The Mandal Commission, or the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes Commission, was established in India on 1 January 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "identify the or educationally backward classes" of India. It was headed by the late B. P. Mandal an Indian parliamentarian, to consider the question of reservations for people to redress caste discrimination, used eleven social and educational indicators to determine backwardness. In 1980, based on its rationale that OBCs identified on the basis of caste and social indicators comprised 52% of India's population, the Commission's report recommended that members of Other Backward Classes be granted reservations to 27% of jobs under the Central government and public sector undertakings, thus making the total number of reservations for SC, ST and OBC to 49%. Though the report had been completed in 1983, the V. P. Singh government declared its intent to implement the report in August 1990, leading to widespread student protests.
The Indian public at large was not informed of the important details of the report, namely that it applied only to the 5% jobs that existed in the public sector, that the report considered 55% of India's population as belonging to other backward classes due to their poor economic and socio cultural background. Opposition political parties, including the Congress and BJP and their youth wings and groups of self interest were able to instigate the youth to protest in large numbers in the nation's campuses, resulting in self immolations by students, it was thereafter provided a temporary stay order by the Supreme court, but implemented in 1992 in the central government for jobs in central government public sector undertakings. In most states however, the recommendations of the report have not been implemented as of 2019. Interestingly before Mandal commission, some Indian states had high reservations for economically low income people, namely OBCs. For example, in 1980, the state of Karnataka had reserved 48% for and educationally backward classes, with a further 18% reserved for other weaker sections..
Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes in India every 10 years, for the purpose of Articles 15. The First Backward Classes Commission had a broad-based membership, the Second Commission seemed to be shaped on partisan lines, composed of members only from the backward castes. Of its five members, four were from the OBCs. R. Naik, was from the Dalit community, the only member from the scheduled castes in the Commission, it is popularly known as the Mandal Commission for its chairman being B. P. Mandal; the Mandal Commission adopted various methods and techniques to collect the necessary data and evidence. In order to identify who qualified as an "other backward class," the commission adopted eleven criteria which could be grouped under three major headings: social and economic. 11 criteria were developed to identify OBCs. Castes/classes considered as backward by others, Castes/classes which depend on manual labour for their livelihood, Castes/classes where at least 25 per cent females and 10 per cent males above the state average get married at an age below 17 years in rural areas and at least 10 per cent females and 5 per cent males do so in urban areas.
Castes/classes where participation of females in work is at least 25 per cent above the state average. Castes/classes where the number of children in the age group of 5–15 years who never attended school is at least 25 per cent above the state average. Castes/classes when the rate of student drop-out in the age group of 5–15 years is at least 25 per cent above the state average, Castes/classes amongst whom the proportion of matriculates is at least 25 per cent below the state average, Castes/classes where the average value of family assets is at least 25 per cent below the state average, Castes/classes where the number of families living in kuccha houses is at least 25 per cent above the state average, Castes/classes where the source of drinking water is beyond half a kilometre for more than 50 per cent of the households, Castes/classes where the number of households having taken consumption loans is at least 25 per cent above the state average; as the above three groups are not of equal importance for the purpose, separate weightage was given to indicators in each group.
All the Social indicators were given a weightage of 3 points each,'educational indicators were given a weightage of 2 points each and economic indicators were given a weightage of 1 point each. Economic, in addition to Social and Educational Indicators, were considered important as they directly flowed from social and educational backwardness; this helped to highlight the fact that and educationally backward classes are economically backward also. Thus, the Mandal Commission judged classes on a scale from 0 to 22; these 11 indicators were applied to all the castes covered by the survey for a particular state. As a result of this application, all castes which had a score of 50% were listed as and educationally backward and the rest were treated as'advanced'; the commission estimated that 52% of the total population of India, belonging to 3,743 different castes and communities, were ‘backward’. The number of backward castes in Central list of OBCs has now increased to 5,013 in 2006 as per National Commission for Backward Classes.
Figures of cas
University Grants Commission (India)
The University Grants Commission of India is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 under Ministry of Human Resource Development, is charged with coordination and maintenance of standards of higher education. It provides recognition to universities in India, disbursements of funds to such recognised universities and colleges, its headquarters is in New Delhi, has six regional centres in Pune, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. UGC is modelled after University Grants Committee of UK, an advisory committee of the British government and advised on the distribution of grant funding amongst the British universities; the committee was in existence from 1919 until 1989. The UGC was first formed in 1945 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh and Delhi, its responsibility was extended in 1947 to cover all Indian universities. In August 1949 a recommendation was made to reconstitute the UGC along similar lines to the University Grants Committee of the United kingdom.
This recommendation was made by the University Education Commission of 1948-1949, set up under the chairmanship of S. Radhakrishnan "to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions". In 1952 the government decided that all grants to universities and higher learning institutions should be handled by the UGC. Subsequently, an inauguration was held on 28 December 1953 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Minister of Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research. In November 1956 the UGC became a statutory body upon the passing of the "University Grants Commission Act, 1956" by the Indian Parliament. In 1994 and 1995 the UGC decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Kolkata, Bhopal and Bangalore; the head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi, with two additional bureaus operating from 35, Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well. In December 2015 the Indian government set a National Institutional of Ranking Framework under UGC which will rank all educational institutes by April 2016.
In December 2017 D. P. Singh, former director of National Assessment and Accreditation Council, was appointed chairman for a period of five years, replacing UGC member Virander Singh Chauhan, who officiated the position since the retirement of Ved Prakash in April 2017. UGC, along with CSIR conducts NET for appointments of teachers in colleges and universities, it has made NET qualification mandatory for teaching at Graduation level and at Post Graduation level since July 2009. However, those with Ph. D are given five percent relaxation. Accreditation for higher learning over Universities under the aegis of University Grants Commission is overseen by following fifteen autonomous statutory institutions: All India Council for Technical Education Distance Education Council Indian Council of Agricultural Research Bar Council of India Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore College National Council for Teacher Education Rehabilitation Council of India Medical Council of India Pharmacy Council of India Indian Nursing Council Dental Council of India Central Council of Homoeopathy Central Council of Indian Medicine National Council for Rural Institutes State Councils of Higher Education Council of Architecture Veterinary Council of India In 2009, the Union Minister of Human Resource Development, Kapil Sibal made known the government of India's plans to consider the closing down of the UGC and the related body All India Council for Technical Education, in favour of a higher regulatory body with more sweeping powers.
This goal, proposed by the Higher Education and Research Bill, 2011, intends to replace the UGC with a "National Commission for Higher Education & Research" "for determination, coordination and continued enhancement of standards of higher education and research". The bill proposes absorbing other academic agencies into this new organisation; those agencies involved in medicine and law would be exempt from this merger "to set minimum standards for medical and legal education leading to professional practice". The bill has received opposition from the local governments of the Indian states of Bihar, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, but has received general support. On 27 June 2018, the Ministry of Human Resource Development announced its plans to repeal the UGC Act, 1956. A bill is expected to be introduced in the 2018 monsoon session of the Parliament, which if passed will lead to the dissolution of the UGC; the bill stipulates formation of a new body, the Higher Education Commission of India.
UGC official web site