The Bridge on the River Kwai
The Bridge on the River Kwai is a 1957 British-American epic war film directed by David Lean and based on the novel Le Pont de la Rivière Kwaï by Pierre Boulle. The film uses the historical setting of the construction of the Burma Railway in 1942–1943; the cast included William Holden, Jack Hawkins, Alec Guinness, Sessue Hayakawa. It was scripted by screenwriter Carl Foreman, replaced by Michael Wilson. Both writers had to work in secret, as they were on the Hollywood blacklist and had fled to England in order to continue working; as a result, who did not speak English, was credited and received the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. The film was praised, winning seven Academy Awards at the 30th Academy Awards, it used lush colour to bring out the British stiff upper lip of the colonel, played by Alec Guinness in an Oscar-winning performance. In 1997, the film was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress.
It has been included on the American Film Institute's list of best American films made. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted The Bridge on the River Kwai the 11th greatest British film of the 20th Century. In early 1943, British POWs arrive by train at a Japanese prison camp in Burma; the commandant, Colonel Saito, informs them that all prisoners, regardless of rank, are to work on the construction of a railway bridge over the River Kwai that will connect Bangkok and Rangoon. The senior British officer, Lieutenant Colonel Nicholson, informs Saito that the Geneva Conventions exempt officers from manual labour. Nicholson forbids any escape attempts because they had been ordered by headquarters to surrender, escapes could be seen as defiance of orders. At the morning assembly, Nicholson orders his officers to remain behind when the enlisted men march off to work. Saito threatens to have them shot; when Major Clipton, the British medical officer, warns Saito there are too many witnesses for him to get away with murder, Saito leaves the officers standing all day in the intense heat.
That evening, the officers are placed in a punishment hut. Meanwhile, three prisoners attempt to escape. Two are shot dead, he stumbles into a village of natives, who nurse him back to health and help him leave by boat. Meanwhile, the prisoners work as sabotage whatever they can. Should Saito fail to meet his deadline, he would be obliged to commit ritual suicide. Desperate, he uses the anniversary of Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War as an excuse to save face and announces a general amnesty, releasing Nicholson and his officers and exempting them from manual labour. Nicholson is shocked by the poor job being done by his men. Over the protests of some of his officers, he orders Captain Reeves and Major Hughes to design and build a proper bridge to maintain his men's morale; as the Japanese engineers had chosen a poor site, the original construction is abandoned and a new bridge begun downstream. Shears is enjoying his hospital stay in Ceylon when British Major Warden invites him to join a mission to destroy the bridge before it is completed.
Shears is so appalled, he confesses. Warden responds that he knew and that the American Navy agreed to transfer him to the British to avoid embarrassment. Realising he has no choice, Shears volunteers. Meanwhile, Nicholson drives his men hard to complete the bridge on time. For him, its completion will exemplify the ingenuity and hard work of the British Army long after the war's end; when he asks that their Japanese counterparts pitch in as well, a resigned Saito replies that he has given the order. Clipton expresses grave doubts about the sanity of Colonel Nicholson's efforts to build the bridge in order to show up his Japanese captors; the four commandos parachute in. Warden is wounded in an encounter with a Japanese patrol and has to be carried on a litter. He, Canadian Lieutenant Joyce reach the river in time with the assistance of Siamese women bearers and their village chief, Khun Yai. Under cover of darkness and Joyce plant explosives on the bridge towers below the water line. A train carrying important dignitaries and soldiers is scheduled to be the first to cross the bridge the following day, so Warden waits to destroy both.
However, by daybreak the water level has dropped, exposing the wire connecting the explosives to the detonator. Nicholson brings it to Saito's attention; as the train approaches, they hurry down to the riverbank to investigate. Joyce, manning the detonator, breaks cover and stabs Saito to death. Nicholson yells for help; when Joyce is mortally wounded by Japanese fire, Shears is himself shot. Recognising the dying Shears, Nicholson exclaims, "What have I done?" Warden fires a mortar. The dying colonel stumbles towards the detonator and collapses on the plunger just in time to blow up the bridge and send the train hurtling into the river below. Warden turns toward the only survivors of the commando raid, the women bearers, begs their forgiveness for having to kill Joyce and Shears, throws the mortar launcher away in disgust, prepares to leave. Clipton, observing the carnage, shakes his head muttering, "Madness!, Madness!". The screenwriters, Carl Foreman and Michael
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
Robert Charles Durman Mitchum was an American film actor, author, poet and singer. Mitchum rose to prominence for his starring roles in several classic films noir, is considered a forerunner of the antiheroes prevalent in film during the 1950s and 1960s, his best-known films include Out of the Past, The Night of the Hunter, Cape Fear. Mitchum was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Story of G. I. Joe. Mitchum is rated number 23 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest male stars of Classic American Cinema. Robert Mitchum was born in Connecticut, in 1917 into a Norwegian-Irish Methodist family, his mother, Ann Harriet Gunderson, was a Norwegian immigrant and sea captain's daughter. His older sister, was born in 1914, their father James Mitchum was crushed to death in a railyard accident in Charleston, South Carolina, in February 1919, when Robert was less than two years old and Annette was not yet five. Their mother was awarded a government pension, she soon realized she was pregnant.
Her third child, was born in September of that year. Ann married again, to a former Royal Naval Reserve officer, he helped care for her three children. Ann and Morris had a daughter together, Carol Morris, born July 1927 on the family farm in Delaware; when all of the children were old enough to attend school, Ann found employment as a linotype operator for the Bridgeport Post. As a child Mitchum was known as a prankster involved in fistfights and mischief; when he was 12, his mother sent him to live with her parents in Delaware. A year in 1930, he moved in with his older sister Annette, in New York's Hell's Kitchen. After being expelled from Haaren High School, he left his sister and traveled throughout the country on railroad cars, taking a number of jobs, including ditch-digging for the Civilian Conservation Corps and professional boxing, he had many adventures during his years as one of the Depression era's "wild boys of the road". At age 14 in Savannah, Georgia, he was put on a local chain gang.
By Mitchum's own account, he returned to his family in Delaware. During this time, while recovering from injuries that nearly cost him a leg, he met Dorothy Spence, whom he would marry, he soon went back on the road riding the rails to California. Mitchum arrived in Long Beach, California in 1936, staying again with his sister Annette, now going by the name of Julie, she had migrated to the West Coast in the hope of acting in movies. Soon, the rest of the Mitchum family joined them in Long Beach. During this time, Mitchum worked as a ghostwriter for astrologer Carroll Righter, his sister Julie convinced him to join the local theater guild with her. In his years with the Players Guild of Long Beach, Mitchum made a living as a stagehand and occasional bit-player in company productions, he wrote several short pieces which were performed by the guild. According to Lee Server's biography, Mitchum put his talent for poetry to work writing song lyrics and monologues for Julie's nightclub performances. In 1940, he returned to Delaware to marry Dorothy Spence, they in turn moved to California.
He remained a footloose character until the birth of their first child nicknamed Josh. They had two more children and Petrine. Back in California, Mitchum managed to find steady employment as a machine operator with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, but the noise of the machinery damaged his hearing, he suffered a nervous breakdown due to job-related stress. He sought work as a film actor, performing as an extra and in small speaking parts, his agent got him an interview with Harry Sherman, the producer of Paramount's Hopalong Cassidy western film series, which starred William Boyd. In 1943 he and Randolph Scott were soldiers in the Pacific Island war film Gung Ho! Mitchum continued to find work as an extra and supporting actor in numerous productions for various studios. After impressing director Mervyn LeRoy during the making of Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Mitchum signed a seven-year contract with RKO Radio Pictures, he was groomed for B-Western stardom in a series of Zane Grey adaptations. Following the moderately successful Western Nevada, Mitchum was lent from RKO to United Artists for The Story of G.
I. Joe. In the film, he portrayed war-weary officer Bill Walker, who remains resolute despite the troubles he faces; the film, which followed the life of an ordinary soldier through the eyes of journalist Ernie Pyle, became an instant critical and commercial success. Shortly after making the film, Mitchum was drafted into the United States Army, serving at Fort MacArthur, California, as a medic. At the 1946 Academy Awards, The Story of G. I. Joe was nominated including Mitchum's only nomination for Best Supporting Actor, he finished the year with a Western and a story of returning Marine veterans, before filming in a genre that came to define Mitchum's career and screen persona: film noir. Mitchum was known for his work in film noir, his first foray into the genre was a supporting role in the 1944 B-movie When Strangers Marry, about newlyweds and a New York City
Brutus the Younger
Marcus Junius Brutus referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but returned to using his original name, he took a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar. Brutus was close to the leader of the Populares faction. However, Caesar's attempts to assume greater power for himself put him at greater odds with the Roman elite and members of the Senate. Brutus came to oppose Caesar and fought on the side of the Optimates faction, led by Pompey the Great, against Caesar's forces in Caesar's Civil War. Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, after which Brutus surrendered to Caesar, who granted him amnesty. However, the underlying political tensions that led to the war had not been resolved. Due to Caesar's monarchical behavior, several senators, calling themselves "Liberators", plotted to assassinate him, they recruited Brutus, who took a leading role in the assassination, carried out on March 15, 44 BC.
The Senate, at the request of the Consul Mark Antony, granted amnesty to the assassins. However, a populist uprising forced Brutus and his brother-in-law, fellow assassin Gaius Cassius Longinus, to leave the City of Rome. In 43 BC, Caesar's grandnephew, Consul Octavian, by also formally known as Gaius Julius Caesar after taking office passed a resolution declaring the conspirators, including Brutus, murderers; this led to the Liberators' civil war, pitting the erstwhile supporters of Caesar, under the Second Triumvirate, wishing both to gain power for themselves and avenge his death, against those who opposed him. Octavian combined his troops with those of Antony, together they decisively defeated the outnumbered armies of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BC. After the battle, Brutus committed suicide. Marcus Junius Brutus Minor was the son of Servilia, his father was killed by Pompey the Great in dubious circumstances after he had taken part in the rebellion of Lepidus.
Some sources refer to the possibility of Caesar being his real father, despite Caesar's being only 15 years old when Brutus was born. Brutus' uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him in about 59 BC, Brutus was known for a time as Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus before he reverted to using his birth-name. Following Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Brutus revived his adoptive name in order to illustrate his links to another famous tyrannicide, Gaius Servilius Ahala, from whom he was descended. Brutus held his uncle in high regard and his political career started when he became an assistant to Cato, during his governorship of Cyprus. During this time, he enriched himself by lending money at high rates of interest. Brutus was active in the province of Cilicia, in the year before Marcus Tullius Cicero was proconsul there, he returned to Rome a rich man. From his first appearance in the Senate, Brutus aligned with the Optimates against the First Triumvirate of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar.
When Caesar's Civil War broke out in 49 BC between Pompey and Caesar, Brutus followed his old enemy and the present leader of the Optimates, Pompey. When the Battle of Pharsalus began on August 9, Caesar ordered his officers to take Brutus prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily, but to leave him alone and do him no harm if he persisted in fighting against capture. Caesar's concern, given that he and Brutus' mother Servilia had been lovers in their youth, was that Brutus might be his biological son. Indeed, he and Brutus enjoyed a close relationship at this time; when Brutus joined Pompey the Great to fight with Caesar and his soldiers, Caesar's main focus was Pompey, but he demanded Brutus be captured alive. After the defeat of the Optimates at the Battle of Pharsalus, Brutus surrendered and wrote to Caesar with apologies. Caesar forgave him. Caesar accepted him into his inner circle and made him governor of Gaul when he left for Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. In 45 BC, Caesar nominated Brutus to serve as urban praetor for the following year.
In June 45 BC, Brutus divorced his wife and married his first cousin, Porcia Catonis, Cato's daughter. According to Cicero the marriage caused a semi-scandal as Brutus failed to state a valid reason for his divorce from Claudia other than he wished to marry Porcia; the marriage caused a rift between Brutus and his mother, resentful of the affection Brutus had for Porcia. Around this time many senators began to fear Caesar's growing power, following his appointment as dictator in perpetuity; the other senators persuaded Brutus to join the conspiracy against Caesar. Brutus decided to move against Caesar after Caesar's king-like behavior prompted him to take action, his wife was the only woman privy to the plot. The conspirators planned to carry out their plot on the Ides of March that same year. On that day, Caesar was delayed going to the Senate because his wife Calpurnia tried to convince him not to go; the conspirators feared. Brutus persisted, waiting for Caesar at the Senate, still chose to remain when a messenger brought him news that would otherwise have caused him to leave.
When Caesar did come to the Senate, he was distracted by Tillius Cimber, who presented Caesa
Lee Marvin was an American film and television actor. Known for his distinctive voice and premature white hair, Marvin appeared in supporting roles villains and other hardboiled characters. A prominent television role was that of Detective Lieutenant Frank Ballinger in the NBC crime series M Squad. One of Marvin's most notable film projects was Cat Ballou, a comedy Western in which he played dual roles. For portraying both gunfighter Kid Shelleen and criminal Tim Strawn, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, along with a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, an NBR Award, the Silver Bear for Best Actor. Marvin was born in New York City, he was the son of two working professionals, Lamont Waltman Marvin, an advertising executive and the head of the New York and New England Apple Institute, Courtenay Washington, a well respected fashion and beauty writer/editor. As with his elder brother, Robert, he was named in honor of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, his first cousin, four times removed, his father was a direct descendant of Matthew Marvin Sr. who emigrated from Great Bentley, England, in 1635, helped found Hartford, Connecticut.
Marvin studied violin. As a teenager, Marvin "spent weekends and spare time hunting deer, wild turkey, bobwhite in the wilds of the then-uncharted Everglades", he attended Manumit School, a Christian socialist boarding school in Pawling, New York, during the late 1930s, attended St. Leo College Preparatory School, a Catholic school in St. Leo, after being expelled from several other schools for bad behavior. Marvin left school at 18 to enlist in the United States Marine Corps Reserve on August 12, 1942, he served with the 4th Marine Division in the Pacific Theater during World War II. While serving as a member of "I" Company, 3rd Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division, he was wounded in action on June 18, 1944, during the assault on Mount Tapochau in the Battle of Saipan, during which most of his company were casualties, he was hit by machine gun fire, which severed his sciatic nerve, was hit again in the foot by a sniper. After over a year of medical treatment in naval hospitals, Marvin was given a medical discharge with the rank of private first class in 1945 at Philadelphia.
Marvin's military awards include: the Purple Heart Medal, the Presidential Unit Citation, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, Combat Action Ribbon. After the war, while working as a plumber's assistant at a local community theatre in upstate New York, Marvin was asked to replace an actor who had fallen ill during rehearsals, he got a job with the company at $7 a week. He used the GI Bill to study at the American Theatre Wing, he appeared on stage in a production of Uniform of an adaptation of Billy Budd. It was done at the Experimental Theatre, where a few months Marvin appeared in The Nineteenth Hole of Europe. Marvin began appearing on television shows like Escape, The Big Story, Treasury Men in Action, he made it to Broadway with a small role in a production of Uniform of Flesh, now called Billy Budd in February 1951. Marvin's film debut was in You're in the Navy Now, directed by Henry Hathaway, a film which marked the debuts of Charles Bronson and Jack Warden.
This required some filming in Hollywood. Marvin decided to stay there, he had a similar small part in Teresa 1951) directed by Fred Zinnemann. As a decorated combat veteran, Marvin was a natural in war dramas, where he assisted the director and other actors in realistically portraying infantry movement, arranging costumes, the use of firearms, he guest starred on episodes of Fireside Theatre and Rebound. Hathaway used him again on Diplomatic Courier and he could be seen in Down Among the Sheltering Palms, directed by Edmund Goulding, We're Not Married! for Goulding, The Duel at Silver Creek directed by Don Siegel, Hangman's Knot, directed by Roy Huggins. He guest starred on Biff Baker, U. S. A. and Dragnet, had a decent role in a feature with Eight Iron Men, a war film produced by Stanley Kramer. He was a sergeant in Seminole, a Western directed by Budd Boetticher, was a corporal in The Glory Brigade, a Korean War film. Marvin guest starred in The Doctor, The Revlon Mirror Theater, Suspense again and The Motorola Television Hour.
He was now in much demand for Westerns: The Stranger Wore a Gun with Randolph Scott, Gun Fury with Rock Hudson. Marvin received much acclaim for his portrayal as villains in two films: The Big Heat where he played Gloria Grahame's vicious boyfriend, directed by Fritz Lang, he continued on TV shows such as The Pepsi-Cola Playhouse. He had support roles in Gorilla at Large and had a notable small role as smart-aleck sailor Meatball in The Caine Mutiny, produced by Kramer. Marvin was in Center Stage, Medic and TV Reader's Digest, he had an excellent part as the small-town hood in Bad Day at Black Rock with Spencer Tracy. In 1955, he played a conflicted, brutal bank-robber in Violent Saturday. A latter-day critic wrote of the character, "Marvin brings a multi-faceted complexity to the role and gives a great example of the early promise that launched his long and successful career."Marvin played Ro
Julius Caesar (1953 film)
Julius Caesar is a 1953 epic Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film adaptation of the play by Shakespeare, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, who wrote the uncredited screenplay, produced by John Houseman; the original music score is by Miklós Rózsa. The film stars Marlon Brando as Mark Antony, James Mason as Brutus, John Gielgud as Cassius, Louis Calhern as Julius Caesar, Edmond O'Brien as Casca, Greer Garson as Calpurnia, Deborah Kerr as Portia. Many of the actors connected with this film had previous experience with the play. John Gielgud had played Mark Antony at the Old Vic Theatre in 1930 and Cassius at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1950, James Mason had played Brutus at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin in the 1940s, John Hoyt, who plays Decius Brutus played him in the Mercury Theatre's 1937 stage version. Gielgud played the title role in the 1970 film with Charlton Heston, Jason Robards and Richard Johnson and in a stage production directed by John Schlesinger at the Royal National Theatre.
John Houseman, who had produced the famous 1937 Broadway version of the play starring Orson Welles and the Mercury Theatre produced the MGM film. By this time, however and Houseman had had a falling out, Welles had nothing to do with the 1953 film. P. M. Pasinetti, Italian-American writer and teacher at UCLA served as a technical advisor. Brando's casting was met with some skepticism when it was announced, as he had acquired the nickname of "The Mumbler" following his performance in A Streetcar Named Desire. Director Joseph L. Mankiewicz considered Paul Scofield for the role of Mark Antony if Brando's screen test was unsuccessful. Brando asked John Gielgud for advice in declaiming Shakespeare, adopted all of Gielgud's recommendations. Brando's performance turned out so well that the New York Times stated in its review of the film: “Happily, Mr. Brando's diction, guttural and slurred in previous films, is clear and precise in this instance. In him a major talent has emerged.” Brando was so dedicated in his performance during shooting that Gielgud offered to direct him in a stage production of Hamlet, a proposition that Brando considered but turned down.
During filming, James Mason became concerned that Brando was stealing the audience's sympathy away from him and his character, Brutus, so Mason appealed to Mankiewicz, with whom he had bonded earlier while making the film 5 Fingers, requesting that the director stop Brando from dominating the film and "put the focus back where it belongs. Namely on me!" The subsequent shift in directorial attention didn't escape Brando, who threatened to walk off the film if Mankiewicz "threw one more scene to Mason", alleging a ménage à trois among Mankiewicz and Mason's wife Pamela. Despite the feuding, production continued with only minimal disruption, thanks to what Gielgud called, "Mankiewicz's consummate tact that kept us together as a working unit."O. Z. Whitehead is listed on the Internet Movie Database as having played Cinna the Poet in the film and not receiving screen credit, but his one scene was deleted before release, it is not included in any DVD or video releases of the film. Producer John Houseman says.
MGM's head of production Dore Schary offered the project to Houseman, who said he wanted Joseph L. Mankiewicz to direct because he thought he and William Wyler were "probably the two best dialogue directors in the business" and that Mankiewicz was "younger and more flexible."Houseman did not want to use an all-British cast. "I'd done a lot of Shakespeare in America," he said. "If it was going to be cast all-English, it should be an English picture, made in England and we might as well forget about it."Houseman says MGM wanted to make the film in color but he and Mankiewicz refused, "partly because we wanted people to relate to the newsreels, to the Fascist movements in Europe, which were still relevant" and because they would be "using a lot of the Quo Vadis sets, it seemed idiotic to invite comparison with quo vadis."Houseman says they "decided to do it as a small production, not a spectacle. The film received favorable reviews. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called it "a stirring and memorable film," while Variety wrote: "A triumphant achievement in film-making, it will be rated one of the great pictures of Hollywood."
Harrison's Reports raved, "Excellent! Sumptuously produced, expertly directed and brilliantly acted,'Julius Caesar' is an artistic triumph that ranks with the best of the Shakespearean plays that have been put on film." John McCarten of The New Yorker called the film "a chilly exercise" and opined that Brando "plainly shows he needs a bit of speech training before he can graduate into an acting league where the spoken word is a trifle more significant than the flexed biceps and the fixed eye," but praised Mason and Gielgud as "a pleasure to watch and listen to." The Monthly Film Bulletin called it "an excellent film, excellent cinema, excellent entertainment, pretty respectable art."In the second volume of his book The Story of Cinema, author David Shipman pointed to Gielgud "negotiating the verse as in no other Shakespeare film to date except Olivier's". The film has a 95% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10: Nominated Epic Film According to MGM records the film earned $2,021,000 in the US and Canada and $1,899,000 elsewhere, resulting in a profit of $116,000.
In 1976 Houseman said, "It's still shown a lot-in theaters and schools and on TV. I su
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson, Peggy Ashcroft and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles, his family had no theatrical connections, but Olivier's father, a clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a drama school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Ashcroft, by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a respected company.
There his most celebrated roles included Sophocles's Oedipus. In the 1950s Olivier was an independent actor-manager, but his stage career was in the doldrums until he joined the avant garde English Stage Company in 1957 to play the title role in The Entertainer, a part he played on film. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars, his own parts there included the title role in Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Richard III, his films included The Shoes of the Fisherman, Marathon Man, The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Day's Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited and King Lear. Olivier's honours included a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards.
The National Theatre's largest auditorium is named in his honour, he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Joan Plowright from 1961 until his death. Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Reverend Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden, their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie". His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England, he practised high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as "Father Olivier". This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, the only church posts he was offered were temporary deputising for regular incumbents in their absence.
This meant a nomadic existence, for Laurence's first few years, he never lived in one place long enough to make friends. In 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant rector at St Saviour's, Pimlico, he held the post for six years, a stable family life was at last possible. Olivier was devoted to his mother, but not to his father, whom he found a remote parent, he learned a great deal of the art of performing from him. As a young man Gerard Olivier had considered a stage career and was a dramatic and effective preacher. Olivier wrote that his father knew "when to drop the voice, when to bellow about the perils of hellfire, when to slip in a gag, when to wax sentimental... The quick changes of mood and manner absorbed me, I have never forgotten them." In 1916, after attending a series of preparatory schools, Olivier passed the singing examination for admission to the choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street, in central London. His elder brother was a pupil, Olivier settled in, though he felt himself to be something of an outsider.
The church's style of worship was Anglo-Catholic, with emphasis on ritual and incense. The theatricality of the services appealed to Olivier, the vicar encouraged the students to develop a taste for secular as well as religious drama. In a school production of Julius Caesar in 1917, the ten-year-old Olivier's performance as Brutus impressed an audience that included Lady Tree, the young Sybil Thorndike, Ellen Terry, who wrote in her diary, "The small boy who played Brutus is a great actor." He won praise in other schoolboy productions, as Maria in Twelfth Night and Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew. From All Saints, Olivier went on to St Edward's School, from 1920 to 1924, he made little mark until his final year, when he played Puck in the school's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. In January 1924, his brother left England to work in India as a rubber planter. Olivier missed him and asked his father how soon he could follow, he recalled in his memoirs that his father replied, "Don't be such a fool, you're not going to India, you're going on the stage."
In 1924 Gerard Olivier, a habitually fru