New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Late Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. After Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the monarchs of Kush were the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, until they were expelled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire under the rule of Esarhaddon a century later. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Aethiopia; the Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The seat was captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Aksum. Afterwards the Nubians established the three Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia; the native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š pronounced /kuɫuʃ/ or /kuʔuʃ/ in Middle Egyptian when the term is first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi.
It is an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush. The term is displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta. Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty; the name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ham. Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put and Mizraim. According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar; the Bible makes reference to someone named Cush, a Benjamite. Some modern scholars, such as Friedrich Delitzsch, have suggested that the biblical Cush might be linked to the Kassites of the Zagros Mountains. Mentuhotep II, the 21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom, is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign; this is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush.
Under Thutmose I, Egypt made several campaigns south. This resulted in their annexation of Nubia circa 1504 BC. After the conquest, Kerma culture was Egyptianized, yet rebellions continued for 220 years until c. 1300 BC. During the New Kingdom, Nubia became a key province of the New Kingdom, economically and spiritually. Indeed, major Pharonic ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata; as an Egyptian colony from the 16th century BC, Nubia was governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern northern Sudan; the extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kerma culture and the chronologically succeeding Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine. The latter polity began to emerge around 500 years after the end of the Kingdom of Kerma. By 1200 BC, Egyptian involvement in the Dongola Reach was nonexistent. By the 8th century BC, the new Kushite kingdom emerged from the Napata region of the upper Dongola Reach.
The first Napatan king, dedicated his sister to the cult of Amun at the rebuilt Kawa temple, while temples were rebuilt at Barkal and Kerma. A Kashta stele at Elephantine, places the Kushites on the Egyptian frontier by the mid-eighteenth century; this first period of the kingdom's history, the'Napatan', was succeeded by the'Meroitic', when the royal cemeteries relocated to Meroe around 300 BC. The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the "Pan-grave culture"; this was given its name due to the way. They would put stones around them in a circle. Kushites built burial mounds and pyramids, shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names; the Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe; the state would redistribute to the people.
Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seemed to be wealthier than the Southern area. Dental trait analysis of fossils dating from the Meroitic period in Semna, found that they were related to Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting the Nile, Horn of Africa and Canary Islands; the Meroitic skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Niger–Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan-speaking populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the Mesolithic inhabitants of Jebel Sahaba in Nubia. Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighbouring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of Ebana, an Egyptian warrior who served under Nebpehtrya Ahmose, Djeserkara Amenhotep I and Aakheperkara Thutmose I. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period (mid-sixteenth century BC
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Racial inequality in the United States
Racial inequality in the United States identifies the social advantages and disparities that affect different races within the United States. These can be seen as a result of historic oppression, inequality of inheritance, or overall prejudice against minority groups. In social science, racial inequality is analyzed as "imbalances in the distribution of power, economic resources, opportunities." Racial inequalities have manifested in American society in ways ranging from racial disparities in wealth, poverty rates, housing patterns, educational opportunities, unemployment rates, incarceration rates. Some claim that current racial inequalities in the U. S. have their roots in over 300 years of cultural, physical and political discrimination based on race. There are vast differences in wealth across racial groups in the United States; the wealth gap between white and African-American families nearly tripled from $85,000 in 1984 to $236,500 in 2009. There are many causes, including years of home ownership, household income and education, but inheritance might be the most important.
A study by the Brandeis University Institute on Assets and Social Policy which followed the same sets of families for 25 years found that there are vast differences in wealth across racial groups in the United States. The wealth gap between Caucasian and African-American families studied nearly tripled, from $85,000 in 1984 to $236,500 in 2009; the study concluded that factors contributing to the inequality included years of home ownership, household income and familial financial support and/or inheritance. Wealth can be defined as "the total value of things families own minus their debts." In contrast, income can be defined as, "earnings from work and dividends, transfer payments." Wealth is an important factor in determining the quality of both individual and family life chances because it can be used as a tool to secure a desired quality of life or class status and enables individuals who possess it to pass their class status to their children. Family inheritance, passed down from generation to generation, helps with wealth accumulation.
Wealth can serve as a safety net against fluctuations in income and poverty. There is a large gap between the wealth of minority households and White households within the United States; the Pew Research Center's analysis of 2009 government data says the median wealth of white households is 20 times that of black households and 18 times that of Hispanic households. In 2009 the typical black household had $5,677 in wealth, the typical Hispanic had $6,325, the typical White household had $113,149. Furthermore, 35% of African American and 31% of Hispanic households had zero or negative net worth in 2009 compared to 15% of White households. While in 2005 median Asian household wealth was greater than White households at $168,103, by 2009 that changed when their net worth fell 54% to $78,066 due to the arrival of new Asian immigrants since 2004; as shown on "Eurweb - Electronic Urban Report" According to the Federal Reserve Survey of Consumer Finances, of the 14 million black households, only 5% have more than $350,000 in net worth while nearly 30% of white families have more than this amount.
Less than 1% of black families have over a million in net assets. While nearly 10% of white households, totaling over 8 million families have more than 1.3 million in net worth. Lusardi states that African Americans and Hispanics are more to face means-tested programs that discourage asset possession due to higher poverty rates. One-fourth of African Americans and Hispanics approach retirement with less than $1,000 net worth. Lower financial literacy is correlated with adjustment behavior. Education is a strong predictor for wealth. One-fourth of African Americans and Hispanics that have less than a high school education have no wealth, but with increased education, large differences in wealth remain. Conley believes that the cause of Black-White wealth inequality may be related to economic circumstances and poverty because the economic disadvantages of African Americans can be effective in harming efforts to accumulate wealth. However, there is a five times greater chance of downward mobility from the top quartile to the bottom quartile for African Americans than there is for White Americans.
Bowles and Gintis conclude from this information that successful African Americans do not transfer the factors for their success as as White Americans do. Other factors to consider in the recent widening of the minority wealth gap are the mortgage crisis and credit crunch that began in 2007-2008; the Pew Research Center found that plummeting house values were the main cause of the wealth change from 2005 to 2009. Hispanics were hit the hardest by the housing market meltdown because a disproportionate share of Hispanics live in California, Florida and Arizona, which are among the states with the steepest declines in housing values. From 2005 to 2009 Hispanic homeowners' home equity declined by Half, from $99,983 to $49,145, with homeownership rate decreasing by 4% to 47%. A 2015 Measure of America study commissioned by the ACLU on the long-term consequences of discriminatory lending practices found that the financial crisis will widen the black-white wealth gap for the next generation. Africans were first brought to the United States as slaves.
While free African-Americans owned around $50 million by 1860, farm tenancy and sharecropping replace
Kandake, kadake or kentake Latinised as Candace, was the Meroitic language term for "queen" or "royal woman". Contemporary Greek and Roman sources treat it as a title. Several ruling queens of the ancient Kingdom of Kush, with its capital at Meroë, bore the title, although it may have been a general title for women of the royal family, it is taken to mean "queen-mother" or "mother of the reigning king", but although this was the common status of ruling kandakes, the term itself did not have this specific meaning. The name Candace is derived from the way. Bas-reliefs dated to about 170 B. C. reveal the kentake Shanakdakheto, wielding a spear in battle. She did not rule as queen regent or queen mother, but as a independent ruler, her husband was her consort. In bas-reliefs found in the ruins of building projects she commissioned, Shanakdakheto is portrayed both alone as well as with her husband and son, who would inherit the throne by her death. Pliny writes that the "Queen of the Ethiopians" bore the title Candace, indicates that the Ethiopians had conquered ancient Syria and the Mediterranean.
In 25 BC the Kush kandake Amanirenas, as reported by Strabo, attacked the city of Syene, today's Aswan, in territory of the Roman Empire. Four African queens were known to the Greco-Roman world as the "Candaces": Amanishakhete, Amanirenas and Malegereabar. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, a treasury official of "Candace, queen of the Ethiopians", returning from a trip to Jerusalem, met with Philip the Evangelist: Then the Angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go south to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza, desert, and he arose and went: And behold, a man of Ethiopia, an Eunuch of great authority under Candace, Queen of Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, had come to Jerusalem to worship. The queen concerned may have been Amantitere, he discussed with Philip the meaning of a perplexing passage from the prophet Isaiah. Philip explained the scripture to him and he was promptly baptised in some nearby water; the eunuch'went on his way, rejoicing', therefore reported back on his conversion to the Kandake.
A legend in the Alexander romance claims. In fact, Alexander never attacked Nubia and never attempted to move further south than the oasis of Siwa in Egypt; the story is that when Alexander attempted to conquer her lands in 332 BC, she arranged her armies strategically to meet him and was present on a war elephant when he approached. Having assessed the strength of her armies, Alexander decided to withdraw from Nubia, heading to Egypt instead. Another story claims that Candace had a romantic encounter; these accounts originate from "The Alexander Romance" by an unknown writer called Pseudo-Callisthenes, the work is a fictionalized and grandiose account of Alexander's life. It is quoted, but there seems to be no historical reference to this event from Alexander's time; the whole story of Alexander and Candace's encounter appears to be legendary. Shanakdakhete Amanirenas Amanishakheto Amanitore Amantitere Amanikhatashan Maleqorobar Lahideamani Candace of Ethiopia | Marg Mowczko
University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries
The University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries is the academic library of The University of Texas at San Antonio, a state research university in San Antonio, United States. UTSA Libraries consists of the John Peace Library on the Main Campus, the Downtown Library, the Applied Engineering and Technology Library; the libraries provide students and faculty with a comprehensive access to information as well as spaces for active learning and interdisciplinary scholarship. The John Peace Library was the first library built at UTSA and opened its doors on Wednesday, June 2, 1976; the Downtown and AET libraries opened in 2010, respectively. The JPL was named after the first collection donated to UTSA. Before its opening, the library was housed in the Physical Education Building; the first UTSA president, Arleigh B. Templeton, who had overseen the design of the library at Sam Houston State University, envisioned a similar library for UTSA. “I said that what I wanted to do was take four football fields and stack them on top of each other,” said Templeton in a 2003 oral history interview.
“In the middle I want the little librarians… And this one over here was a prize jewel.”The John Peace Library was designed by San Antonio architect O'Neil Ford, whose work included the Trinity University campus and the Tower of the Americas. When it opened, the library was the largest building on UTSA's campus. At the time it housed 350,000 volumes and study spaces for about 1,300 students. UTSA Libraries collections consists of millions of print and digital resources, including books, e-books, journals and audiovisual items. Through a partnership with HathiTrust, the UTSA community has access to over 13 million scholarly research materials made available digitally; the John Peace Library serves as a depository for state and federal government documents. UTSA Libraries “Blue Crew” staff assist students with their information and research needs through its popular online chat reference service, as well as through the libraries’ information desks, individual consultations, library instruction.
Additional services and resources include self-service group study rooms and multimedia equipment available for check-out, course reserves, textbook reserves, high-speed scanners, DVD viewing stations, collaborative group workstations. JPL is open 24 hours-a-day, 5-days-a-week during the fall and spring semesters for students who need to study late; the UTSA Libraries provide access to materials through its Get It For Me service, which finds and delivers items owned by UTSA or other libraries to faculty and staff. The library participates in the TexShare reciprocal borrowing system, hosted by the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, which allows UTSA students and staff to borrow books from academic libraries throughout the state of Texas. Library Quick Search searches over five million resources provided by the UTSA Libraries, including full-text academic journals, e-books, DVDs, streaming media, among others; the libraries provide a journal finder and database index. Subject librarians assist faculty and students with discipline-specific research.
They manage research guides tailored to specific areas of study, work with UTSA's academic departments to grow the library's collections. UTSA Libraries has a number of social media profiles including Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Pinterest. UTSA Libraries Special Collections maintains The Top Shelf and La Cocina Historica; the John Peace Library on UTSA's Main Campus completed a 5-year renovation process in July 2014. JPL provides professionally staffed service points throughout the building, including three staffed information desks as well as a suite housing the Judith G. Gardner Center for Writing Excellence and the tutoring and supplemental instruction units of the Tomás Rivera Center for Student Success. JPL displays artwork donated by AT&T in 2008 when the company moved their corporate headquarters from San Antonio to Dallas. JPL features over 370 computers; the Faculty Center, located on JPL's 4th floor, provides a central hub for faculty professional development. The Assembly Room located on JPL's 4th floor, provides a 120-seat venue intended for major academic events drawing audiences from across the university and local community.
Located on UTSA's Downtown Campus in the Buena Vista Street Building, the Downtown Library provides the same services available at the John Peace Library on the Main Campus. The Downtown Library houses the main collections of books and periodicals for Architecture, Interior Design, Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Social Work. In addition, the library has a general collection to support Downtown Campus students across a variety of disciplines, as well as collections of DVDs, CDs, popular reading, juvenile literature, curriculum materials; the Downtown Library has 15 reservable group study rooms. In addition, it offers 36 desktop computers including a quiet computing area, media viewing equipment, a high-speed KIC scanner and other tech gear for checkout. In 2010, UTSA opened the Applied Engineering and Technology Library, recognized by the New York Times and USA Today as the nation's first bookless library on a college or university campus; the 2,200 square foot, 80-person capacity library serves students in the Colleges of Engineering and Sciences