Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Commitment to Change
Commitment to Change was a centre-right political party in Argentina, principally active in the city of Buenos Aires. The party was led by Mauricio Macri and chairman of Boca Juniors football club; the party was conceived as a source for new politicians, as the major parties were discredited after the December 2001 riots in Argentina. It has been active since he stood to be Mayor of Buenos Aires in 2003, he lost the runoff election with 47 % of the popular vote to Aníbal Ibarra. The party did however win a large number of members of the city legislature. In 2003 Commitment to Change won five seats in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Argentine Congress. In 2005 the party teamed up with the centre-right party of Ricardo López Murphy, Recreate for Growth, principally active in Buenos Aires Province; the new alliance was named Republican Proposal - Propuesta Republicana or PRO. The front won nine deputies in the 2005 legislative elections. Macri became a deputy in 2005. Ahead of the 2007 elections, Macri and López Murphy have been in discussions with Jorge Sobisch, governor of Neuquén Province and presidential candidate in 2007, to create a nationwide centre-right political force.
López Murphy has fallen out with Sobisch. Macri withdrew his support to Sobisch after the scandal of the death of the teacher Fuentealba during a demonstration in Neuquen. On 2 April 2008, Commitment to Change replaced its name to Republican Proposal. A year Recreate for Growth was absorbed by Republican Proposal. Official site
Pedro Goyena was an Argentine jurist and writer. Pedro Goyena, along with other thinkers and politicians, followers of the Catholic Thinking, as José Manuel Estrada and Emilio Lamarca, he completed his studies at the Colegio Nacional Central to the University to get a Law Degree. He made a mark in Argentine politics with his strong opposition to Laïcité, which characterized the Generation of'80 that governed the country in the second half of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, he served a term as a Provincial Representative for Buenos Aires. He had a strong impact in the Pedagogical Congress of 1882 where he maintained the position that public education had to be Catholic having a strong argument with Leandro Alem, he opposed Public Education Law #1420 of 1884, that established schooling for children being free and mandatory. He opposed and represented the position of the Catholic thinkers against the Law of Civil matrimony of 1888, maintaining that the only type of marriage allowed should be the one performed and recognized by the Catholic Church.
He was noted as a good orator. Goyena taught Roman law at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and worked as a journalist, writing among others for Revista Argentina and La Unión, which he edited with Estrada and Tristán Achával Rodríguez, where he defended his opposition to the liberal reforms of the government of the time, whose principal exponent was President Julio A. Roca. In 1885 he was appointed First Vice president of the Catholic Union, presided by José Manuel Estrada. Shortly before his death, carried by his opposition to secular liberalism, he joined the heterogeneous opposition represented by the Unión Cívica. A street in the barrio of Caballito in Buenos Aires is named after him. Corbiere, Emilio J. "Liberales y católicos en el 80". Todo es Historia. 1980. Cosmelli Ibañez, José Luis. Historia cultural de los argentinos. Buenos Aires: Troquel. Works by Pedro Goyena at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Pedro Goyena at Internet Archive
Authentic Socialist Party (Argentina)
The Authentic Socialist Party is a socialist political party in Argentina. Formed in the 1960s as a division of the Popular Socialist Party as the Argentine Socialist Party, it was forced to change its name in 1983 after the prohibition for political parties to have the terms National or Argentine in their names. In 2002 the party refused to join the Popular Socialist Party and the Democratic Socialist Party in the reborn Socialist Party. In 2007, film director Fernando'Pino' Solanas stood for the Party to be President of Argentina; the Party gained one deputy in the Argentine Chamber of Claudio Lozano. Official website
National Democratic Party (Argentina)
The National Democratic Party was an Argentine conservative party created in 1931 which disappeared after 1955. It was known as Conservative Party. Along the Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union and the Independent Socialist Party it was a part of the Concordancia, a coalition government that ruled between 1932 and 1943, a period of Argentine History known as the "Infamous Decade", characterised by massive voter fraud. Among its leading figures were Robustiano Patrón Costas, Julio Argentino Pascual Roca, Manuel Fresco and Rodolfo Moreno. Ramón S. Castillo, Vice-President to Roberto María Ortiz, who went to serve as acting President between 1940 and 1942, as President until June 4, 1943, was a member of this party. After the "Revolución Libertadora", the military uprising which overthrew Juan Perón, the PDN fragmented into various parties such as the "Partido Conservador Popular", the "Partido Demócrata" and the "Partido Demócrata de Centro". Infamous Decade Agustín Pedro Justo Roberto María Ortiz Ramón S. Castillo
Peronism or Justicialism is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón. The Peronist Justicialist Party derives its name from the concept of social justice. Since its inception in 1946, Peronist candidates have won nine of the 12 presidential elections from which they have not been banned; as of 2018, Juan Domingo Perón was the only Argentine to have been elected president three times. The pillars of the Peronist ideal, known as the "three flags", are social justice, economic independence and political sovereignty. Peronism can be described as a third position ideology as it rejects both communism. Peronism espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for negotiating compromise in conflicts between managers and workers. However, it is a ill-defined ideology as different and sometimes contradictory sentiments are expressed in the name of Peronism.
Today, the legacy and thought of Perón have transcended the confines of any single political party and bled into the broader political landscape of Argentina. Traditionally, the Peronist movement has drawn its strongest support from the working class and sympathetic unions and has been characterized as proletarian in nature. From the perspective of opponents, Peronism is an authoritarian ideology. Perón was compared to fascist dictators, accused of demagoguery and his policies derided as populist. Proclaiming himself the embodiment of nationality, Perón's government silenced dissent by accusing opponents of being unpatriotic; the corporatist character of Peronism drew attacks from socialists who accused his administration of preserving capitalist exploitation and class division. Conservatives rejected its modernist ideology and felt their status threatened by the ascent of the Peronist apparat. Liberals condemned dictatorial tendencies. Defenders of Peronism describe the doctrine as populist, albeit in the sense that they believe it embodies the interests of the masses and in particular the most vulnerable social strata.
Admirers hold Perón in esteem for his administration's anti-imperialism and non-alignment as well as its progressive initiatives. Amongst other measures introduced by Perón's governments, social security was made universal while education was made free to all who qualified and working students were given one paid week before every major examination. Vast low-income housing projects were created and paid vacations became standard. All workers were guaranteed free medical care and half of their vacation-trip expenses and mothers-to-be received three paid months off prior to and after giving birth. Workers' recreation centers were constructed throughout the country. Perón's ideas were embraced by a variety of different groups in Argentina across the political spectrum. Perón's personal views became a burden on the ideology, see for example his anti-clericalism, which did not strike a sympathetic chord with upper-class Argentinians. Peronism is regarded as a form of corporate socialism, or "right-wing socialism".
Perón's public speeches were nationalist and populist. It would be difficult to separate Peronism from corporate nationalism, for Perón nationalized Argentina's large corporations, blurring distinctions between corporations and government. At the same time, the labor unions became corporate, ceding the right to strike in agreements with Perón as Secretary of Welfare in the military government from 1943–1945. In exchange, the state was to assume the role of negotiator between conflicting interests. Peronism lacked a strong interest in matters of foreign policy other than the belief that the political and economic influences of other nations should be kept out of Argentina—he was somewhat isolationist. Early in his presidency, Perón envisioned Argentina's role as a model for other countries in Latin America and beyond, but such ideas were abandoned. Despite his oppositional rhetoric, Perón sought cooperation with the United States government on various issues. Political opponents sustain that Perón and his administration resorted to organized violence and dictatorial rule.
Perón maintained the institutions of democratic rule, but subverted freedoms through such actions as nationalizing the broadcasting system, centralizing the unions under his control and monopolizing the supply of newspaper print. At times, Perón resorted to tactics such as illegally imprisoning opposition politicians and journalists, including Radical Civic Union leader Ricardo Balbin. Perón's admiration for Benito Mussolini is well documented. Many scholars categorize Peronism as a fascist ideology. Carlos Fayt believes that Peronism was just "an Argentine implementation of Italian fascism". Hayes reaches the conclusion that "the Peronist movement produced a form of fascism, distinctively Latin American". One of the most vocal critics of Peronism was the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. After Perón ascended to the presidency in 1946, Borges spoke before the Argentine Society of Writers by saying: Dictatorships breed oppression, dictatorships breed servility, dictatorships breed cruelty. Bellboys babbling orders, portraits of caudillos, prearranged cheers or insults, walls covered with names, unanimous ce