Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
No Sleep Records
No Sleep Records is an American independent record label in Huntington Beach, California. They were founded by Chris Hansen in 2006 and have released records by artists including Balance and Composure, La Dispute and The Wonder Years, they have released free sample albums on the internet on a number of occasions and the label associates itself with vegan lifestyle and the revived interest in vinyl record sales. Chris Hansen, the record label's founder, started at the bottom of the music industry in an attempt to build up experience and knowledge of owning a label, he started at Fearless Records doing Mail Order. No Sleep properly released their first album when a friend of Hansen offered to release an fully funded and complete album on his newly constructed label; the release, the'Our'American Cousin ep, which in Hansen's opinion was "a good 90s style indie/emo record". In the first two years of No Sleep existence Hansen worked as an art director at Trustkill, however was laid-off and moved back to California and focused on the label.
The Wonder Years' second studio album The Upsides in 2010 acted as a significant release for the record label as the album appeared on the United States Billboard album chart. No Sleep set up their on distribution wing for the United Kingdom and European Union due to the significant success in 2010. No Sleep Records won the 2011 Libby Award from Peta2 for being the "Most Animal Friendly Record Label" and so most No Sleep releases include a flyer on going vegan. Across 2012, as a promotional tool No Sleep started to offer free music to get the attention of people. Starting with the offer of a subscription package to the label which included all their current vinyl releases they started various initiatives like “Free Album Tuesday” for some of their lesser known artists, they released a string of free sampler albums featuring tracks from their included artists. While some, in the early stages of its development were part of a collection of short sampler downloads called "No Sleep Till Death" American online magazine Alter The Press announced one of these large releases.
No Sleep's signed bands that were participating in Warped Tour 2012 were released on a Summer 2012 compilation album which included b-sides and rarities. No Sleep has always aspired to sign bands who contribute to a diverse roster and for all the artists to stand out from each other. For the first pressing of an artist's début album No Sleep will put out 1000-1500 copies, either compact disc or vinyl, they store a few hundred spare copies of some releases for selling in a few years when their value has increased. Vinyl has become a significant component to No Sleep's business model. Stemming from the fact that Hansen collects vinyl. However, Hansen does describe it as a costly side to the label: "Vinyl is a niche thing, it's the cool thing to do, it's not a money making thing, you just do it because you love vinyl and you want it to strive and exist. No Sleep and all of our friends' labels are mail order driven. That's how we sustain and keep going." For Record Store Day 2012 No Sleep opened their flagship store out of their office in California which they open once a week.
The store stocks works from other record labels like 6131, Animal Style, Run For Cover, Deathwish Inc. Bridge 9, Youth Conspiracy and Paper + Plastick; the store stocks, in Hansen's opinion, a lot of "key bands" from American hardcore punk and punk rock. Due to slow sales, the store has closed down
Spring break is a vacation period in early spring at universities and schools which started during the 1930s in the United States and is observed in some other Western countries. Spring break is associated with extensive gatherings and riotous partying in warm climate locations such as Daytona Beach and Cancun, attended regardless of participants' educational standings; as a holiday it is variously known as Easter vacation, Easter holiday, April break, spring vacation, mid-term break, study week, reading week, reading period, or Easter week, depending on regional conventions. Spring break is an academic tradition in various western countries, scheduled for different periods depending on the state and sometimes the region. In Japan, the spring break starts with the end of the academic year in March and ends on April 1 with the beginning of a new academic year. In Kuwait, the spring break is between the two academic or school semesters in December or January, but could last until early February.
It is a 2 or 3-week break, there is no fixed date for it, as the date is adjusted in accordance with the Lunar or Hijri calendar, as it is the case for all Arab and Muslim nations. In South Korea, the spring break starts in mid-February and ends on March 1 with the beginning of a new academic year. In the Czech Republic, only primary and secondary school students have a spring break; the break is one week long and the date of the break differs from county to county to avoid overcrowding of the break destinations in the Czech Republic. The counties are divided into six groups, each group containing counties evenly distributed across the country; the first group starts the holiday on the first Monday of February, the last group starts the holiday five weeks later. The last group of counties becomes the first one to have the spring break the next year. Before 2017, the spring break in Georgia was an Easter holiday, lasting from Thursday to Tuesday in the Holy Week. In 2017, the new Minister of Education and Science of Georgia Aleksandre Jejelava made a new reform by which, students of preschools, elementary & high schools as well as colleges and universities get six days of holiday in March, lasting from March 8 to March 15, for people to go on winter vacations or do other activities.
In Germany, universities schedule a semester break of five to eight weeks around March. The Whitsun holidays around late May or early June are considered a spring break. In Greece, spring break takes place during the one after it. In Lithuania, spring break takes place one week before Easter and one day after it, all school students have this vacation. Primary school students have another week of holidays after Easter. In Portugal, spring break is known as "Easter Holidays" and it gives two weeks to all students around the country. Before 1917 there was an Easter Break in schools. In the Soviet Union, spring break was always from 24 to 31 of March. Now, many schools in Russia still have the spring break, but the exact date is decided by the school itself. In the majority of cases it is set in the middle of April; the public holidays in May, connected with Labour day, can be an accurate equivalent of the spring break. Slovakia gives a week-long break to its elementary school and secondary school students in the months of February and March.
The break is one week long and the date of the break differs from county to county to avoid overcrowding of the break destinations in the Slovak Republic. The counties are divided into three groups, the first group starts the holiday on the end of February, the last group starts the holiday two weeks later. There is, as well, another shorter Easter break which starts on Holy Thursday and ends on next Tuesday. In Spain, there is not a spring break. Instead, the Holy Week is celebrated and students have holidays during these days; the Easter break in the United Kingdom is from one to two and a half weeks for primary and high schools, for two to four weeks for university students, fits around Easter. Canada gives a one or two week-long break to its elementary school and secondary school students in the month of March, with the time varying from province to province. In Canada, spring Break for post-secondary students is called'reading week' or'reading break,' depending on the duration. However, the formal title of Mid-term Break has been the preferred generic term.
Reading Week in Canada occurs in the month of February coinciding with Family Day. In Jamaica, the spring break starts in the first week of Good Friday; the break may range from one week to two weeks times two. This break starts depending on which month the Easter holiday begins, April. In Mexico, spring break takes place during the one after it. In the United States, spring break at universities and colleges can occur from March to April, depending on term dates and when Easter holiday falls. Spring break is about one week long, but many K–12 institutions in the United States schedule a one-week-long break known as "Easter Break," "Easter Holidays", or "Easter Vacation", as they take place in the weeks before or after Easter. However, in the states of Massach
Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day is a commemorative holiday to celebrate the birth of Susan B. Anthony and women's suffrage in the United States; the holiday is February 15—Anthony's birthday. The idea of honoring Susan B. Anthony with a holiday has only been around since 2011 when Representative Carolyn Maloney introduced the Susan B. Anthony Birthday Act, H. R.#655. Today, only the U. S. state of Florida has the holiday enacted with state offices closed. In the state of Wisconsin, Susan B. Anthony Day is an established state holiday, enacted into law April 15, 1976, from the 1975 Laws of Wisconsin, Chapter 307, section 20. In West Virginia, this day is celebrated on Election Day on years; this holiday is not celebrated at a national level. In 1985, The Seattle Times reported on a campaign to establish the holiday as one celebrated nationally; the U. S. state of California has made this day a legal holiday as of 2014. In 2004, New York governor George Pataki signed legislation. On February 11, 2011, Representative Carolyn Maloney of New York introduced the "Susan B.
Anthony Birthday Act" to the 112th session of Congress to honor the birthday as a U. S. national holiday on the third Monday of February. The bill was not enacted and its current status is "dead". Susan B. Anthony is known for her leadership in the long campaign for women's right to vote in the United States and abroad, she indicated her interest as early as 1852, when she attended the National Women’s Rights Convention in Syracuse, New York. She was a vigorous opponent of slavery. In 1863, during the American Civil War and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Women's Loyal National League, the first national women's political organization in the U. S, it collected nearly 400,000 signatures on petitions to abolish slavery in the largest petition drive in the nation's history up to that time. By the end of the Civil War," according to historian Ann D. Gordon, "Susan B. Anthony occupied new political territory, she was emerging on the national scene as a female leader, something new in American history, she did so as a single woman in a culture that perceived the spinster as anomalous and unguarded...
By the 1880s, she was among the senior political figures in the United States."After the Civil War, Anthony worked for women's suffrage, the legal right of women to vote. This right was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, it was established nationally in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent, a friend of Anthony's; the amendment was popularly known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment in recognition of her leadership in achieving its passage, she died in 1906. Public holidays in the United States Rosa Parks Day National Girls and Women in Sports Day International Women's Day, Harriet Tubman Day Helen Keller Day Women's Equality Day Martin Luther King Jr. Day Malcolm X Day Cesar Chavez Day Harvey Milk Day Susan B. Anthony Day Merriam Webster definition of Susan B. Anthony Day Susan B. Anthony had her Day yesterday Celebrating Women's History Feb. 15th is Susan B.
Anthony Day On this day in History - Prof. Boerner's Explorations President's Day Open Thread Wisconsin Public Schools Observance Day
Lincoln's Birthday is a legal, public holiday in some U. S. states, observed on the anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth on February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky. Connecticut, Indiana, California and New York observe the holiday. In other states, Lincoln's birthday is not celebrated separately, as a stand-alone holiday. Instead Lincoln's Birthday is combined with a celebration of President George Washington's birthday and celebrated either as Washington's Birthday or as Presidents' Day on the third Monday in February, concurrent with the federal holiday; the earliest known observance of Lincoln's birthday occurred in Buffalo, New York, in either 1873 or 1874. Julius Francis, a Buffalo druggist, made it his life's mission to honor the slain president, he petitioned Congress to establish Lincoln's birthday as a legal holiday. The day is marked by traditional wreath-laying ceremonies at Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.
C. The latter has been the site of a ceremony since the Memorial was dedicated. Since that event in 1922, observances continue to be organized by the Lincoln Birthday National Commemorative Committee and by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. A wreath is laid on behalf of the President of the United States, a custom carried out at the grave sites of all deceased U. S. presidents on their birthdays. Lincoln's tomb is in Illinois. On February 12, 2009, the annual wreath-laying ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial commemorated Lincoln's 200th birthday in grand fashion. An extended ceremony, organized by the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission and with help from MOLLUS, featured musical performances from four-time Grammy-nominated singer Michael Feinstein and the U. S. Marine Corps Band; the morning celebration featured remarks by Illinois Sen. Dick Durbin; as part of Lincoln's birthday bicentennial, the U. S. Mint released four new Lincoln cents; the commemorative coins have new designs on the reverse showing stages of his life.
The first went into circulation on September 12, 2009. The standard portrait of Lincoln's head remains on the front; the new designs include a log cabin representing his birthplace, Lincoln as a young man reading while sitting on a log that he was taking a break from splitting, Lincoln as a state legislator in front of the Illinois Capitol, the built dome of the U. S. Capitol. New Jersey stopped observing the holiday on May 23, 2005 with the enactment of the Public Employee Pension and Benefits Reform Act of 2008. Black History Month has its origin in 19th-century celebrations of Lincoln's Birthday by African-American communities in the United States. By the early 20th century, black communities were annually celebrating Lincoln's birthday in conjunction with the birthday of former slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass on February 14; the precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced that the second week of February would be "Negro History Week" to coincide with the traditional Black commemorations of both men's birthdays.
By the 1970s, "Negro History Week" had become "Black History Month". Black History Month has expanded further to Canada, where it is celebrated in February, to the United Kingdom, which celebrates it in October. Lincoln's Birthday was never a U. S. Federal Government holiday; the third Monday in February remains only "Washington's Birthday" in federal law. However, many state governments have renamed their Washington's Birthday state holiday as "Presidents' Day", "Washington and Lincoln Day", or other such designations which explicitly or implicitly celebrate Lincoln's birthday. Regardless of the official name and purpose and commemorations on or about the third Monday include honoring Lincoln. In Connecticut and Illinois, while Washington's Birthday is a federal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday is still a state holiday, falling on February 12 regardless of the day of the week. California still lists Lincoln's Birthday as a holiday, but as of 2009 no longer gives State employees a paid holiday on February 12.
In the following states, the third Monday in February is an official state holiday and known as: Using "president" Presidents' Day in Hawaii, New Mexico, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas and Washington President's Day in Alaska, Maryland, Nebraska, New Hampshire, West Virginia and Wyoming Presidents Day in Michigan, New Jersey and Oregon Washington's Birthday/President's Day in Maine Lincoln/Washington/Presidents' Day in ArizonaWashington and Lincoln Washington and Lincoln Day in Utah Washington–Lincoln Day in Colorado and Ohio Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in Indiana Lincoln's and Washington's Birthday in Montana Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday in MinnesotaWashington alone George Washington Day in VirginiaWashington and another person George Washington/Thomas Jefferson Birthday in Alabama George Washington's Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day in ArkansasUnspecified "The third Monday in February" in California. Several states honor presidents with official state holidays that do not fall on the third Monday of February.
In New Mexico, Presidents' Day, at least as a state-government
Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday, refers to events of the Carnival celebration, beginning on or after the Christian feasts of the Epiphany and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday. Mardi Gras is French for "Fat Tuesday", reflecting the practice of the last night of eating rich, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season. Related popular practices are associated with Shrovetide celebrations before the fasting and religious obligations associated with the penitential season of Lent. In countries such as the United Kingdom, Mardi Gras is known as Shrove Tuesday, derived from the word shrive, meaning "to administer the sacrament of confession to; some think Mardi Gras may be linked with the ancient Roman pagan celebrations of spring and fertility such as Saturnalia, which dates back to 133–31 BC. This celebration honored the god of Saturn, it was observed before the sowing of winter crops. It was a week-long festival when business came to a halt. Schools and courts of law closed, the normal social patterns were suspended.
On the Julian calendar, which the Romans used at the time, the winter solstice fell on December 25. Hence, the celebration became associated with Christmas; the festival is more associated with Christian tradition. In the Gospel of Matthew the biblical Magi visited Jesus with gifts containing gold and myrrh. So twelve days after Christmas, Western Christians celebrate the feast of Epiphany, a celebration of Jesus coming for more than just the Jews, as Gentile magi were allowed to see him; this begins the Carnival celebration. The culmination of this celebration overlapped with the beginning of Lent. Early Christians believed that during the Lenten season, Christians should deprive themselves of anything that brought joy so that they might understand better the trials that Jesus faced leading up to his death on Good Friday. Thus, on the Tuesday before Lent and the last day of Epiphany, Christians would celebrate with a feast of their favorite foods to tide them over the coming weeks; these feasts, which first were only meant for Christians, were expanded so that Christians would celebrate with their neighbors and friends.
Feasts like Shrove Tuesday became public celebrations and adapted many names and traditions as they spread. The festival season varies from city to city, as some traditions, such as the one in New Orleans, consider Mardi Gras to stretch the entire period from Twelfth Night to Ash Wednesday. Others treat the final three-day period before Ash Wednesday as the Mardi Gras. In Mobile, Mardi Gras–associated social events begin in November, followed by mystic society balls on Thanksgiving New Year's Eve, followed by parades and balls in January and February, celebrating up to midnight before Ash Wednesday. In earlier times, parades were held on New Year's Day. Other cities famous for Mardi Gras celebrations include Rio de Janeiro. Carnival is an important celebration in Catholic European nations. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the week before Ash Wednesday is called "Shrovetide", ending on Shrove Tuesday, it has its popular celebratory aspects, as well. Pancakes are a traditional food. Pancakes and related fried breads or pastries made with sugar and eggs are traditionally consumed at this time in many parts of Latin America and the Caribbean.
In the Belgian city of Binche, the Mardi Gras festival is one of the most important days of the year and the summit of the Carnival of Binche. Around 1000 Gilles dance throughout the city from morning until past dusk, whilst traditional carnival songs play. In 2003, the "Carnival of Binche" was proclaimed one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. Another noteworthy celebration in Belgium is Aalst Carnaval. Mardi Gras is considered the day of the "Voil Janet" or "Dirty Sissy". Traditionally in Aalst, men dress as their mothers; this custom called "Voil Janet" goes back to the time when Aalst was an industrial time and workers did not have the money to buy dresses. On Mardi Gras the "Voil Janet" gets a parade dedicated to it. Men and woman dressed traditionally get to walk along in the parade, and interact with the viewers. The word "Voil" in the local dialect, means dirty. Hence why the parade is sometimes claimed obnoxious and flatout obscene. Though the parade has mellowed down over the years due to restrictions implemented by the town.
That day people gather around an effigy, lit. This event is paired with a lot of music and fraternity; the event is known for the fact that every person in the crowd starts crying. After that, there is one last night of celebration. Carnival is the most famous Brazilian holiday. During this time, Brazil attracts 70% of its tourists. Variations in carnival celebrations are observed throughout the multitude of Brazilian cities. Commonality observed among them is the incorporation of samba into the celebrations; the southeastern cities of Brazil have massive parades. The Rio Carnival is; the city of Salvador holds a large carnival celebration where millions of people celebrate the party in the streets of the city with a big diversity of musical style