U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
The U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a law enforcement agency of the federal government of the United States tasked to enforce the immigration laws of the United States and to investigate criminal and terrorist activity of transnational organizations and illegal aliens. ICE has two primary components: Homeland Security Investigations and Enforcement and Removal Operations. ICE is a federal agency under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security charged with the investigation and enforcement of over 400 federal statutes within the United States and maintains attachés at major U. S. diplomatic missions overseas. ICE does not patrol American borders. S. Customs and Border Protection, a sister agency of ICE; the current Acting Director of ICE, [, began on April 12, 2019. U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement was formed pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, following the events of September 11, 2001. With the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, the functions and jurisdictions of several border and revenue enforcement agencies were combined and consolidated into U.
S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. ICE is the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security, the second largest contributor to the nation's Joint Terrorism Task Force; the agencies that were either moved or merged in part into ICE included the criminal investigative and intelligence resources of the United States Customs Service, the criminal investigative and deportation resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Federal Protective Service. The Federal Protective Service was transferred from ICE to the National Protection and Programs Directorate effective October 28, 2009. In 2003, Asa Hutchinson moved the Federal Air Marshals Service from the Transportation Security Administration to ICE, but Michael Chertoff moved them back to the TSA in 2005. U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for identifying and eliminating border, economic and infrastructure security vulnerabilities. There is an estimate of about more than 20,000 ICE employees in over 400 offices within the United States and 46 other countries.
The organization is composed of two law enforcement directorates and several support divisions each headed by a director who reports to an Executive Associate Director. The divisions of ICE provide investigation and security services to the public and other law enforcement partners in the federal and local sectors; the Director of ICE is appointed at the sub-cabinet level by the President of the United States, confirmed by the U. S. Senate, reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. Director Deputy Director Enforcement and Removal Operations Removal Division Secure Communities and Enforcement Division Immigration Health Services Division Mission Support Division Detention Management Division Local Field Offices Homeland Security Investigations Domestic Operations Division Intelligence Division International Operations Division Mission Support National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center National Security Investigations Division Management and Administration HSI special agents investigate violations of more than 400 U.
S. laws that threaten the national security of the United States such as counter-proliferation and export violations, human rights violations/war crimes, human smuggling, art theft, human trafficking, drug trafficking, arms trafficking and benefit fraud, the manufacturing and sale of counterfeit immigration and identity documents, transnational gangs, financial crimes including money laundering and bulk cash smuggling, trade-based money laundering, computer crime, including child exploitation, intellectual property rights/trade fraud, import/export enforcement, trafficking of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and other merchandise, mass-marketing fraud, international Cultural Property and Antiquities crimes. HSI agents can be requested to provide security for VIPs, augment the U. S. Secret Service during overtaxed times such as special security events and elections. HSI was known as the ICE Office of Investigations. HSI agents have the statutory authority to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act, U.
S. customs laws, general federal crimes, the Controlled Substances Act, as well as Titles 5, 6, 12, 22, 26, 28, 31, 46, 49, 50 of the U. S. Code. HSI has more than 6,500 special agents, making it the largest investigative entity in the Department of Homeland Security and the second largest in the federal government; the Office of Intelligence is a subcomponent of HSI that employs a variety of special agents and Intelligence Research Specialists to facilitate HSI's tactical and strategic intelligence demands. Collectively, these intelligence professionals collect and disseminate intelligence for use by the operational elements of DHS; the Office of Intelligence works with the intelligence components of other federal and local agencies. Many HSI field offices assign intelligence analysts to specific groups, such as financial crimes, counter-proliferation, narcotics, or document fraud. HSI agents assigned to FIGs focus on Human Intelligence collection. International Operations known as the Office of International Affairs, is a subcomponent of HSI with agents stationed in
United States Secretary of Homeland Security
The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the U. S. and the safety of U. S. citizens. The secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet; the position was created by the Homeland Security Act following the attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted of components transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such as the Coast Guard, the Federal Protective Service, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Secret Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, it did not include either the Federal Bureau of the Central Intelligence Agency. Kevin McAleenan is the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security, upon the resignation of Kirstjen Nielsen. Traditionally, the order of the presidential line of succession is determined by the order of the creation of the cabinet positions, the list as mandated under 3 U.
S. C. § 19 follows this tradition. On March 7, 2006, 43rd President George W. Bush signed H. R. 3199 as Pub. L. 109–177, which renewed the Patriot Act of 2001 and amended the Presidential Succession Act of 1947 to include the newly created Presidential Cabinet position of Secretary of Homeland Security in the line of succession after the authorized Secretary of Veterans Affairs. In the 109th Congress, legislation was introduced to place the Secretary of Homeland Security into the line of succession after the Attorney General but that bill expired at the end of the 109th Congress and was not re-introduced. Prior to the establishment of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, there existed an Assistant to the President for the Office of Homeland Security, created following the September 11 attacks in 2001. Parties Republican Democratic Independent Status Denotes Acting Homeland Security Secretary 1 James Loy served as acting secretary in his capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security from February 1, 2005, to February 15, 2005.
2 Rand Beers served as acting secretary in his capacity as confirmed Undersecretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs and Acting Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security. 3 Elaine Duke served as acting secretary in her capacity as Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security from July 31, 2017, to December 6, 2017. 4 Kevin McAleenan serves as acting secretary in his capacity as Commissioner of the Customs and Border Protection upon his appointment by President Trump. As of April 2019, all six former Secretaries of Homeland Security are still living, as are all three former acting Secretaries of Homeland Security; the oldest being former acting Secretary James Loy. The order of succession for the Secretary of Homeland Security is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Under Secretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Management Under Secretary, Office of Strategy and Plans Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Science and Technology General Counsel of the Department of Homeland Security Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency Commissioner of U.
S. Customs and Border Protection Director of U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director of U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Chief Financial Officer Regional Administrator, Region V, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region VI, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region VII, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region IX, Federal Emergency Management Agency Regional Administrator, Region I, Federal Emergency Management Agency George W. Bush nominated Bernard Kerik for the position in 2004; however a week Kerik withdrew his nomination, explaining that he had employed an illegal immigrant as a nanny. By July 2013, Raymond Kelly had served as Commissioner of the New York City Police Department for nearly 12 straight years. Within days of Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano's announcement that she was resigning, Kelly was soon cited as an obvious potential successor by New York Senator Charles Schumer and others.
During a July 16, 2013, President Obama referred to the "bunch of strong candidates" for nomination to head the Department of Homeland Security, but singled out Kelly as "one of the best there is" and "very well qualified for the job". In July 2013, the online internet news website/magazine Huffington Post detailed "a growing campaign to quash the potential nomination of New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly as the next secretary of the Department of Homeland Security" amid claims of "divisive and ineffective policing that promotes stereotypes and profiling". Days after that article, Kelly penned a statistics-heavy Wall Street Journal opinion article defending the NYPD's programs, stating "the average number of stops we conduct is less than one per officer per week" and that this and other practices have led to "7,383 lives saved—and... they are the lives of young men of color."Kelly was featured because of his NYPD retirement and unusually long tenure there in a long segment on the CBS News program Sunday Morning in December 2013 raising the question of the cont
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays; the final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register. S. government, it is in the public domain. The Federal Register provides a means for the government to announce to the public changes to government requirements and guidance. Proposed new rules and regulations Final rules Changes to existing rules Notices of meetings and adjudicatory proceedings Presidential documents including Executive orders and administrative orders. Both proposed and final government rules are published in the Federal Register.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requests public comment on a proposed rule and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed. The public comments are considered by the issuing government agency, the text of a final rule along with a discussion of the comments is published in the Federal Register. Any agency proposing a rule in the Federal Register must provide contact information for people and organizations interested in making comments to the agencies and the agencies are required to address these concerns when it publishes its final rule on the subject; the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, its contents are judicially noticed; the United States Government Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on activities; each daily issue of the printed Federal Register is organized into four categories: Presidential Documents Rules and Regulations Proposed Rules Notices Citations from the Federal Register are FR, e.g. 71 FR 24924.
The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and re-published in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. Copies of the Federal Register may be obtained from the U. S. Government Publishing Office. Most law libraries associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries; the Federal Register has been available online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, either in paper or microfiche format. Outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. As part of the Federal E-Government eRulemaking Initiative, the web site Regulations.gov was established in 2003 to enable easy public access to agency dockets on rulemaking projects including the published Federal Register document. The public can use Regulations.gov to access entire rulemaking dockets from participating Federal agencies to include providing on-line comments directly to those responsible for drafting the rulemakings.
To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the agency side of regulations.gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present. GovPulse.us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundation's Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity and maps of current rules. On July 25, 2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse.us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. On August 1, 2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content; the API is RESTful, utilizing the HATEOAS architecture with results delivered in the JSON format. Details are available at the developers page and Ruby and Python client libraries are available.
In addition to purchasing printed copies or subscriptions, the contents of the Federal Register can be acquired via several commercial databases: Citation Technologies offers the complete Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations through subscription-based web portals such as CyberRegs. HeinOnline: Full coverage available dating back to 1936 in an image-based searchable PDF format. LexisNexis: Searchable text format since 45 FR 44251. Westlaw: Searchable text format since 46 FR 1; the Unified Agenda and the official English text of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which became effective January 1, 1988, are included. Sunshine Act Meeting Notices are not available prior to 1991. Unified Agenda documents are not available prior to October 1989; the Federal Register system of publication was created on July 26, 1935, under the Federal Register Act. The first issue of the Federal Regis
Whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government. Launched in October 1994, it contains information about the President, the Vice President, their families, press releases, executive orders, some speeches by White House officials, it has the official web sites of several offices in the Executive Office of the President, such as the Office of Management and Budget and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The website has been redesigned for each new president. Websites for former presidents in office are moved to archive versions. Up to late June 2018, the archived Obama White House homepage, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/, contained no menu linking to the archived content. In 2011, the website was considered among the best of the United States federal government; the content of the website is in the public domain or licensed under Creative Commons Attribution license. The current administration's website is broken into the following sections: The Briefing Room Issues The Administration 1600 Penn Participate In July 2001, the White House started switching their web servers to an operating system based on Red Hat Linux and using the Apache HTTP Server.
The installation was completed in February 2009. In October 2009, the White House servers adopted Drupal, a free and open-source content management system, which runs on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In December 2017, the Trump administration launched a redesigned website which it claims will save taxpayers "as much $3 million annually". On September 1, 2011, David Plouffe announced in an email that the White House is releasing "We the People" to allow public petitions on whitehouse.gov. The launch of the petitioning platform was announced by Katelyn Sabochik September 22, 2011 in a White House blog post. Donald Trump on social media Whitehouse.com, a former adult website Whitehouse.org, a parody website List of websites founded before 1995 President Trump 1600 Pennsylvania Ave ^a A Spanish version of whitehouse.gov was used during the Bush and Obama administrations. Since January 20, 2017, the Spanish version of whitehouse.gov was removed although there has been archived Spanish versions of the website from the Bush and Obama administrations.
Official website Archived versions of the site during the Obama administration Archived versions of the site during the Bush administration Archived versions of the site during the Clinton administration