was considered a service from special delivery. The United States Post Office Department introduced this service in 1925, as rates changed, three additional U. S. Except for the value, the basic colors and designs of all the Special Handling stamps were identical. The three latter denominations, as well as an issue of the 25¢ stamp printed earlier in 1928. In addition, various minor variations exist through the series. However, catalogs normally list only the two 25¢ stamps as having noticeable color varieties, finally, the three lower denominations were reissued in dry printings in 1955. This led to differences in the stamps gum, paper and design sizes. While the stamps were withdrawn in 1959, today the USPS provides this expedited delivery of packages by other means, through first class parcel service and priority mail. Special handling still exists, but is now more defined, it provides preferential handling. This service is recommended for the delivery of live poultry, bees. Postal employees will take care to ensure that the handling package is not crushed or handled roughly during deliverySpecial handling – References 
15. Air Mail Facility – Only outgoing air mail was distributed at these workrooms, channeled there by both the post offices and Railway Post Office routes. This mail was distributed and dispatched to other AMFs via the different flight connections, incoming mail from other AMFs was distributed by general scheme and pouched to outgoing RPOs and necessary post offices. The Motor Vehicle Service provided frequent trips between the city post office and the AMF for air mail ground transportation, in 1951, there were 1200 clerks manning forty AMFs. They continue to exist within the U. S. Postal Service and are now called Air Mail CentersAir Mail Facility – Curtis "Jenny" JN-4
16. Boat Railway Post Office – Post was transported over water in the United States in the later nineteenth and the twentieth century. Route Agents and, later, Railway Post Office clerks were placed on inland boat lines at an early date. By the 1890s the famed river packets and steamers on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers usually carried RPO mail units, such as the old Cairo & Memphis, many lakes boasted of this service. In 1902,82 clerks were serving on 49 boat routes, the last year-round service of this type was in the state of Washington, the Bellingham & Anacortes lasted until 1950. The longest Boat RPOs operated between New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico, New York and Canal Zone, plus several routes from Seattle and these were all discontinued with the on-set of World War II. Two Boat RPOs outlived their railway route counterparts, the last rail route made its final trip between New York and Washington, DC on June 30,1977. The Wolfboro & Merrymount RPO lost its Boat RPO status upon its last trip of the season on Lake Winnipesaukee on September 15,1978, the title RPO was completely erased when the New Hampshire RPO closed its operating season on September 30,1978. These two boat routes still carry mail and operate as water-borne rural free delivery routes, but no longer have their distinctive RPO postmark, the Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Boyce, Virginia OCLC30148351. Available as an MS Word file at http, //www. railwaymailservicelibrary. org/articles/THE_RMS. DOC J. W. Westcott II Mail jumpingBoat Railway Post Office – U.S. Mailboat Uncle Sam on Lake Winnipesaukee
17. Community post office – A community post office is a facility of the United States Postal Service located in and operated by a non-postal facility, such as a store. In exchange for staffing the post office with its own employees, community post offices existed by the 1880s in various parts of the country, but they expanded rapidly during the Postmastership General of John Wanamaker. In the past, contract stations were not limited to commercial buildings, the Celina post office in southern Indiana was located in the Jacob Rickenbaugh House almost continuously from 1878 until 1961. Rickenbaughs daughter and granddaughter were the postmasters for the majority of this period, official standards in such contexts could be relaxed, the law required postmasters to be adults, but Rickenbaughs daughter Ella became postmaster in 1878 at the age of seventeen. Today, some contract post offices are operated by universities on their campusesCommunity post office – Interior of a community post office in Glover, Vermont
18. Dead letter office – A dead letter office is a facility within a postal system where undeliverable mail is dealt with. Mail is considered to be undeliverable when the address is invalid so it cannot be delivered to addressee, at a DLO, mail is usually opened to try to find an address to forward to. If an address is found, the envelope is sealed using tape or postal seals, or enclosed in plastic bags. If the letter or parcel is still undeliverable, valuable items are then auctioned off while the correspondence is usually destroyed, despite this practice, in the past some undeliverable envelopes were acquired by philatelists. Dead letter offices go by different names in different countries, other names include returned letter office or undeliverable mail office. Canada Post sends mail which is not deliverable to the Undeliverable Mail Office at Mississauga, Ontario or North Sydney, domestic mail which is still undeliverable after passing through NUMO is then destroyed, while incoming international undeliverable mail is returned to the country of origin. In Malta, undeliverable mail was sorted in the General Post Office in Valletta, the facility was initially known as Returned Letter Branch, but later on it was also referred to as Returned Letter Office or Dead Letter Office. Various postal markings were used at the facility from 1889 onwards, a Dead Letter Office was first established in 1784 for dead and missent letters that had reached London. The bye-letter offices dealt with bye-letters and those that did not go to London, no postage was charged for returns, which were made after six months, where an addressee was found. From 1790 a charge was made for returned letter but the time was reduced to two months by John Palmer, upon hearing of the return charge William Pitt rescinded the charge. In the UK, undeliverable mail is processed in the National Returns Centre in Belfast which holds 20 million undeliverable items, the United States Postal Service started a dead letter office in 1825 to deal with undeliverable mail. By 1893, it handled about 20,000 items every day, items of value that cannot be returned are sold at auction, except for pornography and firearms. The auctions also occasionally include items seized by postal inspectors and property being retired from postal service and these facilities are now known as mail recovery centers. Other former names include dead letter branch and dead parcel branch, the USPS mail recovery center is located in Atlanta, Georgia. One famous fictional alleged employee of the dead letter office is Bartleby, the character of Herman Melvilles Bartleby. Released a compilation of B-sides and rarities entitled Dead Letter Office, the mans attorney uses the huge volume of mail as evidence that the federal government recognizes his client as the one-and-only Santa Claus. Horror writer Clive Barkers book The Great and Secret Show features segments centered around the dead letter office at Omaha, Nebraska. In The Simpsons episode Sunday, Cruddy Sunday, Springfield Elementary School visits their local Post Office and are treated to a piece of mail from the dead letter office as a souvenirDead letter office – Dead letter office at Washington, D.C.; an 1868 wood engraving
19. Highway Post Office – Due to the continual withdrawal of so many Railway Post Office trains, the Post Office Department decided to experiment with the distribution of mail on large buses, equipped somewhat like RPO cars. On February 10,1941, experimental service started on the Washington, DC & Harrisonburg and it was a success from the start, but, due to World War II, expansion of this service was delayed for several years. After the war, the service increased rapidly, with more than 130 routes established between 1948 and 1955, as this service was somewhat enmeshed with the RPO service, its value decreased when RPOs were abolished. The last service of this type to operate in the U. S. was the Cleveland, Ohio, & Cincinnati, Ohio HPO, Railway Mail Service Library Wilking, Clarence. The Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Boyce, available as an MS Word file at http, //www. railwaymailservicelibrary. org/articles/THE_RMS. DOCHighway Post Office – First Highway Post Office bus, 1941. Photo courtesy National Postal Museum.
20. J. W. Westcott II – J. W. Westcott II is a boat known for its delivery of mail to ships while they are underway. It operates out of Detroit, Michigan, and is the only floating zip code in the United States, the Westcott company was established in 1874 by Captain J. W. Westcott, who ferried supplies to passing ships via rowboat. By 1949 the company commissioned Paasch Marine Service of Erie, Pennsylvania to build J. W. Westcott II, the ship is 45 feet in length and has a beam of 13 feet. A single screw is powered by a 305 horsepower marine diesel engine, the boats speed is rated at 15 knots. The US postal zip code 48222 is exclusive to the floating post office and its ship addressees, as of 2016, the mail will be delivered to the appropriate ships as they transit the Detroit River, utilizing ropes and buckets. On 23 October 2001, J. W. Westcott II sank in the water under the Ambassador Bridge while caught in the wake of MT Sidsel Knutsen. The captain and one crew member were killed and two others were rescued. J. W. Westcott II was later salvaged, refurbished and returned to service, boat Railway Post Office Mail jumping J. W. Westcott Co. website Westcott Co. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011, images of J. W. Westcott II. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011J. W. Westcott II – J. W. Westcott II
21. List of United States Post Offices – Post Offices include individual buildings, whether still in service or not, which have architectural or community-related significance. Many of these are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and/or state, United States Post Office United States Post Office Old Athens, Alabama Main Post Office in Athens, Alabama United States Post Office Auburn City Hall, formerly U. S. Post Office Robert S. Vance Federal Building and United States Courthouse, Birmingham, Alabama, formerly known as U. S. Johnson, cotter Federal Building, Hartford, Connecticut, NRHP-listed as U. S. S. S. Post Office, Gainesville, Florida, listed on the NRHP as U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Michigan Lincoln Park Post Office, in Lincoln Park, MI, listed on the NRHP in Michigan Old U. S. Post Office, NRHP-listed Castle Museum, also known as Saginaw Post Office or Castle Station, Courthouse and Post Office, NRHP-listed United States Post Office-Amory, in Amory, Mississippi, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi U. S. Post Office, Courthouse, and Customhouse, NRHP-listed, in Harrison County United States Post Office, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi U. S. Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi Old U. S. S. Post Office, a Mississippi Landmark Old U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi and as a Mississippi Landmark U. S. Post Office and Customhouse, Gulfport, Mississippi, NRHP-listed U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Forrest County, Mississippi United States Post Office-Hazlehurst, in Hazlehurst, Mississippi, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi Old U. S. Post Office, a Mississippi Landmark U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi U. S. Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi United States Post Office-Magnolia, in Magnolia, Mississippi, Post Office, a Mississippi Landmark United States Post Office and Courthouse, NRHP-listed Old U. S. S. Post Office, a Mississippi Landmark U. S, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi U. S. Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Missouri United States Post Office-Kansas City, in Kansas City, MO, Post Office-Anaconda Main, in Anaconda, Montana, listed on the NRHP in Montana U. S. Post Office-Dillon Main, in Dillon, Montana, listed on the NRHP in Montana U. S, Post Office and Courthouse–Glasgow Main, Glasgow, Montana U. S. Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Montana U. S, Post Office and Courthouse–Great Falls U. S. Post Office and Courthouse–Havre Main, Havre, Montana U. S, Post Office and Federal Building-Lewistown, in Lewistown, Montana, listed on the NRHP in Montana U. S. Post Office-Livingston Main, in Livingston, Montana, listed on the NRHP in Montana Miles City Main Post Office, in Miles City, Montana, listed on the NRHP in Montana U. S. S. Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Nebraska United States Post Office-Minden, in Minden, Nebraska, Post Office, listed on the NRHP in Nebraska U. S. S. SList of United States Post Offices – Beaux Arts -style United States Post Office Building (Selma, Alabama), in 2010
22. National Postal Museum – The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D. C. United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993. The museum is located across the street from Union Station, in the building once served as the Main Post Office of Washington, D. C. from 1914. The building was designed by the Graham and Burnham architectural firm, the building in which the museum is housed, also serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Labors Bureau of Labor Statistics as well as a data center for the United States Senate. The museum houses many interactive displays about the history of the United States Postal Service, also on display is a vast collection of stamps. As a Smithsonian museum, admission is free and this museum also houses a library. In 2005, the museum acquired John Lennons childhood stamp collection, in September 2009, the museum received a $8 million gift from investment firm founder William H. Gross to help finance the expansion of the museum. The museum now hosts the William H. Gross Stamp Gallery named in his honor, since 2002, the museum has presented the Smithsonian Philatelic Achievement Award every two years. List of philatelic libraries Owney U. SNational Postal Museum – National Postal Museum
23. Red Brick Roads – The Red Brick Roads, in Pullman, Washington, are a block of NE Maple St. and a block of NE Palouse St. and together are the last remaining brick streets in the city. The steepest part of the route to campus received brick paving to provide traction for horses, beginning in 1885, the railroad served as a vital communication and transportation link to the growing region. Pullman housed two railroad depots, the Northern Pacific Railway and the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company. The red brick street was built near the Northern Pacific Railway Depot as padding around the tracks for the pedestrians. ”Due to the growth and awareness of the region’s significance, in 1917, Northern Pacific paid $40,000 for a “modern” facility. The pad was increased and laid in vitrified brick to match the adjacent Palouse or Star Route Street, starting in the second decade of the twentieth century, automobiles began to dominate the landscape. Highways were built in the region, reducing the dependence on the railroad. In 1970, acquescing to the dominance as a people-mover. Part of the Red Brick Roads was a Star route, Star routes were affiliated with the United States Postal Service and were distinguished as old mail routes that were also commonly known as Highway Contract Routes for delivering mail. From the Northern Pacific Railroad depot, the red brick paving continued up to Star Route St. to Montgomery St. then east to the center of the college, Star Route was a very dusty and muddy horse and buggy road during the early 1900s. During the winter it was difficult to travel and in 1906 a wooden sidewalk was constructed to aid foot traffic. If a team should run away on coming down Star Route it would in all probability dash over the yawning precipice, the city and residents of Pullman saw paving as a solution to the dangers and inefficiencies of the unpaved dirt road. Automobiles accompanied horse carriages in Pullman by 1912, the high traffic streets were used by both automobiles and horses, which required the streets to be surfaced. The Pullman Chamber of Commerce played a role in establishing the importance of paved streets by forming the Pullman Good Roads Committee in 1911. The Pullman Good Roads Committee immediately began formation of a plan to pave a route to be determined from the streets from the city to the college. The properties adjacent to the roads paved would be responsible to pay taxes and in addition, the Good Roads Committee advocated for new roads and helped the college receive the Mill Tax, which increased revenue to the college to allow them to expand and improve the campus. The roads benefited the economy by allowing deliverymen to reduce prices for customers because they could operate year round. The route was chosen through College Hill because it was the lowest slope of the city to campus routes. The preferred paving surface was Macadam and concrete curbing, brick was used on high sloped sections of the streets to help horses get traction to climb up the hillsRed Brick Roads – Historic Star Route - NE Maple St.
24. Sectional center facility – A Sectional Center Facility routes mail between local post offices and to and from Network Distribution Centers, which form the backbone of the network. The following are the USPS SCFs by state that, together, Note, Alabama 369 is served by Meridian, Mississippi. Note, AZ864 served by Las Vegas, Nevada, AZ865 served by Gallup, New Mexico,854,858,861, phoenix Tucson Note, Arkansas 723 served by Memphis, Tennessee, Arkansas 718 served by Shreveport, Louisiana. Pine Bluff Camden Hot Springs Little Rock Jonesboro Fayetteville Russellville Fort Smith Note, CA961 is served by Reno, Nevada, denver CO80249 Grand Junction Note,066,068, and 069 are served by Westchester, New York. Washington,900 Brentwood Rd NE, Washington DC 20066-9998200 - street, PO box addresses 202-205 - US government, agencies, Note, Florida 343,345, and 348 are unassigned. Tampa, FL33605 St. Petersburg Lakeland Fort Myers Manasota Note, Georgia 307 is served by Chattanooga, pocatello Lewiston Boise Note, Illinois 620,622, and 628-629 are served by St. Louis, Missouri,621 is unassigned. Des Moines Waterloo Cedar Rapids Note, 660-662 and 664-668 are served by Kansas City, Missouri,677 is served by North Platte, Nebraska,679 is served by Amarillo, louisville Lexington Campton Paducah Note,702 and 709 are unassigned. St. Paul Minneapolis Duluth Rochester Mankato Windom Willmar St. Cloud Brainerd Detroit Lakes Bemidji Thief River Falls Note, Mississippi 386 and 388 are served by Memphis, jackson Hattiesburg Gulfport Note, Missouri 634-635 are now split between St. Louis and Columbia. 632, 642-643, and 659 are unassigned, St. Louis 1720 Market St. St. Louis, MO63155 Cape Girardeau Kansas City Mid-MO, Missouri Springfield Billings Great Falls Missoula Note,682 and 694-699 are unassigned. Omaha Norfolk Grand Island North Platte Note,892 and 899 are unassigned, Las Vegas Reno Elko Note, New Hampshire 035-037 are served by White River Junction, Vermont. Manchester 955 Goffs Falls Rd. Manchester, NH03103 Dominick V. Albuquerque ) Note, New York 06390 is served by Hartford, Note, Ohio 439 is served by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Columbus Toledo Cleveland Akron Cincinnati Dayton Note, Oklahoma 739 is served by Amarillo, Texas,732 and 742 are unassigned,733 is assigned to Austin, Texas. Oklahoma City Ardmore Lawton Clinton Enid Woodward Tulsa Muskogee McAlester Ponca City Durant Poteau Note, Oregon 979 is served by Boise, Portland 715 NW Hoyt St. Portland, OR 97208-9998 Eugene Medford Bend Pendleton See Guam above. Note, Pennsylvania 193 is served by Wilmington, Delaware, providence, RI02904 Note, South Carolina 297 is served by Charlotte, North Carolina, South Carolina 298 is served by Augusta, Georgia, and South Carolina 299 is served by Savannah, Georgia. Austin North Texas Located in Coppell Dallas North Houston 4600 Aldine Bender Rd,77315 Fort Worth Abilene Corpus Christi San Antonio 10410 Perrin Beitel Rd, San Antonio, TX78284 McAllen Amarillo Lubbock Midland El Paso Note,842 is unassigned. Salt Lake City Provo Note,055 is assigned to Middlesex-Essex, White River Junction 195 Sykes Mountain Ave. White River Junction, VT05001 Burlington 8 New England Dr, Essex Jct, VT,05452 See Puerto Rico above. Note, Virginia 246 is served by Bluefield, West Virginia, Virginia 242 is served by Johnson City, Charleston 1000 Centre Way, Charleston, WV25309 Note, Wisconsin 540 is served by St. Paul, Minnesota. Cheyenne Wheatland Rawlins Casper Rock Springs The Military Postal Service Agency takes control of the mail at New York, Miami, or San Francisco, Note, for military postal purposes Canada, Africa, and the Middle East are in EuropeSectional center facility – SCF in Kearny, New Jersey
25. Terminal Railway Post Office – Terminal railway post offices were sorting facilities which were established by the Railway Mail Service to speed the distribution of parcel post. These offices were located in or near railroad stations in major cities or junction points. Terminal railway post offices operated generally from 1913-1914 into the mid-1960s, on January 1,1913, the United States Post Office began handling parcel post, in addition to letters and more conventional mail. These terminals also came to distribute transit parcel post, circulars, magazines, letter cases were used at many terminals to take care of advance work or unworked letters from Railway Post Office routes, while a few terminals handled parcel post almost exclusively. The largest terminal railway post office was the Penn Terminal in the G. P. O, building in New York City, New York—in 1951, it had over 1,100 clerks. Penn Terminal handled advance work for many of the railway post office routes leaving New York City, by comparison, the West Side Terminal, located along the New York Central line near the Hudson River piers, handled parcel post almost exclusively. Because parcel post transportation was generally by rail, most terminal RPOs were housed in or adjacent to the railroad station, where mails for more than one state were distributed, the state rights of the assignments were prorated. If one-fourth of the mail distributed at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Terminal was Ohio mail, the number of Terminal railway post offices peaked in 1914, with nearly 100 offices. In 1915, that declined to 88, with a further decline to 71 offices by 1942, as many smaller offices were closed. All the mail originating in the cities where Terminals were located was distributed by the city post offices, in many cases, this duplication of distribution was in the same building. Local postmasters had no jurisdiction over terminal RPO operations until the 1950s, the filling of assignments in the terminal was then limited to the roster from the civil service examination of the city post office. As railway post office routes declined in number, the volume of parcel post transported by this mode also decreased, development of the U. S. Postal Service sectional centers duplicated many of the functions of the terminal RPO, and the terminals were phased out by the 1960s. First class mail worked by terminal RPOs usually received a Terminal RPO postmark, like the cancellations from RPO cars themselves, terminal RPO postmarks are collected by those who specialize in this aspect of postal history. This is a preliminary list of some of the almost 100 terminal railway post office facilities which existed between 1913 and the early 1960s, joseph, St. Louis Minnesota, Minneapolis, St. The Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Boyce, available as an MS Word file at http, //www. railwaymailservicelibrary. org/articles/THE_RMS. DOCTerminal Railway Post Office – This letter was worked by Tour 3 of the Texarkana, Arkansas, Terminal RPO in November 1924.
26. Comstock laws – The Act criminalized usage of the U. S. Half of the states passed similar anti-obscenity statutes that also banned possession and sale of obscene materials, the law was named after its chief proponent, Anthony Comstock. Due to his own personal enforcement of the law during its early days, the text of the federal bill read, in part, Be it enacted. That whoever, within the District of Columbia or any of the Territories of the United States, the Comstock Act targeted pornography, contraceptive equipment, and such educational materials as descriptions of contraceptive methods and other reproductive health-related materials. Of particular note were advertisements for abortifacients found in penny papers, Comstocks ideas of what is obscene, lewd, or lascivious were quite broad. During his time of greatest power, some anatomy textbooks were prohibited from being sent to students by the United States Postal Service. The Comstock Act clearly hinges on definitions, particularly of obscenity, though the courts originally adopted the British Hicklin test, in 1957 an American test was put into place in Roth v. The main support and active persecutor for the purposes of the Comstock laws was the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice. This memorandum linked the main message of the Y. M. C. A. to facts and figures that were drawn from the census, tax data, the 1866 memorandum supported a plan to construct a centrally located building to better serve the younger men of New York. Not only was the building to support the spiritual, mental, however, the memorandum was also used as a call to action to investigate whether or not a law was in place to reprimand and confiscate obscene literature. After conferring with an attorney, a committee was organized to write up a bill to be pushed through the New York State legislature. In 1868, the bill was passed however it was not as strong as the association would have liked it to be, after the passing of the bill, the Y. M. C. A appointed a committee to oversee the enforcement of the law. If the indicted party ended up being found guilty, the materials that were confiscated in the raid were destroyed, Anthony Comstock stated that he was determined to act the part of a good citizen, meaning that he had every intention of upholding the law. He started off by beginning a campaign against the saloons in his New York neighborhood of Brooklyn, the biggest contributor to igniting Comstocks mission to rid of any and all obscene material was when one of his dear friends died. As for a person to blame, Comstock laid all of it on Charles Conroy, after this incident, continued on with the crusade all throughout his neighborhood and in doing so, he kept a ledger that had a record of every single arrest he had made. Comstock became linked with the YMCA shortly after writing a financial request to Robert McBurney to continue with his efforts, once the current President, Morris Jesup, became aware of the letter he immediately went to see Comstock and allocated the funds towards his efforts. On top of the allocated for Comstocks efforts, Jesup also gave him a bonus for his efforts. Comstock was invited to speak before the YMCAs Committee on Obscene Literature, which was renamed the Suppression of ViceComstock laws – The symbol of Comstock's New York Society for the Suppression of Vice.
27. Airmails of the United States – After an intermittent series of government sponsored experimental flights between 1911 and 1918, domestic U. S. S. Army Air Forces temporarily took over the routes — with disastrous results — when all CAM contracts were cancelled by President Franklin D. Roosevelt owing to the Air Mail Scandal. In 1959 the United States Postal Service issued a 7 cent stamp commemorating Wises flight in the Jupiter, balloon mail was also carried on an 1877 flight in Nashville, Tennessee. After being duly sworn in by U. S, postmaster General Frank Hitchcock as the first U. S. Emphasizing the concept, in 1912 the United States printed a 20-cent stamp in the Parcel Post series showing a flying machine and titled, the mailbag behind the pilot is labeled No.1. Fleet and operating on a route between Washington, D. C. and New York City with a stop in Philadelphia. Among those who were on hand for the departure of the first flight from Washington, D. C. were President Woodrow Wilson, postmaster General Albert S. Burleson, and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. Army 2nd Lt. George L. Boyle was selected to pilot aircraft #38262 on the first northbound flight which, unfortunately, turned out to be a somewhat less than successful initial venture. Almost immediately after taking off at 11, 47AM, Boyle became disoriented and started flying South when he followed the set of railroad tracks out of the city. Realizing that he was lost, Boyle attempted to find out where he was by making a landing just 18 minutes later at 12, 05PM in Waldorf, Maryland. Unfortunately, however, he broke the prop on his airplane when he made a hard landing, However aviators 1st Lt. Torrey H. Webb and 2nd Lt. James C. Edgerton completed the scheduled southbound relay with 144 pounds of mail, the site of the first continuously scheduled air mail service is marked by a plaque in West Potomac Park in Washington, D. C. The route was extended to Boston three weeks later on June 4, additional monochromatic stamps of similar design to C-3 were also issued contemporaneously with these rate changes in 16 cent and 6 cent denominations. In addition to New York and San Francisco, the route included thirteen intermediate stops where mails were exchanged and aircrew relieved. This was accomplished at airfields located at Bellefonte, Cleveland, Bryan, Chicago, Iowa City, Omaha, North Platte, Cheyenne, Rawlins, Rock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko and Reno. For the first eight years of the Air Mail service, all mails were flown entirely in U. S. Government owned and operated airplanes, dean Smith was one of those that helped instigate the pioneer air mail services and was the first to fly mail by night. Better known as The Kelly Act, it directed the U. S, as of September 1,1927, all U. S. Air Mail routes were being flown under contract by commercial carriers. The contractor for both routes was the Ford Motor Company, operating as Ford Air Transport, using a fleet of six Ford built Stout 2-AT aircraftAirmails of the United States – Cover flown on the first day of scheduled Air Mail Service in the U.S. and franked with the first U.S. Air Mail stamp, the 24 Cent "Jenny" (C-3). Cancel: "AIR MAIL SERVICE - WASH. N.Y. PHILA." "MAY 15, 1918 - FIRST TRIP" "PHILA." (Type: USPOD CDS w/killer bars)
28. Catcher pouch – A catcher pouch was a mail bag used by Railway Post Offices of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Its use was limited to exchanges onto moving trains, the specially constructed catcher pouch was grabbed by the catcher mechanism in the passing railway car and the catcher pouch would release from the holding rings on the mail crane. This technique was known as mail on the fly, starting in the 1870s the use of this technique of the Railway Mail Service was an important issue in the United States. It was a technique and the backbone of the United States Postal Service through the 1930s. When the mail clerk of the Railway Post Office car grabbed the catcher pouch on the crane he would at the same time kick out the outgoing mail for delivery to that village. The idea behind the catcher pouch was that there could be an exchange of mail to villages too small to justify the train stopping, the complete transfer technique required much skill and potentially could cause harm or even death for those not trained properly. Another reason why the catcher pouch and mail crane were developed is so the train did not have to slow down just for the exchange of mail, the mail on-the-fly was not a smooth operating technique. One problem with the technique was that the clerk had to pay close attention when he raised the trains catcher arm. If it was raised too early there was a chance of hitting and destroying targets, telegraph poles. If the clerk was too late in raising the trains catcher arm, in the United Kingdom as early as 1855 an apparatus for snatching mailbags on-the-fly and delivering mail without stopping a train was in use at Slough, England. It continued in service until 1939, Catcher pouches could not be used for any other purpose. The catcher pouch was to be used only for letters, the maximum weight of a filled catcher pouch was to be 50 pounds. The catcher pouch was to be locked and placed upside down on the mail crane no sooner than 10 minutes before the arrival of the Mail Train. The catcher pouch was to be tied in the middle before it was to be transferred, if a small amount of mail, it should be put in the lower half below the tie strap. If a large amount of mail, it should be divided equally between the half and the lower half of the catcher pouch. The catcher pouch is a form of sack made of an extra tough canvas material and had metal rings on each end so they could attach to the arm of a railway mail bag crane. The body of the pouch was strengthened by leather bindings both at the top and bottom, a Registered Mail pouch came also with a leather bottom and had a special postal lock to secure the contents. A leather strap was secured around the center of the body of the catcher pouch when it was readied to be snatched by a passing trains mail hookCatcher pouch – This is a transfer of a catcher pouch to a mail train of a Railway Post Office
29. Facing Identification Mark – The Facing Identification Mark, or FIM, is a bar code designed by the United States Postal Service to assist in the automated processing of mail. The FIM is a set of vertical bars printed on the envelope or postcard near the upper edge, the FIM is intended for use primarily on preprinted envelopes and postcards and is applied by the company printing the envelopes or postcards, not by the USPS. The FIM is a code consisting of ones and zeroes. Thus, there are only 16 possible FIMs,11 if the current limits of at most 3 consecutive bars or spaces are maintained, the FIM serves the following purposes. It allows the proper facing of mail for cancellation and it also identifies the manner in which postage is paid and whether that business reply mail has a POSTNET bar code. If the POSTNET bar code is present, the mail can be sent directly to a barcode sorter, the five codes have the following uses, FIM A is used for mail bearing regular postage and a POSTNET bar code. It is commonly used by preprinted courtesy reply mail and metered reply mail, FIM B is used for business reply mail without a preprinted ZIP+4 bar code. Because this costs more than barcoded mail, it is rarely used, FIM C is used for business reply mail with a preprinted POSTNET bar code. FIM D is used only with IBI postage, FIM E is used to mark customized mail bearing an Intelligent Mail Barcode. Domestic Mail Manual part 708.9, Facing Identification Mark illustrates the five FIM codes Courtesy Reply Mail from the USPSFacing Identification Mark – Diagram showing placement of the FIM (FIM A in this example) on a reply mailer.
30. Grumman LLV – The Grumman Long Life Vehicle, also known by its acronym as the LLV, is an American light transport truck. The Grumman LLV was designed as a truck for the United States Postal Service. The Grumman LLV was specifically designed for the United States Postal Service with Grumman winning the contract for production, the main design points of the vehicle in contract competition were serviceability, handling in confined areas, and overall economical operation. As its name suggests, the Grumman LLV is easily capable of a long life, the original design lifespan of the Grumman LLV specified by the U. S. Postal Service was 24 years, but in 2009 this was extended to thirty years. Curbside delivery from a driver seated in a vehicle to a mailbox is sometimes termed mounted delivery. The Grumman LLV entered service in 1987, the USPS purchased over 100,000 of these vehicles, of which the last was purchased in 1994. Approximately 140,000 LLVs are in the USPS delivery fleet, a number were also sold to Canada, Mexico, and several other countries. Like the older postal-service Jeep DJ-5, the Grumman LLV features a drivers position. It also features a metal tray, which is able to hold three trays of letter mail, mounted where a passenger seat would normally be. This arrangement positions the driver on the side of the vehicle closest to the curb, enabling the carrier to easily grab sorted mail, other notable features are an exceptionally tight turning radius and a low-geared,3 speed transmission for hauling heavy cargo. The LLV has a 1, 000-pound cargo capacity, the Grumman LLVs average EPA fuel economy is 17 miles per U. S. gallon. In actual use by the USPS, which includes extensive stop-and-go driving for residential delivery, like other U. S. Postal Service vehicles before it, the Grumman LLV lacks license plates. It uses a U. S. Postal Service serial number instead, because the United States Postal Service owns over 100,000 Grumman LLVs, of which the oldest are reaching the end of their lifespan, the USPS has been looking into replacing or retrofitting the LLVs. In fiscal year 2009, the USPS spent $524 million to repair its fleet of Grumman LLVs, in some areas LLVs have been replaced with minivans, which tend to be much more comfortable for postal workers, especially in extreme climates. In 2014, the USPS reviewed options for replacement, Canada Post also adopted the Grumman LLV, but around 2008, it began studying whether to refurbish, upgrade, or replace its fleet. On March 18,2010, Canada Post and Ford Motor Company announced that Canada Post would purchase a fleet of Transit Connect vans, the LLV had a unique footprint. The front wheels had narrower spacing than the rear wheels, the front of the vehicle also had low ground clearance. While this had advantages, there were trade offs, the vehicle was tested successfully in warmer climates, but when actually used in places with substantial snow fall, they became difficult to control and were poorly adapted to those conditionsGrumman LLV – A Grumman LLV of the United States Postal Service, seen here in Carson City, Nevada, in December 2005.
31. Information-Based Indicia – Information-Based Indicia refers to a secure postage evidencing standard used by the United States Postal Service to indicate electronic postage payment. Information-Based Indicia is a 2-dimensional PDF417 or data matrix barcode combined with human-readable information, the barcode data contains such information as amount of postage, origin zip code, destination, mail class, weight, confirmation/tracking numbers, and a cryptographic signature. The human-readable information shows at a minimum the information required by the USPS Domestic Mail Manual, advanced Secure Postage Evidencing, the Information Based Indicia USPS POM Revision, Information-Based Indicia Postage Paid Labels Update USPSInformation-Based Indicia – History
32. Intelligent Mail barcode – The Intelligent Mail Barcode is a 65-bar barcode for use on mail in the United States. The term “Intelligent Mail” refers to services offered by the United States Postal Service for domestic mail delivery, the IM barcode is intended to provide greater information and functionality than its predecessors POSTNET and PLANET. An Intelligent Mail barcode has also referred to as a One Code Solution. The complete specification can be found in USPS Document USPS-B-3200 and it effectively incorporates the routing ZIP code and tracking information included in previously used postal barcode standards. The barcode is applied by the sender, the Postal Service required use of the Intelligent Mail barcode to qualify for automation prices beginning January 28,2013, use of the barcode provides increased overall efficiency, including improved deliverability, and new services. The Intelligent Mail barcode is a barcode that encodes up to 31 decimal digits of mail-piece data into 65 vertical bars. The code is made up of four symbols, which is why it was once referred to as the 4-State Customer Barcode. Each bar contains the central portion, and may contain an ascender, descender, neither. The 65 bars represent 130 bits, grouped as ten 13-bit characters, each character has 2,5,8, or 11 of its 13 bits set to one. The Hamming distance between characters is at least 2, consequently, single-bit errors in a character can be detected. The characters are interleaved throughout the symbol, the number of characters can be calculated from the binomial coefficient. + + + =78 +1287 +1287 +78 =2 ⋅1365 =2730 The total number of characters is two times 1365, or 2730, so the 65 bars encode a 114-bit message. The encoding includes a cyclic redundancy check to detect, but not correct. Subtracting the 11 CRC bits from the 114-bit message leaves an information payload of 103 bits, consequently,27 of the 130 bits are devoted to error detection. It is also available for future United States Postal Service use and this is accomplished using two digits, with the second digit in the range of 0–4. The allowable encoding ranges are 00–04, 10–14, 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, 50–54, 60–64, 70–74, 80–84, the list of valid field values is as follows, A three-digit value represents both the class of the mail, and any services requested by the sender. Basic STIDs, for the purpose of only, are as follows, For a detailed list of STIDs, see Appendix A of the USPS Guide to Intelligent Mail Letters. A six- or nine-digit number assigned by the United States Postal Service identifies the specific business sending the mailing, higher volume mailers are eligible to receive six-digit Mailer IDs, which have a larger range of associated sequence numbers, lower volume mailers receive nine-digit Mailer IDsIntelligent Mail barcode – The four types of symbols in an Intelligent Mail barcode.
33. Label 228 – Label 228 is a type of sticker issued by the United States Postal Service, made to be used for labeling packages with a mailing address. These stickers are given out by the service for free. Because of the availability, and the relatively large blank areas within the design, it has been widely used in sticker art. Unlike many other stickers and labels, label 228 is free and it can be drawn on using many different artistic mediums, including acrylic paints and simple pencils, as well as inkjet and laser printers. They also can be applied to many surfaces very quickly, reducing the risk of being caught, putting up stickers is considered posting bills, and holds less of a sentences than most other graffiti and criminal charges. United States Postal Service Culture jamming Sticker art GraffitiLabel 228 – An example of a blank Label 228
34. List of U.S. state abbreviations – Several sets of codes and abbreviations are used to represent the political divisions of the United States for postal addresses, data processing, general abbreviations, and other purposes. As early as October 1831, the United States Post Office recognized common abbreviations for states and territories, however, they only accepted these abbreviations because of their popularity, preferring that patrons spell names out in full to avoid confusion. The purpose, rather than to standardize state abbreviations per se, was to room in a line of no more than 23 characters for the city, the state. Since 1963, only one state abbreviation has changed, originally Nebraska was NB, but, in November 1969, the Post Office changed it to NE to avoid confusion with New Brunswick in Canada. The two-letter postal abbreviation system is complicated by the fact that several state names begin with the same letter, to avoid duplications, some abbreviations are not intuitive. Prior to 1987, when the U. S. Today, the Associated Press Stylebook, the usage guide for most United States newspapers, counsels the use of abbreviations for most state names, when appended to a city name. Legal citation manuals, such as The Bluebook and The ALWD Citation Manual, the American National Standards Institute established alphabetic and numeric codes for each state and outlying areas in ANSI standard INCITS38,2009. ANSI standard INCITS38,2009 replaced the Federal Information Processing Standard standards FIPS 5-2, FIPS 6-4, the ANSI alphabetic state code is the same as the USPS state code except for U. S. Minor Outlying Islands, which have an ANSI code UM but no USPS code—and U. S, military Mail locations, which have USPS codes but no ANSI code. The United States Postal Service has established a set of abbreviations to help process mail with optical character recognition. There are also official USPS abbreviations for other parts of the address and these postal abbreviations are distinguished from traditional abbreviations such as Calif. The Associated Press Stylebook states that in other than mailing addresses. However, the Chicago Manual of Style now recommends use of the uppercase two-letter abbreviations, the postal abbreviation is the same as the ISO 3166-2 subdivision code for each of the fifty states. These codes do not overlap with the 13 Canadian subnational postal abbreviations, the code for Nebraska changed from NB to NE in November 1969 to avoid a conflict with New Brunswick. Canada likewise chose MB for Manitoba to prevent conflict with various U. S. states, the U. S. Coast Guard uses a set of two-letter prefixes for vessel numbers,39 states and the District of Columbia have the same USPS and USCG abbreviations. USCG prefixes have also established for five outlying territories, all are the same as the USPS abbreviations except the Mariana Islands. The twelve cases where USPS and USCG abbreviations differ are listed below, australian abbreviation system Canadian abbreviation system ISO 3166-2, US United State Postal Service address formatting information USPS acronyms and abbreviationsList of U.S. state abbreviations
35. List of United States airmail stamps – Domestic U. S. Air Mail was established as a new class of mail service by the United States Post Office Department on May 15,1918, with the inauguration of the Washington–Philadelphia–New York route. Special postage stamps were issued for use with this service, domestic air mail became obsolete in 1975, and international air mail in 1995, when the USPS began transporting First Class mail by air on a routine basis. All post-1977 United States stamp images are copyright of USPS, Scott cataloged stamps received a C designation for airmail issues beginning in 1940. Designated for international mail, and showing an airplane, the January,2012 $1.05 Scenic America series issue was designated C150. However, with the January,2013 issue of the $1.10 Global Forever Stamp no specific purpose was shown in the design. Rather, the Postal Service stated that this offers a single price for any First-Class Mail International 1-ounce letter to any country in the world. Thus a regular series Scott number,4740, was designated, Reference, Reference, Reference, Reference, Airmails of the United States 1930 Graf Zeppelin stampsList of United States airmail stamps – see also
36. Mail bag – It is oftentimes used by a post office system in transporting these different grades of mail. The mailbag is carried by means of transporting like a mail carrier, animal. Letters and printed material delivered by mail in the seventeen-hundreds were carried by horse in a saddle bag, there are several different types of mailbags for different purposes (e. g. transporting mail to and from post offices, delivering mail to businesses and homes. These different styles of mailbags depend on its size and purpose and it can range from a large bag used for transporting mail on a truck, plane, etc. to a simple postbag used by a mail carrier to deliver mail. The idea of having mail bags on board ships traveling between Jamaica and Great Britain was established as early as 1780. The name of the carrying a letter was put on the corner of the letter so that it would be put into the proper mail bag for the destination intended. A mailbag throughout the United States history has been called various names depending on its form, among these names are mail sack, mail satchel, mail pouch, catcher pouch, mochila, and portmanteau. Private Mail Bags or so-called Locked Bags are a solution for specialized mail delivery to a single location. Like PO Box addresses, Private Mail Bag addresses omit the name of the building and street, Private Mail Bag addresses are often used in countries in Africa where there may be no street delivery service. Private mail bags may be in lieu of a Post Office Box, the U. S. National Postal Museum says that any bag that carries mail is defined as a Mailbag. A mailbag is called a postbag in England, the form and structure of mailbags has implications for fatigue and industrial injuries to mail carriers. A mail sack is a lower security class mailbag used to carry second-class, third-class and it does not have a locking mechanism with it. A mail satchel is a device letter carriers use over-the-shoulder for assisting the delivery of mail to businesses and homes. A mail pouch is a strong material mail bag designed to lock at the top to prevent access into the bag and they are usually used for transporting First-class and registered mail to and from different post offices. Mail pouches also carry military domestic and military airmail, a catcher pouch was a mail bag used only by the Railway Post Office in exchanging mail when the train did not stop at the town. It was most popular in the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. A mochila was a removable lightweight leather cover put over a saddle for carrying mail and was used by the Pony Express. A portmanteau was a traveling suitcase used as a mailbag in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to carry letters and newspapersMail bag – Vintage US mail bag
37. Mail hook – A mail hook is an installation at a railroad where a catcher pouch can be hung, to be picked up by a passing train without the train having to stop. See further discussion at Railway post office, the Story of Our Post Office, The Greatest Government Department in all its Phases. Boston, Massachusetts, A. M. Thayer & Co. at Internet ArchiveMail hook – Demo of the mail hook pulling a mail bag on Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad #1923 at the Illinois Railway Museum.
38. Mail Isolation Control and Tracking – The Postmaster General has stated that the system is primarily used for mail sorting, though it also enables the USPS to retroactively track mail correspondence at the request of law enforcement. It was created in the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax attacks that killed five people, the automated mail tracking program was created so that the Postal Service could more easily track hazardous substances and keep people safe, according to U. S. The FBI stated in a complaint that the program was used to narrow its investigation to Shannon Richardson. Postmaster General Patrick R. Donahoe confirmed in an interview with the Associated Press the existence of this program on August 2,2013, in confirming the existence of MICT, Donahoe told the Associated Press that the USPS does not maintain a massive centralized database of the letter images. He said that the images are taken at more than 200 mail processing centers around the country, and he also stated the images are retained for a week to 30 days and then destroyed. Computer security and information privacy expert Bruce Schneier compared MICT to the surveillance of the National Security Agency. James J. Wedick, a former FBI agent, said of MICT and he also said the program can be easily abused because its so easy to use, and you dont have to go through a judge to get the information. You just fill out a form, mail cover Mass surveillance in the United States MLOCRMail Isolation Control and Tracking – History
39. Mail jumping – Mail jumping is a type of mail delivery. The person doing the mail jumping is transported on a body of water by a boat, the person jumps off the boat onto a dock, places incoming mail in a mailbox, retrieves outgoing mail, and jumps back onto the boat. The boat continues to move at a slow and steady pace while the jumper is jumping. Roads were first built around the lake in the 1920s, some residents still use boats as their primary means of transportation to their summer homes on the lake including getting groceries. Six jumpers are hired annually to deliver mail on behalf of the United States Postal Service each summer from June 15 until September 15, male jumpers were used until the first female was hired in 1974, the cruise line has hired women since. Jumpers began daily at 7 a. m. by sorting mail, delivery begins at 10 a. m. aboard the U. S. Mailboat Walworth. Mail is delivered to about 60 houses and the delivery is completed by around 1 p. m, a typical jumper misses the jump returning to the boat once in her career and works the rest of the day wet. The Lake Geneva Cruise Lines has operated the boat since 1916 and it takes approximately 160 tourists along for the ride, most mail runs are at full capacity. Jumpers are expected to be able to speak as tour guides as the tour passes historic summer houses and Yerkes Observatory, the jumpers are privately hired by the cruise line and they work closely with the U. S. Postal Office. The Walworth II is the mail jumping boat in the United States. Mail has been delivered this way since 1873, a local resident said There was a time during the war when everyone really counted on the mailboat. We didnt have TV and computers and all of that, so everyone would gather to meet the mailboat, the Travel Channel host Andrew Zimmern taped an episode of his show Bizarre World in which he worked as a mail jumper. Boat Railway Post Office J. W. Westcott IIMail jumping – Walworth II on Geneva Lake
40. Mail pouch – A mail pouch or mailpouch is a container for mail, designed to transport first-class, registered mail, domestic mail and military mail. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary mail is 12th century for letters or post, the meaning was further extended to letters and parcels in the 18th century by way of bag full of letters or person or vehicle who carries postal matter. The Online Etymology Dictionary says that in 19th century England, mail was interpreted as letters going abroad, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary pouch is late 14th century for small bag in which money is carried, from Anglo-French puche, of 13th century Old French pouche and poche. It has a root Germanic basis and Old English pocca meaning bag, according to The Free Dictionary by Farlex the word term mail pouch or mailpouch means pouch used in the shipment of mail. It has basically the meaning as mailbag – which originated 1805–1815. In U. S. Postal Service usage, first-class mail that would be carried in a mail pouch is mail sealed against postal inspection, an example of first-class mail is a typed letter or one written by hand. It must weigh less than 13 ounces, registered mail that would be carried in a mail pouch is mail that is within a certain length and width, regardless of thickness. Registered mail can be insured up to $25,000 for a premium fee. There is no limit on the value of an item sent in by registered mail, registered mail is closely guarded and given maximum security— like in handling with a locked mail pouch. Military mail that would be carried in a mail pouch is mail ultimately handled by the Military Postal Service, many times it is mail provided outside of the contiguous United States. Domestic mail that would be carried in a mail pouch is mail that would be delivered to United States territories. Virgin Islands, St. Croix Island, St. John Island, St. Thomas Island, Wake Atoll, Mail originating in the United States and going to or coming from the Freely Associated States is treated as domestic mail. These are the Marshall Islands, Ebeye Island, Kwajalein Island, Micronesia, Kosrae Island, Pohnpei Island, Yap Island, Palau, diplomatic pouches are outside the control of the U. S. Mail. According to a 1903 U. S. government report there was also a closed-pouch and express-pouch service associated with the U. S. traveling mail service. The report says that the number of traveling in cars and boats was 10,555. When added the closed-pouch and express-pouch service, the amount of miles traveled by clerks was 344,892,127. Only certain Post Offices are designated through-registered-pouch-offices and these pouches handle registered mail and have locked inner sacks within them. Through-registered pouches were not only made of canvas, but had several thick staples at the top where a leather strap passed throughMail pouch – canvas mail pouch
41. Mail sack – A mail sack or mailsack is a mail bag used to carry large quantities of mail. A mail sack is not a locked bag since they need little security, in contrast to a similar mailbag — referred to as a mail pouch that employs a locking mechanism on the top of the bag. A mail pouch has special closely spaced eyelets and a strap to secure the top where access into the bag is closed off and locked. During World War I it was typical of German soldiers to write postcards to their family to keep in touch to let them know where they were, the various ultimate destinations of the postcards were sorted into German mail sacks of that time period by behind the scenes post-office troops. In the United Kingdom, the term mail sack is more expansive and generic, a Singapore judge held that mail sacks are considered to be part of the postal system and are protected by Chinese law, interference with them can be the subject of criminal prosecution. According to Online Etymology Dictionary the etymology of satchel is mid 14th century from Old French sachel from Latin of saccellum and this etymology dictionary also describes sack as a large cloth bag. It says that sakkus is probably from Greek, from a borrowing from Latin of saccus. It is also from Old French of sac, Spanish of saco and it apparently is also from the Greek sakkos, from Semitic. Second-class mail that would be carried in a mail sack is periodical publications issued at stated intervals and is issued a minimum of four times a year and this type of mail must have a date of issue and a consecutive numbering system. It also must have an office where the publication comes from that is open during normal regular hours of business. The printed matter can not be stenciled, mimeographed or through a hectograph process, second-class mail must be publications for distributing information of a public character. The people that receive this second-class mail must be subscribers that are on some sort of list or in a customer database, third-class mail that would be carried in a mail sack is printed material weighing less than 16 ounces. Examples are circulars that are not of a personal nature, other third-class mail that would be carried in a mail sack is bulk mail that is presorted individually addressed letters that come in quantities of at least 50 pounds or mailings of over 200 pieces. Fourth-class mail that would be carried in a mail sack is printed material weighing over 16 ounces, an example would be library books transferred through the Interlibrary loan system. A special type of mail sack is one that is used to bulk mail, particularly printed matter. There is no weight, and the maximum is a tare weight of 66 lbs. An M-bag is 4 feet tall and 36 inches in diameter, every piece of mail in an M-bag must be marked Postage Paid - M-bag. This type of shipping is especially prized by book stores and peace corps volunteers and it is an economical and secure way to move a lot of mail over a great distance on the surfaceMail sack – Pile of British mail sacks from London
42. Mail satchel – A mail satchel is a type of mail bag that a letter carrier uses over-the-shoulder for assisting the delivery of personal mail on a designated route. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary mail is 12th century for letters or post, the meaning was further extended to letters and parcels in the 18th century by way of bag full of letters or person or vehicle who carries postal matter. The Online Etymology Dictionary says that in 19th century England, mail was interpreted as letters going abroad, according to Online Etymology Dictionary the etymology of satchel is mid 14th century from Old French sachel from Latin of saccellum and sacculus or saccus. French, avec poignées means carrier bag with handles and sometimes refers to a mail sack. According to an online dictionary mail bag originated 1805–1815, commonly referred to as satchels, letter carriers used leather-over-the shoulder type mail bags on their delivery and collection rounds. This form of satchel was most popular in city delivery service and it has been used from about the 1860s in the United States and from the late 19th century in other countries worldwide. The city collectors satchels have two handles off the top of the bag itself. Formerly made of leather, such satchels were later made in lighter, in August 1971, the United States Postal Service declared that when the existing stock of leather satchels was depleted, they would be replaced with canvas. The cited reason was the price of scarce leather. The new canvas satchels also had an advantage, about 2 pounds. The disadvantage of the new canvas satchels was durability, lasting eighteen months before they had to be replaced, compared to a six-year lifespan for the old leather satchel. Beginning in 1978, the new U. S. canvas style satchel mailbag bore an escutcheon on the outward facing panel. In 1986, the eagle logo was changed to a right-facing eagle logo. The old style of an eagle logo was still in use through 1989. In August,1996, the satchel was again modified, the old logo of a normal winged eagle was replaced with a futuristic sonic eagle logo. Reflective glow in the dark stripes added in December 1996, in October 1997, a new double satchel was added to the tools used by U. S. letter carriers. Its advantage was that it would more equal distribution to prevent shoulder. Its disadvantage was that it was a hindrance to defense from charging dogs, the preference to many letter carriers is the traditional single satchel where they are free to fend off dogsMail satchel – Typical canvas mail satchel
43. ORM-D – ORM-D is a marking for mail or shipping in the United States that identifies other regulated materials for domestic transport only. Packages bearing this mark contain hazardous material in a quantity that presents a limited hazard during transportation, due to its form, quantity. There are weight and volume restrictions for all ORM-D packages which vary by hazard class, for example, a gallon of a Class 3 flammable liquid PGII cannot be reclassified as ORM-D because it exceeds the limited quantity volume. However, a gallon of a Class 6, PGIII material is within the criteria for a Limited Quantity. That gallon can then be labeled as an ORM-D if it meets the definition of a substance that can be converted from a Limited Quantity to an ORM-D and it is impossible to have an ORM-D that does not fit the criteria for a Limited Quantity. First an item is determined to be a Limited Quantity, if the item is able to be reclassified as ORM-D the proper shipping name is usually, but not always, Consumer Commodity as found in the 172.101 table. Other proper shipping names used for ORM-D material are Cartridges Small Arms and these products will no longer fall under one of the 9 hazard classes either, its Hazard Class or Division is now defined as ORM-D. Material marked ORM-D and shipped by surface transportation does not require hazardous shipping papers, simply an ORM-D and this marking can either be in the form of an ORM-D sticker, or written by hand. If written by hand the letters ORM-D must be enclosed by a rectangle, when transported by air, ORM-D shipments require an ORM-D-AIR marking and full hazardous shipping papers. Both UPS Ground and FedEx Ground do not require a shipping contract to ship ORM-D packages except to Alaska. FedEx Ground does not transport ORM-D packages to Alaska or Hawaii, the United States Postal Service will accept ORM-D packages only for materials intended for domestic surface transportation. Its use is prohibited in international mail, FedEx Hazardous Material Shipping UPS Service Guide ORM-D Ground UPS Service Guide ORM-D Air Article on ORM-D shipments and How To Ship Using ORM-D LabelsORM-D – Aerosol cans
44. Owney (dog) – Owney, was a stray Border terrier adopted as the first unofficial postal mascot by the Albany, New York, post office about 1888. The Albany mail professionals recommended the dog to their Railway Mail Service colleagues and he is best known for being the subject of commemorative activities, including a 2011 U. S. postage stamp. Owney was an abandoned puppy adopted in 1888 by a post office worker named Owen, seeking shelter on a rainy night, the young mutt wandered into the back door of the post office, which had been accidentally left ajar. The pup seemed to love the smell of the mail bags, when the supervisor inquired about the dog that the Albany postal workers were keeping in the back room they said it was Owens dog. Succumbing to the pups likable demeanor and the persuasion of the postal workers, from then on Owens mutt was known as Owney. Owney usually slept on the bags and when they were moved. He was considered to be good luck by postal railway clerks, since no train he ever rode on was in a wreck. He was an addition in any railway post office, he was a faithful guardian of railway mail and the bags it was carried in. Mail trains from Albany rolled eastward to Boston, south to New York City, and westward to Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, Chicago, and points further west. As a contemporary book recounted, The terrier Owney travels from one end of the country to the other in the cars, tagged through, petted, talked to, looked out for, as a brother. But sometimes, no matter what the attention, he departs for the south, the east, or the west. In 1893 he was feared dead after having disappeared, but it turned out he was involved in an accident in Canada, as Owneys trips grew longer, the postal clerks at Albany became concerned that the dog be identified, and, if necessary returned to them. They bought a dog collar with a tag that read, Owney, Post Office, Albany. To this collar, the railway post offices that saw Owney added individual dog tags. The collar and tags made the mixed-breed terrier the unofficial mascot of the U. S, Railway Mail Service, and as shown by the 2011 postage stamp issued in his honor, his identifications became an essential element of his identity. Owney received tags everywhere he went, and as he moved they jingled like sleigh bells and he received from Winnona Kilbridge of the Los Angeles Kennel Club a medal for Best Traveled Dog of 1893. Owney received in 1894 from a Mr. William Winter Wagner of Chicago a Globe Trotter medal and his collection of tags grew so large that United States Postmaster General John Wanamaker gave him a coat to display them all. Wanamaker also announced that Owney was then the Official Mascot of the Rail Mail Service and it is said to be impossible to know how many dog tags and medals Owney receivedOwney (dog) – Owney with unidentified Albany letter carrier, c.1895
45. Pony Express mochila – A mochila is a removable lightweight leather cover put over a horses saddle. In the nineteenth century, it was used as a bag by the Pony Express. The eighth-of-an-inch leather cover draped over the saddle on a horse, there were slits cut into the leather which allowed the saddle horn and cantle to protrude through. Riders of the Pony Express made quick exchanges to new fresh horses, the mochila was removed from the exhausted horse and swiftly placed over the saddle of the new fresh waiting horse that the relay station had for him. Joan Corominas derives the Spanish mochila from mochil, itself from Basque mutil, the word mochila connotes the soft sheepskin leather. Saddle bag mail pouches were never in use on the Pony Express system because of their unwieldiness, in 1860 the Pony Express developed a fast mail delivery system using a special saddle mail bag cover called a mochila that made the Pony Express unique. The cover, which had 4 hard leather boxes to carry the mail, was quick and efficient when transferring from one horse to another. All the rider had to do was change this leather cover with the mail boxes over to a ready horse waiting for him at the station and he then threw the cover onto the new saddled horse. The leather blanket cover was designed by Jay G. Kelley, the saddles for the horses that traveled over the Overland Pony Express route were special and standardized, built by a saddlery firm owned and franchised by Israel Landis and sons. Pony Express riders traveled about 100 miles at any one time, in this travel they would change horses every dozen or so miles. When he changed horses to a new horse the rider would grab the mochila off the saddle of the exhausted horse. This mochila saddle blanket cover the rider would sit on. It had sewn to it certain pockets that were always locked, only authorized people could unlock these attached pockets to retrieve the mail. This mail service was very expensive, Pony Express adopted this mochila for their fast mail service. The saddles and mochilas were standardised and made the same so they would work from one horse to another, when full of mail and telegrams it weighed about 20 pounds. The rider would carry additionally a canteen of water, a gun, if a horse became injured beyond use or was killed, the rider would strip the mochila with its mail from the saddle and walk to the next relay transfer station. The mochilas mail pockets were called cantinas, which were locked with a type of small padlock, two cantinas were in front of the riders legs and two were behind the riders thighs. The letters were first covered with oiled silk so they wouldn’t be damaged by water or sweat and then placed into the cantinas, most Pony Express saddles and mochilas were made by Israel Landis shop in St. Joseph, MissouriPony Express mochila – Pony Express mochila exhibit
46. Postal worker – A postal worker is one who works for a post office, such as a mail carrier. In Canada, they are represented by the Canadian Union of Postal Workers, the US Postal Service employs around 584,000 people. The bulk of work as, Service Clerks - Sell stamps and postage, help people pick up packages. Mail Sorters - Physically sort the mail to go to the correct place, as automation has become more common, some of these people now operate the sorting machines. Mail Carriers - Deliver the mail, in densely populated areas this is done on foot. In urban areas the carriers use a mail truck and in rural areas carriers drive their own vehicles. Most postal workers in the US make between $36,000 and $43,000 per year, the phrase was not very often used until a spate of workplace violence incidents by postal workers in the late 1980s made headlines. The incidents also led to the coining of the phrase going postalPostal worker – History
47. United States Postmaster General – The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service. The office, in one form or another, is older than both the United States Constitution and the United States Declaration of Independence, benjamin Franklin was appointed by the Continental Congress as the first Postmaster General in 1775, serving just over 15 months. Until 1971, the general was the head of the Post Office Department. From 1829 to 1971, he was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, the Cabinet post of Postmaster General was often given to a new Presidents campaign manager or other key political supporter, and was considered something of a sinecure. The Postmaster General was in charge of the partys patronage. In 1971, the Post Office Department was re-organized into the United States Postal Service, therefore, the Postmaster General is no longer a member of the Cabinet and is no longer in Presidential succession. The Postmaster General is the second-highest paid U. S. government official, based on publicly available salary information, as of July 2016, there are seven living former Postmasters General, the oldest being W. Marvin Watson. The most recent Postmaster General to die was Preston Robert Tisch, on November 15,2005United States Postmaster General – Samuel Osgood (1747–1813)
48. Rural Free Delivery – Rural Free Delivery is a service which began in the United States in the late 19th century, to deliver mail directly to rural farm families. Prior to RFD, individuals living in more remote homesteads had to pick up mail themselves at sometimes distant post offices or pay private carriers for delivery, the proposal to offer free rural delivery was not universally embraced. Private carriers and local shopkeepers feared a loss of business, the United States Post Office Department began experiments with Rural Free Delivery as early as 1890. However, it was not until 1893, when Georgia Congressman Thomas E. Watson pushed through legislation, however, universal implementation was slow, RFD was not adopted generally in the United States Post Office until 1902. The rural delivery service uses a network of routes traveled by carriers to deliver and pick up mail to. Until the late 19th century, residents of rural areas had to travel to a distant post office to pick up their mail. However, the adoption of a nationwide RFD system had many opponents, some were simply opposed to the cost of the service. Much support for the introduction of a rural mail delivery service came from The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. Fayette County in east-central Indiana may be the birthplace of Rural Free Delivery, milton Trusler, a leading farmer in the county, began advocating the idea in 1880, as the president of the Indiana Grange, he spoke to farmers statewide frequently over the following sixteen years. The Post Office Department first experimented with the idea of rural mail delivery on October 1,1891 to determine the viability of RFD and they began with five routes covering ten miles,33 years after free delivery in cities had begun. The first routes to receive RFD during its experimental phase were in Jefferson County, West Virginia, near Charles Town, Halltown, Congressman Thomas E. Watson of Georgia mandated the practice, and RFD finally became an official service in 1896. That year,82 rural routes were put into operation, a massive undertaking, nationwide RFD service took several years to implement, and remains the biggest and most expensive endeavor ever instituted by the U. S. postal service. By 1901, the mileage had increased to over 100,000, in 1910 the mileage was 993,068, cost $36,915,000, carriers 40,997. In 1913 came the introduction of parcel post delivery, which caused another boom in rural deliveries, parcel post service allowed the distribution of national newspapers and magazines, and was responsible for millions of dollars of sales in mail-order merchandise to customers in rural areas. In 1930 there were 43,278 rural routes serving about 6,875,321 families—that is about 25,471,735 persons, in 1916, the Rural Post Good Roads Act authorized federal funds for rural post roads. The following is a list of the first rural routes established in state, along with the names of the Post Offices served. Parcel Post stamps of 1912-131903 film of carrier receiving RFD mail to deliver in Westminster, Maryland, from the Library of CongressRural Free Delivery – Rural Free Delivery vehicle (from Popular Mechanics, September 1905)