Japanese occupation of the Philippines
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines occurred between 1942 and 1945, when Imperial Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II. The invasion of the Philippines started on 8 December 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor; as at Pearl Harbor, American aircraft were damaged in the initial Japanese attack. Lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines withdrew to Java on 12 December 1941. General Douglas MacArthur was ordered out, leaving his men at Corregidor on the night of 11 March 1942 for Australia, 4,000 km away; the 76,000 starving and sick American and Filipino defenders on Bataan surrendered on 9 April 1942, were forced to endure the infamous Bataan Death March on which 7,000–10,000 died or were murdered. The 13,000 survivors on Corregidor surrendered on 6 May. Japan occupied the Philippines until the surrender of Japan. A effective guerilla campaign by Philippine resistance forces controlled sixty percent of the islands jungle and mountain areas.
MacArthur supplied them by submarine, sent reinforcements and officers. Filipinos remained loyal to the United States because of the American guarantee of independence, because the Japanese had pressed large numbers of Filipinos into work details and put young Filipino women into brothels. General MacArthur kept his promise to return to the Philippines on 20 October 1944; the landings on the island of Leyte were accompanied by a force of 174,000 men. Through December 1944, the islands of Leyte and Mindoro were cleared of Japanese soldiers. During the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted a suicidal defense of the islands. Cities such as Manila were reduced to rubble. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Filipinos died during the Japanese Occupation Period. Japan launched an attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after their attack on Pearl Harbor. Initial aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops both south of Manila; the defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, recalled to active duty in the United States Army earlier in the year and was designated commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Asia-Pacific region.
The aircraft of his command were destroyed. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay. Manila, declared an open city to prevent its destruction, was occupied by the Japanese on 2 January 1942; the Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of U. S.-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous "Bataan Death March" to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. Thousands of men, weakened by disease and malnutrition and treated harshly by their captors, died before reaching their destination. Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and left for the United States, where they set up a government-in-exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia; the Japanese military authorities began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines.
Although the Japanese had promised independence for the islands after occupation, they organized a Council of State through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. Most of the Philippine elite, with a few notable exceptions, served under the Japanese; the puppet republic was headed by President José P. Laurel. Philippine collaboration in puppet government began under Jorge B. Vargas, appointed by Quezon as the mayor of City of Greater Manila before Quezon departed Manila; the only political party allowed during the occupation was the Japanese-organized KALIBAPI. During the occupation, most Filipinos remained loyal to the United States, war crimes committed by forces of the Empire of Japan against surrendered Allied forces and civilians were documented. Throughout the Philippines more than a thousand women, some being under the age of 18, were imprisoned as "comfort women", kept in sexual slavery for Japanese military personnel during the occupation.
Each of the Japanese military installations in the Philippines during the occupation had a location were the women were held, which they called a "comfort station". One such place where these women were imprisoned is Bahay na Pula. Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by active and successful underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years and that covered a large portion of the country. Opposing these guerrillas were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary and the Makapili. Postwar investigations showed that about 260,000 people were in guerrilla organizations and that members of the anti-Japanese underground were more numerous; such was their effectiveness that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. The Philippine guerrilla movement continued to grow, in spite of Japanese campaigns against them. Throughout Luzon and the southern islands, Filipinos joined various groups and vowed to fight the Japanese; the commanders of these groups made contact with one another, argued about
Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned U. S. company based in Missouri. Founded in 1910 by Joyce Hall, Hallmark is the oldest and largest manufacturer of greeting cards in the United States. In 1985, the company was awarded the National Medal of Arts. In addition to greeting cards, Hallmark manufactures such products as party goods, gift wrap, stationery. Hallmark acquired Binney & Smith in 1987, would change its name to Crayola, LLC after its well-known Crayola brand of crayons and colored pencils; the company is involved in television, having produced the long-running Hallmark Hall of Fame series since 1951, launching the Hallmark Channel 50 years later. Driven by an early 20th-century postcard craze, Joyce Clyde Hall and his older brothers and Rollie, began the Norfolk Post Card Company in 1907 headquartered in the Norfolk, Nebraska bookstore at which they worked; the next year, Rollie bought out the store's non-family business partner and it became "Hall Brothers", doing business as the Hall Book Store.
The postcard business soon outgrew the store's resources, Joyce moved it to Kansas City in 1910. By 1912, the postcard craze had faded and the company had begun selling "Christmas letters" and greeting cards, shortening its name a few years to the Norfolk Card Company. In 1917, Hall and his brother Rollie "invented" modern wrapping paper when they ran out of traditional colored tissue paper at the stationery store and substituted fancy French envelope lining paper. After selling the lining paper again the next year, the Hall Brothers started printing their own designed wrapping paper. In 1922, the company expanded throughout the country; the staff grew from 4 to 120 people, the line increased from holiday cards to include everyday greeting cards. In 1928, the company introduced the brand name Hallmark, after the hallmark symbol used by goldsmiths in London in the 14th century, began printing the name on the back of every card; that same year, the company became the first in the greeting card industry to advertise their product nationally.
Their first advertisement appeared in Ladies' Home Journal and was written by J. C. Hall himself. In 1931, the Canadian William E. Coutts Company, Ltd. a major card maker, became an affiliate of Hall Brothers – their first international business venture. In 1944, it adopted its current slogan, "When you care enough to send the best." It was created by C. E. Goodman, a Hallmark marketing and sales executive, written on a 3x5 card; the card is on display at the company headquarters. In 1951, Hall sponsored a television program for NBC that gave rise to the Hallmark Hall of Fame, which has won 80 Emmy Awards. Hallmark now has its own cable television channel, the Hallmark Channel, established in 2001. For a period of about 15 years, Hallmark owned a stake in the Spanish language network Univision. In 1954, the company name was changed from Hall Brothers to Hallmark. In 1958, William E. Coutts Company, Ltd. was acquired by Hallmark. Until the 1990s, Hallmark's Canadian branch was known as Coutts Hallmark.
In 1973, Hallmark Cards started manufacturing Christmas ornaments. The first collection included 18 ornaments, including six glass ball ornaments; the Hallmark Keepsake Ornament collection is available for just one year. By 1998, 11 million American households collected Hallmark ornaments, 250,000 people were members of the Keepsake Ornament Collector's Club; the Collector's Club was launched nationally on June 1, 1987. One noted Christmas ornament authority is Clara Johnson Scroggins who has written extensively about Keepsake Ornaments and has one of the largest private collections of Christmas ornaments. In 1980, Hallmark Cards acquired Valentine & Sons of Dundee, one of the world's oldest publishers of picture postcards. In 1998, Hallmark made a number of acquisitions, including Britain-based Creative Publishing, U. S.-based InterArt. Worldwide, Hallmark has over 27,000 employees. About 2,700 Hallmarkers work at the Kansas City headquarters. Donald J. Hall Sr. serves as chairman. Donald J. Hall Jr. serves as CEO.
David E. Hall is the company president. Hallmark's creative staff consists of around 900 artists, stylists, writers and photographers. Together, they generate more than 19,000 new and redesigned greeting cards and related products per year; the company offers more than 48,000 products in its model line at any one time. Hallmark offers or has offered the following products and services: Hallmark Cards feature several brands and licenses. Shoebox, the company's line of humorous cards, evolved from studio cards. Maxine, was introduced in 1986 when she appeared on several Shoebox cards the year the alternative card line was launched. Hoops & yoyo, were characters created by Mike Adair. Revilo is another popular line, by artist Oliver Christianson. Forever Friends was purchased in 1994 from English entrepreneur Andrew Brownsword, who for four years subsequently was Chief Executive of Hallmark Europe. Image Craft was acquired by the William E. Coutts Company subsidiary of Hallmark Canada in the mid-2000s.
Hallmark has provided software for printing cards. This software has been known as Hallmark Card Studio, with partner Nova Development, Microsoft Greetings Workshop in partner with Microsoft; some of the licensors for Hallmark's greeting cards and gift products include: The Hallmark Visitors Center is located at the company's headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. The C
Santa Cruz, Manila
Santa Cruz is a district in the northern part of the City of Manila, located on the right bank of the Pasig River near its mouth, boredered by the districts of Tondo, Binondo and Sampaloc, Grace Park and La Loma. The district belongs to the 3rd congressional district of Manila in the Philippines. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors to the Philippine Islands, the district of Santa Cruz was a marshland, patches of greeneries and rice fields. A Spanish expedition in 1581 claimed the territory and awarded to the Society of Jesus whose members are known as'Jesuits'; the Jesuits built the first Roman Catholic church in the area where the present Santa Cruz Parish stands on June 20, 1619. The Jesuits enshrined the image of the Our Lady of The Pillar in 1643 to serve the pre-dominantly Chinese residents in the area; the image drew a lot of a popular cult grew around it. On June 24, 1784, King Carlos III of Spain gave the deeds to about 2 km² of land, part of the Hacienda de Mayhaligue to the San Lazaro Hospital which served as a caring home for lepers in Manila at that time.
At the Santa Cruz Parish, a small park was built that linked the area into the headquarters of the Spanish cavalry, the building that once was the Colegio de San Ildefonso, operated by the Jesuits. The district in the Spanish times had a slaughter house and a meat market and up north was the Chinese cemetery; the Franciscan fathers were given the responsibility to care for the lepers of the city and the San Lazaro Hospital. Father Felix Huerta developed San Lazaro into a refuge for the afflicted and it became a famous home for those afflicted in the north side of the Pasig River. During World War II, the Japanese occupational forces, caught unaware of the fast approaching liberation by the combined American & Filipino soldiers from the north, abandoned in 1945 the northern banks of the Pasig River including Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz and much of the northern portions of Manila were spared from the artillery bombardment and to date, a number of pre-World War II buildings and houses still stand in Santa Cruz.
When the Philippine republic was established in July 1946, the San Lazaro Hospital complex became the head office of the country’s Department of Health. The first Santa Cruz Church was built when the Arrabal of Santa Cruz was established by the Jesuits in the early 1600s; the church had undergone many repairs and reconstruction, with the last reconstruction done in the 1950s. Today, the church architecture employs a California Spanish Mission style facade silhouette with the usual Filipino Baroque ornamentation; the church facade is topped with an effigy statue of Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of the church whose feast happens every third Sunday of October and on the 12th day of October. Santa Cruz is home to Manila's oldest cemeteries located in the district's northern section namely, La Loma Cemetery, the Manila Chinese Cemetery, the city's biggest, the Manila North Cemetery. Rizal Avenue is the main thoroughfare in the district; the district is accessible via the following roads: Recto Avenue Tayuman Street Blumentritt RoadStations of the Manila Line 1, commencing from Baclaran and Roosevelt stations, are in Carriedo, Doroteo Jose, Bambang and Blumentritt.
The Philippine National Railways has a station in Blumentritt. Jeepneys coming from Baclaran and Caloocan pass through Rizal Avenue. Media related to Santa Cruz, Manila at Wikimedia Commons Santa Cruz, Manila travel guide from Wikivoyage
Metropolitan Manila is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines. It is known as the National Capital Region, is known as Metro Manila or Manila, it is made up of 16 cities namely: the City of Manila, Quezon City, Las Piñas, Malabon, Marikina, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan and Valenzuela, as well as the municipality of Pateros. The region encompasses an area of 619.57 km2 and has a population of 12,877,253 as of 2015. It is the most densely populated region of the Philippines, it is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Asia and the 5th most populous urban area in the world. The region is the center of culture, economy and government of the Philippines. Designated as a global power city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, both locally and internationally, it is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country.
Its economic power makes the region the country's premier center for commerce. The region accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines. The region was established in 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the predecessor entity of the region, is one of the first eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines at the end of the 19th century. Manila's role in the Revolution is honored in the Flag of the Philippines, where the sun's eight rays symbolize the eight revolutionary provinces. A historical province known as Manila encompassed territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities; this included the well-known Pasig River delta settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig and the fortified polity of Cainta.
It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina served as the capital from 1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States; the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities; the Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government; the creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Intramuros, Manila, Quiapo, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo.
Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed; the establishment of Quezon City meant the demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more the loss of more than 100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. On, Quezon City was declared as the national capital in 1948; the title was re-designated back to Manila in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.
Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce and culture. During the war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town; this was in order to ensure Vargas, Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country.
The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila, established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally established th
Pioneer Street is the continuation of Boni Avenue east of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue in eastern Metro Manila, Philippines. The street has four lanes for most of its course beginning at the EDSA junction in Barangka Ilaya, where traffic emerges from the Boni Avenue tunnel, up to its easternmost point at the Shaw Boulevard junction in Kapitolyo, Pasig adjacent to Ortigas Center. En route, it passes through the Robinsons Cybergate Complex. Pioneer Street is the location of several new condominium developments, call center sites and a few strip malls, it is served by Boni Station of the MRT-3 at EDSA. Cityland Pioneer Forum Robinsons Globe Telecom Plaza Gateway Regency GoHotel Cybergate Plaza Madison Square Pioneer Pioneer Centre Pioneer Woodlands RFM Corporation Center Robinsons Cybergate Sunshine 100 City Plaza The Legend Villas United Laboratories Boni Avenue
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the higher-education market. Prentice Hall distributes its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. On October 13, 1913, law professor Charles Gerstenberg and his student Richard Ettinger founded Prentice Hall. Gerstenberg and Ettinger took their mothers' maiden names—Prentice and Hall—to name their new company. Prentice Hall was acquired by Gulf+Western in 1984, became part of that company's publishing division Simon & Schuster. Publication of trade books ended in 1991. Simon & Schuster's educational division, including Prentice Hall, was sold to Pearson by G+W successor Viacom in 1998. There were two or more authors, their books turned up missing. One book'The Roof Builder's Handbook' is still being sold in 2018 for as much as $230 per new copy, but the author William C. McElroy was told by Pearson that all new books were either destroyed or went missing in 1995.
Some 2,385 copies are missing. Prentice Hall is the publisher of Magruder's American Government as well as Biology by Ken Miller and Joe Levine, their artificial intelligence series includes Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig and ANSI Common Lisp by Paul Graham, they published the well-known computer programming book The C Programming Language by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie and Operating Systems: Design and Implementation by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Other titles include Dennis Nolan's Big Pig, Monster Bubbles: A Counting Book, Wizard McBean and his Flying Machine, Witch Bazooza, Llama Beans, The Joy of Chickens. A Prentice Hall subsidiary, Reston Publishing, was in the foreground of technical-book publishing when microcomputers were first becoming available, it was still unclear who would be buying and using "personal computers," and the scarcity of useful software and instruction created a publishing market niche whose target audience yet had to be defined.
In the spirit of the pioneers who made PCs possible, Reston Publishing's editors addressed non-technical users with the reassuring, mildly experimental, Computer Anatomy for Beginners by Marlin Ouverson of People's Computer Company. They followed with a collection of books, by and for programmers, building a stalwart list of titles relied on by many in the first generation of microcomputers users. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science Prentice Hall website Prentice Hall School website Prentice Hall Higher Education website Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference website