Teatro Real or simply El Real, as it is known colloquially, is a major opera house located in Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 and inaugurated on 19 November 1850, it closed in 1925, the theater offers guided tours in several languages, including the auditorium, stage and rehearsal rooms. In 1863, Giuseppe Verdi visited the theatre for the Spanish premiere of his La Forza del Destino, in 1925, the Ballets Russes of Diaghilev performed in the theatre with the presence of Nijinsky and Stravinsky). The theatre reopened in 1966 as a hall as well as the main concert venue for the Spanish National Orchestra. The reopening was celebrated with a concert of the Spanish National Orchestra conducted by Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos, in 1969, the 14th Eurovision Song Contest was held at the theatre, featuring an onstage metal sculpture created by surrealist Spanish artist Salvador Dalí. In the 1990s, the house was remodeled to host opera again, the building was completed in late 1995, the process of technical, administrative and functional organization began which led to the opening of the theatre in 1997.
The remodeling was based on the old style of opera house with only basic modernization leaving many seats without a view of the stage. The company staged the first modern revival of Vicente Martín y Solers Il burbero di buon cuore in 2007, the theatre stages around seventeen opera titles per year, as well as two or three major ballets and several recitals. The most popular operas at the Teatro Real have included Verdis Rigoletto, followed by Aida with 361, donizettis Lucrezia Borgia has been given some 218 performances since its debut in the house in 1919. The Teatro Real has been celebrating its bicentenary with a programme beginning in 2016. One of the operas featured was Bellinis I Puritani, a co-production with the Teatro Municipal of Santiago, a performance of this work was streamed in July 2016 via the Teatro Reals Facebook page, an example of the theatre extending its reach by digital services. The event was relayed to a number of venues and was a national trending topic on Twitter. The orchestra of the Teatro Real is the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid, the current artistic manager is Joan Matabosch, former director of Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona.
The Opera House offers daily different types of guided tours, lasting between 50 and 90 minutes and given in various languages and this gives the public the opportunity to learn about the building, including the stage area, the workshops and the rehearsal spaces. Teatro Real official web site Teatro Real at Google Cultural Institute
Madrid metropolitan area
The Madrid Metropolitan Area comprises the city of Madrid and 20 surrounding municipalities. It has a population of 6,321,398 people and it is the largest metropolitan area in Spain, the 4th largest in the European Union and the 54th largest in the world. The GDP of the area of Madrid was estimated to be 189 billion euros in 2009. The GDP per capita was 37,758 euros in the area while it reached 30,453 euros for the Madrid region
Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance. The palace was named after the place called La Zarzuela because of the profusion of brambles that grew there, there are two main forms of zarzuela, Baroque zarzuela, the earliest style, and Romantic zarzuela, which can be further divided into two. Main subgenres are género grande and género chico, although other sub-divisions exist, Zarzuela spread to the Spanish colonies, and many Hispanic countries – notably Cuba – developed their own traditions. There is a tradition in the Philippines where it is known as sarswela/sarsuela. Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain include the Basque zartzuela, a masque-like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina. The zarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers and choruses were incorporated as well as solo and ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment.
El Laurel de Apolo traditionally symbolises the birth of a new genre that had become known as La Zarzuela. Like Calderón de la Barcas earlier El golfo de las sirenas, El Laurel de Apolo mixed mythological verse drama with operatic solos, popular songs, unlike some other operatic forms, there were spoken interludes, often in verse. In 18th-century Bourbon Spain, Italian artistic style dominated in the arts, though still written to Spanish texts, changed to accommodate the Italian vogue. During the reign of King Charles III, political problems provoked a series of revolts against his Italian ministers, these were echoed in theatrical presentations. Musicians such as Antonio Rodríguez de Hita were proficient in the style of works. José Castel was one of composers to write for the Teatro del Príncipe. The elements of the continue to be the same, sung solos and choruses, spiced with spoken scenes. Costume dramas and regional variations abound, and the librettos are rich in Spanish idioms, the zarzuelas of the day included in their librettos various regionalisms and popular slang, such as that of Madrid castizos.
Often, the success of a work was due to one or more songs that the public came to know, despite some modifications the basic structure of the zarzuela remained the same, dialogue scenes, songs and comic scenes generally performed by two actor-singers. The culminating masterpieces from this period were Barbieris Pan y toros, another notable composer from this period was Emilio Arrieta. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, the country entered a deep crisis, the public could not afford high-priced theatre tickets for grandiose productions, which led to the rise of the Teatros Variedades in Madrid, with cheap tickets for one-act plays. This theatre of an hour had great success and zarzuela composers took to the new formula with alacrity, single-act zarzuelas were classified as género chico whilst the longer zarzuelas of three acts, lasting up to four hours, were called género grande
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile