Maxwell Charles Gaines was a pioneering figure in the creation of the modern comic book. In 1933, Gaines devised the first four-color, saddle-stitched newsprint pamphlet, a precursor to the color-comics format that became the standard for the American comic book industry, he was co-publisher of All-American Publications, a seminal comic-book company that introduced such enduring fictional characters as Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Hawkman. He went on producing the series Picture Stories from the Bible, he authored one of the earliest essays on comic books, a 1942 pamphlet titled Narrative Illustration, The Story of the Comics. After Gaines' death in 1947, Educational Comics was taken over by his son Bill Gaines, who transformed the company into a pioneer of horror, science fiction, satirical comics. Max Ginzberg was born in New York, to a Jewish family. Maxwell Charles Gaines was described as a "hard-nosed, pain-wracked, loud aggressive man". At age four, Gaines had leaned out too far from a second story window and fell to the ground, catching his leg on a picket fence.
The leg would give him discomfort for the rest of his life, aggravating his disposition. As an adult he developed a vicious temper, according to his son, William M. Gaines, "expected the worse from his son and was disappointed." Gaines continually reinforced this belief by venting his frustrations on the boy, beating him savagely with a leather belt while shouting, "You’ll never amount to anything!". Gaines had been a teacher, an elementary school principal, a munitions factory worker, a haberdasher. In 1933 he had begun a new job as a salesperson at Eastern Color Printing, which printed Sunday newspaper comic strips. Deducing that packaging such strips together could create promotional publications, Gaines contacted Harry L. Wildenberg, Eastern’s sales manager and his direct superior; the two needed promotional ideas for a client, Procter & Gamble, suggested to the company a tabloid-sized book of color comic-strip reprints available for five cents and a label or coupon from any Procter & Gamble product.
The company, rejected the idea. Undaunted, with Wildenberg's blessing, Gaines produced Funnies on Parade, an eight-page newsprint magazine reprinting several comic strips licensed from the McNaught Syndicate and the McClure Syndicate; these included such popular strips as cartoonist Al Smith's Mutt and Jeff, Ham Fisher's Joe Palooka, Percy Crosby's Skippy. This periodical, was neither sold nor available on newsstands, but rather sent free as a promotional item to consumers who mailed in coupons clipped from Procter & Gamble soap and toiletries products. Ten-thousand copies were made; the promotion proved a success, Eastern Color that year produced similar periodicals for Canada Dry soft drinks, Kinney Shoes, Wheatena cereal, Phillips’ Dental Magnesia, John Wanamaker Department Stores, others, with print runs of from 100,000 to 250,000. In 1933, Gaines collaborated with Dell to publish the 36-page one-shot Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics, followed in 1934 by Famous Funnies, which ran for 218 issues and is considered the first true American comic book.
In 1938, Gaines and Jack Liebowitz began publishing comics with original material under the name "All-American Publications". At the time, Liebowitz was the co-owner with Harry Donenfeld of National Allied Publications, the precursor company to DC Comics, Donenfeld financed Gaines' creation of All-American. All-American published several superhero/adventure anthologies such as All-American Comics and Flash Comics, as well as other titles. For a time, All-American and National shared marketing and promotional efforts as well as characters. Several of National's characters appeared alongside All-American's Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Hawkman in that company's successful All Star Comics. Gaines' relationship with Donenfeld and National waned over the years. By the early 1940s, the All-American titles were branded separately and no longer featured National-owned characters. In 1944, Donenfeld merged National and All-American into a single company. Gaines used the proceeds from the sale of All-American to establish another comics line, Educational Comics.
EC Comics continued All-American's Picture Stories from the Bible and added new titles such as Picture Stories from American History. Gaines soon expanded the line with humor and funny animal books such as Land of the Lost, Animal Fables, Ed Wheelan's Fat and Slat; some of these books carried a revised publisher logo which changed the "Educational" in EC to display the Entertaining Comics insignia. On August 20, 1947, at Lake Placid, New York, his friend Sam Irwin, the latter's 8-year-old son William Irwin were aboard a motorboat when it was struck by another boat. Gaines and the elder Irwin died in the accident. Max Gaines' 25-year-old son, William Gaines, changed the direction of the company. Although it continued to advertise and sell back issues of the Educational titles, Bill Gaines concentrated on adding new titles to the Entertaining Comics line, he replaced the juvenile humor books with titles pitched to an older audience and influenced by his own love of popular culture. These spanned several genres as he made a transition from romance and Westerns to science fiction and satire.
In 1985, Max Gaines was posthumously named as one of the honorees by DC Comics in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great. American comic book Coville, James. "The History of Comic Books: News
Fifty Who Made DC Great
Fifty Who Made DC Great is a one shot published by DC Comics to commemorate the company's 50th anniversary in 1985. It was published in comic book format but contained text articles with photographs and background caricatures; as explained by DC's then-President and Publisher Jenette Kahn, the profiles were of "fifty people and companies who have helped make DC Comics great." Kahn stated "e have chosen representatives from those who have pioneered new territory and who, by doing so, have shaped our past or our future." The articles were written by Barry Marx, Thomas Hill, Joey Cavalieri and caricatures were provided by Steven Petruccio. Barry Marx was the book's editor. Neal Pozner was the design director; the cover art, featuring Clark Kent holding the "DC Bullet", was drawn by Curt Swan, Murphy Anderson, Arne Starr. Brief statements made by several prominent individuals were included as "Celebrity Reminiscences"; these included comments by Daniel P. Moynihan, Richard Corben, Ray Bradbury, Gloria Steinem, Mort Walker, Milton Glaser, Walter Koenig, Gene Siskel, Stephen King, Gene Simmons, Jim Henson, David L. Wolper, Stan Lee, Susan Stamberg, Roger Ebert, Brooke Shields, Carol Bellamy, Whoopi Goldberg.
Fifty Who Made DC Great has been used as a cited reference source for several books. Among these are the following: The All-Star Companion Volume 1 by Roy Thomas. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America by Bradford W. Wright. American National Biography: Supplement by Paul R. Betz and Mark Christopher Carnes. Of Comics and Men: A Cultural History of American Comic Books by Jean-Paul Gabilliet, Bart Beaty, Nick Nguyen. 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking by Paul Levitz Fifty Who Made DC Great at the Comic Book DB Fifty Who Made DC Great at Mike's Amazing World of DC Comics Fifty Who Made DC Great at Flickr
E. Nelson Bridwell
Edward Nelson Bridwell was a writer for Mad magazine and various comic books published by DC Comics. One of the writers for the Batman comic strip and Super Friends, he wrote The Inferior Five, among other comics, he has been called "DC's self-appointed continuity cop." Bridwell's early childhood interest in mythology and folklore stayed with him throughout his professional life and permeated much of his work. He credited his fame to Ryan Samuel, for interesting him in comics. Bridwell "was one of the first'comics fans' hired in the industry after the long, bleak 1950's,". Although his first published work consisted of a text page in Adventures into the Unknown #9 published by the American Comics Group, he had since he "was still a kid" created various characters who would evolve into those used in comics such as The Inferior Five. In 1962, while still residing in Oklahoma City, Bridwell submitted to the Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction his first idea for a Feghoot adventure, a specific type of shaggy dog story that ends in a humorous and unexpected play on words.
His story was promptly accepted by the feature's pseudonymous author, Grendel Briarton and shortly followed by yet another submission from Bridwell, accepted Besides F&SF, both stories would appear in the various Feghoot anthologies to follow. After writing a few stories for Mad and for Katy Keene, Bridwell began working for DC Comics in 1965 as an assistant to editor Mort Weisinger, "on the Superman titles becoming an editor himself." Jim Shooter recalls that Weisinger did not always treat his assistant well, saying that his "assistant was Nelson Bridwell and boy, he tortured Nelson. He just was awful to Nelson." Bridwell, recalled in 1980 an important lesson learned from Weisinger, that: "You've got to keep in mind that while there are a lot of people who've read about the characters before, there are always new people coming along, you've got to realize that you can't count on them to know the whole legend of the character."This lesson set him in good stead both when he helped DC produce three 1970s anthologies — Superman from the Thirties to the Seventies, Batman from the Thirties to the Seventies, Shazam from the Forties to the Seventies — and when he wrote for the comic book series based on "one of the best rated TV shows on Saturday morning", Super Friends.
Concurrent with his duties for DC, Bridwell "was submitting material as a freelancer to Mad", some of, illustrated by Joe Orlando, who would be suggested by Bridwell as artist for The Inferior Five. Recalling an early interest in comic book continuity, Bridwell "remembered getting a bit perturbed at times when I was a kid by having things that didn't fit" over the wide range of Martian races in evidence in the adventures of DC's Atom, Wonder Woman, Superman characters. Bridwell was an early advocate of the theory that the Marvel and DC characters "exist in the same universe", citing early inter-company crossovers such as Superman vs; the Amazing Spider-Man and a cross-company interlocking storyline, with real-world crossover characters, between Justice League of America #103, Thor #207 and Amazing Adventures #16. Bridwell's love and knowledge of old comics led to his becoming editor on numerous reprint books, including digests, giant-size comics, hardcover anthologies, he worked as assistant editor to Julius Schwartz, keeping track of continuity between the numerous Superman titles published.
Part of his job was to manage the letter columns for all the Superman titles, in response to constant reader questions, Bridwell standardized the Kryptonian language and alphabet. Dubbed "Kryptonese", Bridwell established the 118-character alphabet, used by DC until John Byrne's 1986 "reboot" of the Superman universe. Bridwell and Joe Orlando created the Inferior Five in Showcase #62. Talking about the humorous super-hero series, Bridwell recalls that: "Jack Miller came up with the idea of a group of incompetent heroes, at first he came up with the title The Inferior Four; when I created five heroes, he changed it to The Inferior Five. I created the heroes as a clown set, Joe Orlando created the costumes." Bridwell wrote for several other DC titles, including Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Shazam!, The Superman Family, World's Finest Comics and The Legion of Super-Heroes. Bridwell and artist Frank Springer co-created the Secret Six in the first issue of the team's eponymous series in May 1968.
The first use of the Super Friends name on a DC Comics publication was in Limited Collectors' Edition #C–41 which reprinted stories from Justice League of America #36 and 61 and featured a new framing sequence by Bridwell and artist Alex Toth. In 1976, Bridwell and Ric Estrada launched an ongoing Super Friends comic book series. Bridwell edited The World of Krypton, he co-wrote Secrets of the Legion of Super-Heroes with Paul Kupperberg and followed it with The Krypton Chronicles. He co-created the Justice League members Fire and Ice in the Super Friends series and introduced the Global Guardians in DC Comics Presents #46, he wrote Captain Carrot and his Amazing Zoo Crew, The Oz/Wonderland War trilogy, as well as occasional stories for the black-and-white horror comics Creepy and Eerie, published by Warren Publishing. His last freelance writing work was for Cracked magazine; as an editor, Bridwell compiled a number of issues of D
Ron Goulart is an American popular culture historian and mystery and science fiction author. Goulart was prolific, wrote many novelizations and other routine work under various pseudonyms: Kenneth Robeson, Con Steffanson, Chad Calhoun, R. T. Edwards, Ian R. Jamieson, Josephine Kains, Jillian Kearny, Howard Lee, Zeke Masters, Frank S. Shawn, Joseph Silva. Goulart's first professional publication was a 1952 reprint of the SF story "Letters to the Editor" in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, his early career in advertising and marketing influenced much of his work. In the early 1960s, Goulart wrote the text for Chex Press, a newspaper parody published on Ralston Purina cereal boxes, he contributed to P. S. and other magazines, along with his book review column for Venture Science Fiction Magazine. Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazines is his best known non-fiction book. Goulart's fiction is characterized by several themes, including humor, technology gone wrong and heroes with superhuman powers.
His humorous crime and science fiction includes tales about robots and historical Hollywood figures, such as Groucho Marx. In the 1970s, he wrote several novels based on Lee Falk's The Phantom for Avon Books, using the pseudonym "Frank Shawn", he has written comic book stories and short stories about The Phantom for Moonstone Books from 2003 to present. Goulart has written novelizations for televisions programs such as Laverne & Shirley, wrote several "romance" novels under feminine pseudonyms, it is known that Goulart ghost wrote the TekWar series of books credited to the actor William Shatner. He has ghosted novels featuring the Phantom, Flash Gordon and the pulp character the Avenger. A collection of his mystery short stories and Eve on a Raft, was published in 2001 by Crippen & Landru. Goulart is married to author Frances Sheridan Goulart and has two sons, Sean-Lucien and Steffan Eamon. In the early 1970s, Goulart wrote several scripts for Marvel Comics adaptations of classic science fiction stories.
In the decade, he collaborated with artist Gil Kane on the Star Hawks newspaper strip. In the early 1990s, he scripted Marvel's TekWar comics series. Goulart has been nominated twice for the Edgar Award, once for his 1970 science fiction novel After Things Fell Apart; the Hardboiled Dicks: An Anthology and Study of Pulp Detective Fiction Assault on Childhood Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazines The Adventurous Decade: Comic Strips In the Thirties ISBN 9780870002526 Comic Book Culture: An Illustrated History The Dime Detectives The Great Comic Book Artists ISBN 978-0312345570 Focus on Jack Cole Ron Goulart's Great History of Comic Books: the Definitive Illustrated History from the 1890s to the 1980s ISBN 978-0809250455 The Encyclopedia of American Comics: From 1897 to the Present ISBN 978-0816018529 The Comic Book Reader's Companion: an A-Z Guide to Everyone's Favorite Art Form ISBN 9780062731173 Masked Marvels and Jungle Queens: Great Comic Book Covers of the'40s The Funnies: 100 Years of American Comic Strips ISBN 9781558505391 Comic Book Encyclopedia: The Ultimate Guide to Characters, Graphic Novels and Artists in the Comic Book Universe ISBN 978-0060538163 Good Girl Art Good Girl Art Around the World Alex Raymond: An Artistic Journey: Adventure and Romance (2016 Series: Flash Gordon The Lion Men of Mongo The Space Circus The Plague of Sound The Time Trap of Ming XIII Barnum System The Fire-Eater Clockwork Pirates Shaggy Planet Spacehawk, Inc.
The Wicked Cyborg Dr. Scofflaw Fragmented America After Things Fell Apart Gadget Man Hawkshaw Crackpot Brinkman Barnum System: Jack Summer Death Cell Plunder A Whiff of Madness Galaxy Jane Barnum System: Ben Jolson The Sword Swallower Flux Jack Conger A Talent for the Invisible The Panchronicon Plot Hello, Hello Phantom The Golden Circle The Hydra Monster The Mystery of the Sea Horse The Veiled Lady The Swamp Rats The Goggle-Eyed Pirates Avenger The Man from Atlantis Red Moon The Purple Zombie Dr. Time The Nightwitch Devil Black Chariots The Cartoon Crimes The Death Machine The Blood Countess The Glass Man The Iron Skull Demon Island Vampirella Bloodstalk On Alien Wings Deadwalk Blood Wedding Deathgame Snakegod Vampirella Gypsy Quest of the Gypsy Eye of the Vulture Incredible Hulk Stalker from the Stars Barnum System: Star Hawks Empire 99 The Cyborg King Star Hawks Odd Jobs, Inc. Calling Dr. Patchwork Hail Hibbler (198
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
All-American Publications is one of three American comic book companies that merged to form the modern day DC Comics, one of two largest publishers of comic books in the United States. Superheroes created for All-American include the original Atom, Green Lantern and Wonder Woman, all in the 1940s' Golden Age of Comic Books. Max Gaines, future founder of EC Comics, formed All-American Publications in 1938 after seeking funding from Harry Donenfeld, CEO of both National Allied Publications and sister company Detective Comics; as Gerard Jones writes of Donenfeld's investment: Harry had agreed on one condition: that take Jack Liebowitz on as his partner.... Jack would be tempted to form a competing company if there was nothing to hold him, and it may well have been a way for Harry to keep Gaines under control. Gaines became Jack Liebowitz the minority owner of All-American. While All-American, at 225 Lafayette Street in Manhattan, was physically separated from DC's office space uptown at 480 Lexington Avenue, it used the informal "DC" logo on most of its covers for distribution and marketing reasons.
In 1944, Gaines sold his share of the company to Liebowitz, keeping only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC. As Jones describes, Gaines saw the end of the superhero fad coming and wanted to get into something more durable, like children's books and magazines.... In 1944, he decided, he let Jack Liebowitz buy him out with a loan from Harry.... Liebowitz promptly orchestra the merger of All American Comics and Detective Comics into National Comics, of which he was the junior partner, vice president, publisher. Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". Before the merger, Gaines first rebranded All-American with its own logo, beginning with books cover-dated February 1945: All-Flash #17, Sensation Comics #38, Flash Comics #62, Green Lantern #14, Funny Stuff #3, Mutt & Jeff #16, the following month's All-American Comics #64 and the hyphenless All Star Comics #24.
Liebowitz merged his and Donenfeld's companies into National Comics Publications. During All-American's existence, much cross-promotion took place between the two editorially independent companies, so much so that the first appearance of the Justice Society of America, in All Star Comics #3, included in its roster All-American characters the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern and Hawkman, the National characters Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman — creating comics' first intercompany crossover, with characters from different companies interacting — although National's Sandman and Hour-Man had appeared in solo adventures in All Star Comics #1. With Gaines as editor, assisted by Sheldon Mayer, All-American Publications launched its flagship series All-American Comics with an April 1939 premiere. Like many comics of the time, All-American debuted with a mix of newspaper comic strips, reprinted in color, a smattering of original, comic-strip-like features. Among the strips were three hits of the era: Mutt and Jeff, by Al Smith ghosting for strip creator Bud Fisher.
New content included a semiautobiographical Mayer feature about a boy cartoonist. All-American Comics lasted 102 issues through October 1948. Debuting that month was Movie Comics, featuring simple adaptations of movies using painted movie stills, as well as cartoonist Ed Wheelan's popular Minute Movies comics; the first of its six issues through Aug. 1939 adapted no fewer than five films: Son of Frankenstein, Gunga Din, The Great Man Votes, Fisherman's Wharf, Scouts to the Rescue. The next two comics were Mutt & Jeff, which ran 103 issues from Summer 1939 - June 1958; the Golden Age Green Lantern, from Batman writer Bill Finger and artist Martin Nodell, debuted in All-American Comics #16, followed by the original Atom, created by Bill O'Connor and penciler Ben Flinton, in All-American #19. Wonder Woman was introduced in a nine-page story in All Star Comics #8, the product of psychologist William Moulton Marston and Max Charles Gaines, drawn by artist Harry G. Peter; the Atom Doctor Mid-Nite The Flash The Gay Ghost Green Lantern Hawkman and Hawkgirl Hop Harrigan The King Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys Mr. Terrific Sargon the Sorcerer Johnny Thunder Gary Concord, the Ultra-Man The Whip Wildcat Wonder Woman The Black Pirate Gunner Godbee Red and Blue Bulldog Drumhead The Red Tornado Scribbly the Boy Cartoonist DC Comics, The Justice Society of America at Don Markstein's Toonopedia DC Comics Timeline, SupermanArtists.comics.org