Institute of Education Sciences
The Institute of Education Sciences is the independent, non-partisan statistics and evaluation arm of the U. S. Department of Education. IES' stated mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, policymakers and the public, it was created as part of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002. The first director of IES was Grover Whitehurst, appointed in November 2002 and served for six years. Dr. Mark Schneider is the Director of IES. IES is divided into four major research and statistics centers: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance —NCEE conducts large-scale evaluations and provides research-based technical assistance and information about high-quality research to educators and policymakers in a variety of different formats. NCEE's work includes evaluations of education practices supported by federal funds. Dr. Matthew Soldner is the Commissioner of NCEE.
National Center for Education Research —NCER supports research to improve student outcomes and education quality in the United States and pursue workable solutions to the challenges faced by educators and the education community. NCER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific education research. Dr. Elizabeth Albro is the Commissioner of NCER. National Center for Education Statistics —NCES is the primary federal entity that collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations. Among the programs and initiatives that NCES oversees is the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Dr. James Lynn Woodworth is the Commissioner of NCES. National Center for Special Education Research —NCSER sponsors and supports comprehensive research, designed to expand the knowledge and understanding of infants and children with disabilities, or those who are at risk of developing disabilities. NCSER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific special education research.
Dr. Joan E. McLaughlin is the commissioner of NCSER; the National Board for Education Sciences serves as an advisory board for IES and has 15 voting members, who are appointed by the President of the United States. The Board includes several ex-officio, non-voting members, including the director of IES, the commissioners of the four centers, representatives of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U. S. Census Bureau, the U. S. Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation; the Board advises and consults with the director and the commissioners to identify research and organizational priorities for IES. Dr. Larry Hedges, of Northwestern University, is the chairman of the National Board for Education Sciences. Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations Institute of Education Sciences Official Website National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance Website
United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000
Energy Information Administration
The U. S. Energy Information Administration is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, natural gas, electric and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U. S. Department of Energy; the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973. EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, energy flows. EIA disseminates its data products, analyses and services to customers and stakeholders through its website and the customer contact center. Located in Washington, D. C. EIA has about 325 federal employees and a budget of $122 million in fiscal year 2017.
By law, EIA’s products are prepared independently of policy considerations. EIA neither advocates any policy conclusions; the Department of Energy Organization Act allows EIA’s processes and products to be independent from review by Executive Branch officials. More than 2 million people use the EIA’s information online each month; some of the EIA’s products include: General Interest Energy Information Energy Explained: Energy information written for a general, non-technical audience. A nonpartisan guide to the entire range of energy topics from biodiesel to uranium. Energy Kids: Educates students and policymakers and journalists about energy. Energy Glossary: Common energy terms defined in plain language. Timely Analysis Today in Energy: Informative content published every weekday that includes a graph or map and a short, timely story written in plain language that highlights current energy issues and data trends; this Week in Petroleum: Weekly summary and explanation of events in United States and world petroleum markets, including weekly data.
Natural Gas Weekly Update: Weekly summary and discussion of events and trends in U. S. natural gas markets. Data and Surveys Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update: Weekly price data for U. S. national and regional averages. Monthly Energy Review: Provides statistics on monthly and annual U. S. energy consumption going back in some cases to 1949. The figures are given in units of quads Annual Energy Review: EIA's primary report of historical annual energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949; this report has been superseded by the Monthly Energy Review and was not produced for 2012. Country Energy Profiles: Data by country and commercial group for 219 countries with additional country analysis notes for 87 of these. Country Analysis Briefs: EIA's in-depth analyses of energy production, consumption and exports for 36 individual countries and regions. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: EIA's comprehensive survey and analysis of residential energy consumption, household characteristics, appliance saturation.
Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: A national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U. S. commercial buildings, including their energy-related building characteristics and energy usage data. Projections and Outlooks Short-Term Energy Outlook: Energy projections for the next 13-24 months, updated monthly. Annual Energy Outlook: Projection and analysis of U. S. energy supply and prices through 2040 based on EIA's National Energy Modeling System. Projections are based on existing legislation, without assumption of any future congressional action or technological advancement. In 2015, EIA has been criticized by the Advanced Energy Economy Institute after its release of the AEO 2015-report to "consistently underestimate the growth rate of renewable energy, leading to'misperceptions' about the performance of these resources in the marketplace". AEE points out that the average power purchase agreement for wind power was at $24/MWh in 2013. PPA for utility-scale solar PV are seen at current levels of $50–$75/MWh.
These figures contrast with EIA's estimated LCOE of $125/MWh for solar PV in 2020. This criticism has been repeated every year since. International Energy Outlook: EIA's assessment of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040; the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 created the Federal Energy Administration, the first U. S. agency with the primary focus on energy and mandated it to collect, assemble and analyze energy information. It provided the FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and major consuming firms. Section 52 of the FEA Act mandated establishment of the National Energy Information System to “… contain such energy information as is necessary to carry out the Administration’s statistical and forecasting activities …” The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, P
Secondary education in the United States
In most jurisdictions, secondary education in the United States refers to the last four years of statutory formal education either at high school or split between a final year of'junior high school' and three in high school. The United States had a demand for general skills rather than specific training/apprenticeships. High school enrollment increased when schools at this level became free, laws required children to attend until a certain age, it was believed that every American student had the opportunity to participate regardless of their ability. In 1892, in response to many competing academic philosophies being promoted at the time, a working group of educators, known as the "Committee of Ten" was established by the National Education Association, it recommended twelve years of instruction, consisting of eight years of elementary education followed by four years of high school. Rejecting suggestions that high schools should divide students into college-bound and working-trades groups from the start, in some cases by race or ethnic background, they unanimously recommended that "every subject, taught at all in a secondary school should be taught in the same way and to the same extent to every pupil so long as he pursues it, no matter what the probable destination of the pupil may be, or at what point his education is to cease."At the turn of the 20th Century, it was common for high schools to have entrance examinations which restricted entrance to fewer than 5 percent of the population in preparation for college.
Most were expected to be ready for a family after junior high school. The first public secondary schools started around the 1830s and 40's within the wealthier areas of similar income levels and expanded after the American Civil War into the 1890s. Between 1910 and 1940 the "high school movement" resulted in increasing founding of public high schools in many cities and towns and with further expansions in each locality with the establishment of neighborhood, district, or community high schools in the larger cities which may have had one or two schools since the 19th Century. High school enrollment and graduation numbers and rates increased markedly due to the building of new schools, a practical curriculum based on gaining skills "for life" rather than "for college". There was a shift towards local decision making by school districts, a policy of easy and open enrollment; the shift from theoretical to a more practical approach in curriculum resulted in an increase of skilled blue-collar workers.
The open enrollment nature and relaxed standards, such as ease of repeating a grade contributed to the boom in secondary schooling. There was an increase in educational attainment from the grass-roots movement of building and staffing public high schools. By mid-century, comprehensive high schools became common, which were designed to give a free education to any student who chose to stay in school for 12 years to get a diploma with a minimal grade point average. In 1954 the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education made desegregation of elementary and high schools mandatory, although private Christian schools expanded following this ruling to accommodate white families attempting to avoid desegregation. By 1955, the enrollment rates of secondary schools in the United States were around 80%, higher than enrollment rates in most or all European countries; the goal became to minimize the number who exited at the mandatory attendance age, which varies by state between 14 and 18 years of age, become considered to be dropouts, at risk of economic failure.
In 1965 the far-reaching Elementary and Secondary Education Act, passed as a part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's "War on Poverty", provided funds for primary and secondary education while explicitly forbidding the establishment of a national curriculum, it established high standards and accountability. The bill aimed to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing every child with fair and equal opportunities to achieve an exceptional education. After 1980, the growth in educational attainment decreased, which caused the growth of the educated workforce to slow down. Under the education reform movement started in the early 1990s by many state legislatures and the federal government, about two-thirds of the nation's public high school students are required to pass a graduation exam at the 10th and higher grade levels, though no new states had adopted a new requirement in 2006; this requirement has been an object of controversy when states have started to withhold diplomas, the right to attend commencement exercises, if a student does not meet the standards set by the state.
Pressure to allow people and organizations to create new Charter schools developed during the 1980s and were embraced by the American Federation of Teachers in 1988. These would be and financially autonomous public school free from many state laws and district regulations, accountable more for student outcomes rather than for processes or inputs. Minnesota was the first state to pass a charter school law in 1991. By 2009 charter schools were operating in 41 states and 59% of these had waiting lists; the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 required all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. Schools that receive Title I funding must make Adequate Yearly Progress in test scores and Schools that miss AYP for a second consecutive year are publicly labeled as in need of impro
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Pre-kindergarten is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States and Turkey. It may be delivered within a reception year in elementary school. Pre-kindergartens play an important role in early childhood education, they have existed in the US since 1922 run by private organizations. The U. S. Head Start program, the country's first federally funded pre-kindergarten program, was founded in 1967; this attempts to prepare children to succeed in school. The term "pre-kindergarten" is used interchangeably with the concepts of "nursery care" and "child care", they could involve academic training, or they could involve socializing activities. Pre-kindergartens differentiate themselves from other child care by focusing on building a child's social development, physical development, emotional development, cognitive development, they follow a set of organization-created teaching standards in shaping curriculum and instructional activities and goals. The term "preschool" more approximates the name "pre-kindergarten", for both focus on harvesting the same four child development areas in subject-directed fashion.
The term "preschool" refers to such schools that are owned and operated as private or parochial schools. Pre-kindergartens refer to such school classrooms that function within a public school under the supervision of a public school administrator and funded by state or federally allocated funds, private donations. Most school districts describe Pre-Kindergarten as "an early learning program to prepare children for kindergarten who are identified as at risk". Pre-kindergarten provides learning to children who are 4 years old on or before September 1. Preschool provides learning to children who are 3 years olds on or before September 1. Most programs are 3 hours but extended day is offered in some schools. "K-2" is used interchangeably with "pre-kindergarten". Although early childhood education experts criticize the use of the term as a way to rationalize utilizing a kindergarten model and teaching kindergarten skills in pre-kindergarten classes, public school districts continue to incorporate the term as a way to integrate pre-kindergarten into the stable of accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act.
In 2013, Michigan and the city of San Antonio, enacted or expanded Pre-K programs. In New York City, mayor Bill de Blasio was elected on a pledge of Pre-K for all city children. A poll conducted in July for an early education nonprofit advocate found that 60 percent of registered Republicans and 84 percent of Democrats supported expanding public preschool by raising the federal tobacco tax. Funding for Pre-K has proven a substantial obstacle for expanding programs; the issue produced multiple approaches. Several governors and mayors targeted existing budgets. San Antonio increased sales taxes, while Maine look to gambling. In Oregon 20% of kids have access to publicly funded Pre-K of any kind, a 2016 campaign is working to fund Pre-K to 12 education, for all kids whose parents want them to have the option of Pre-K. A 2012 review by the National Institute for Early Education Research at Rutgers University identified Oklahoma and West Virginia as among the leaders in public program quality and fraction of enrolled children.
Florida had the highest enrollment in 2012 — four-fifths of all four-year-olds. About 84 percent were in religion-based or family centers; that state's preschool programs did not fare well on quality measures. Other states with more than 50 percent enrollment included Wisconsin, Iowa and Vermont. Florida was one of the first states to establish free prekindergarten; the programs offer a jump start to young children on their education. The program is open to all 4 and 5-year-olds who reside in Florida and have birthdays before September 1st of the current school year. Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these high-quality programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Florida VPK programs offer specialized instruction for children with special needs.
Benefits of the VPK program include better behavior, preparation for Kindergarten, a promoted love of learning for children. The skills children learn at home are enhanced by Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten. A 2018 study in the Journal of Public Economics found in Italy that pre-kindergarten "increased mothers' participation in the labor market and lowered the reservation wage of the unemployed, thus increasing their likelihood of finding a job" but "did not affect children's cognitive development, irrespective of their family background."Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Select programs offer specialized instruction for